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  • adaptive immune system | Newswire
    Tags adaptive immune system Cas9 CRISPR Laboratory of Bacteriology Luciano Marraffini microbiology Poulami Samai Robert Heler May 6 2014 Science News Discovery helps explain how B cells adapt to their targets During an infection the immune system selects B cells that produce antibodies with a high affinity for the pathogen New research helps explain the details of how these cells are selected and amplified More Tags adaptive immune system affinity

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/adaptive-immune-system/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Cas9 | Newswire
    Tags adaptive immune system Cas9 CRISPR Laboratory of Bacteriology Luciano Marraffini microbiology Poulami Samai Robert Heler October 5 2014 Science News Programmable antibiotic harnesses an enzyme to attack drug resistant microbes By co opting a system bacteria normally use to defend themselves researchers targeted and killed off colonies of the antibiotic resistant Staph cells on mouse skin The treatment left behind the drug susceptible microbes More Tags antibiotic resistance Cas9

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/cas9/ (2016-02-13)
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  • microbiology | Newswire
    known for its ability to make precise cuts in a genome New research reveals a new role for Cas9 in its native bacteria helping the microbial immune system acquire a memory of an invading virus More Tags adaptive immune system Cas9 CRISPR Laboratory of Bacteriology Luciano Marraffini microbiology Poulami Samai Robert Heler March 25 2013 Campus News Howard Hang promoted to associate professor Hang a chemist who works to develop

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/microbiology/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Poulami Samai | Newswire
    make precise cuts in a genome New research reveals a new role for Cas9 in its native bacteria helping the microbial immune system acquire a memory of an invading virus More Tags adaptive immune system Cas9 CRISPR Laboratory of Bacteriology Luciano Marraffini microbiology Poulami Samai Robert Heler Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 more About Contact

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/poulami-samai/ (2016-02-13)
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  • ‘Programmable’ antibiotic harnesses an enzyme to attack drug-resistant microbes | Newswire
    CRISPR systems contain unique genetic sequences called spacers that correspond to sequences in viruses CRISPR associated enzymes including Cas9 use these spacer sequences as guides to identify and destroy viral invaders The researchers directed Cas9 at targets of their choosing by engineering spacer sequences to match bacterial genes and then inserting these sequences into a cell along with the gene for Cas9 The cell s own machinery then turns on the system Depending on the location of the target in a bacterial cell Cas9 may kill the cell or it may eradicate the target gene In some cases a treatment may prevent a cell from acquiring resistance they found We previously showed that if Cas9 is programmed with a target from a bacterial genome it will kill the bacteria Building on that work we selected guide sequences that enabled us to selectively kill a particular strain of microbe from within a mixed population says first author David Bikard a former Rockefeller postdoc who is now at the Pasteur Institute in Paris In initial experiments Bikard and colleagues targeted a strain of the common skin and respiratory bacteria Staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to the antibiotic kanamycin Treatment by Cas9 programmed to target a part of the resistance gene killed most of the resistant Staph but left behind the kanamycin susceptible Staph Targeted bacterial genocide is only one option Bacteria share genes including those conferring drug resistance in the form of rings of DNA known as plasmids In a second series of experiments researchers turned Cas9 on tetracycline resistance harboring plasmids in a strain of the potentially deadly multidrug resistant bacteria Staphylococcus aureus MRSA Not only did the resistant cells become sensitive to tetracycline after Cas9 destroyed the plasmids but the arrival of Cas9 in other Staph cells acted as an

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2014/10/05/programmable-antibiotic-harnesses-an-enzyme-to-attack-drug-resistant-microbes/ (2016-02-13)
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  • David Bikard | Newswire
    a system bacteria normally use to defend themselves researchers targeted and killed off colonies of the antibiotic resistant Staph cells on mouse skin The treatment left behind the drug susceptible microbes More Tags antibiotic resistance Cas9 CRISPR David Bikard Luciano Marraffini Vincent Fischetti Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 more About Contact Follow rockefelleruniv Like The

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/david-bikard/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Vincent Fischetti | Newswire
    impossible to identify and sequence using conventional techniques Researchers at Rockefeller have developed a solution More Tags Bryan Utter extrachromosomal dna pathogenicity phages Staphylococcus aureus Vincent Fischetti April 4 2011 Science News Researchers put potent staph killer to the test hope for new drug treatment The ever escalating war between evolving bacteria and antibiotics could be taking a promising turn in favor of the humans Scientists have genetically engineered a powerful killer of one of the most dangerous bacteria methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA It s been tested on MRSA in the test tube on infections in mice and a clinical trial has begun to probe its ability to kill MRSA infected cells from psoriasis lesions in people Next up per the recommendation of the FDA is a test in minipigs It s the start of a new class of drugs says the lead researcher and early signs suggest it s stronger than anything of its kind currently on the market More Tags James Kreuger Laboratory of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Immunology Laboratory of Investigative Dermatology Mina Pastagia MRSA mupirocin Vincent Fischetti August 21 2002 Science News Natural born killers enlisted to fight anthrax Researchers at The Rockefeller University have hit

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/vincent-fischetti/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Researchers demonstrate how ‘interfering’ RNA can block bacterial evolution | Newswire
    process known as transformation The researchers say that harnessing this mechanism could be a new way to restrict or manipulate bacterial evolution in ways that might be medically useful Colonies and capsules Experiments in mice show how colonies of bacteria that would typically become encapsulated left fail to acquire the necessary gene because of CRISPR interference right Transformation is something that bacteria use as a last resort says Luciano Marraffini head of Rockefeller s Laboratory of Bacteriology In a desperate attempt to stay alive under hostile conditions they start incorporating whatever genes they can find into their chromosome in the hopes that they can quickly evolve out of trouble Our work shows that an RNA interference mechanism known as CRISPR can be used to block transformation in pneumococci Marraffini and his team including Rockefeller postdoc David Bikard conducted a series of experiments inspired by the original research on transformation performed by Rockefeller microbiologists Oswald Avery and Maclyn McCarty in the 1940s They injected mice with pneumococci containing CRISPR sequences engineered to prevent the bacteria from acquiring the genes that produce a polysaccharide based capsule on its surface that is necessary for the bacteria to establish infection They also injected the mice with heat killed pneumococcal bacteria containing genes that code for this encapsulation Normally the mice will develop a systemic infection and die under these conditions because the genes that encode for the capsules will successfully transfer to the live bacteria says Marraffini But our experiments showed that when we used the engineered CRISPR containing bacteria the mice lived proving that our CRISPR intervention successfully blocked the bacteria s ability to acquire the necessary sequences via transformation The researchers say their work shows that CRISPR has the potential to be an efficient means of targeting specific bacterial cells such as

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2012/08/30/researchers-demonstrate-how-interfering-rna-can-block-bacterial-evolution/ (2016-02-13)
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