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  • stem cell plasticity | Newswire
    The molecule first makes stem cell genes accessible so they can become active then recruits other molecules that promote the expression of these genes in stem cells found at the base of the hair follicle More Tags Elaine Fuchs hair follicle stem cells Hanseul Yang Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Biology and Development Rene Adam Sox9 stem cell plasticity super enhancers transcription factors Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/stem-cell-plasticity/ (2016-02-13)
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  • transcription factors | Newswire
    cerebellum migrate and differentiate during the first stages of brain development researchers show that different combinations of regulatory proteins called transcription factors are responsible for driving these changes More Tags Mary E Hatten transcription factors February 21 2006 Science News Modular structure enables TRCF protein to both halt transcription and repair DNA Using x ray crystallography Rockefeller scientists have now solved the structure of a protein called Transcription Repair Coupling Factor or TRCF that plays a dual role in DNA transcription repair The results show that TRCF employs a modular structure which would allow for conformational changes so that TRCF s recruitment of the repair machinery doesn t interfere with its interruption of transcription More Tags DNA repair Seth Darst transcription factors TRCF October 7 2002 Science News Wrong Proteins Targeted in Battle Against Cancer Researchers may be looking for novel cancer drugs in the wrong places says Rockefeller University Professor James E Darnell Jr M D in an article in this month s Nature Reviews Cancer More Tags James E Darnell Jr transcription factors February 1 2002 Science News Tidying Up Transcription Factors Fifty years ago in the early days of biology so little was known about the cell

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/transcription-factors/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Growth signal can influence cancer cells’ vulnerability to drugs, study suggests | Newswire
    Cell Biology and Development and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator Ultimately we hope this new insight could lead to better means for preventing the recurrence of these life threatening cancers which can occur in the skin head neck esophagus and lung and often evade treatment Her team which included first author Naoki Oshimori a postdoctoral research associate in the lab and lab technician Daniel Oristian focused on squamous cell carcinomas in the skin of mice Like many normal tissue stem cells the stem cells that produce squamous cell tumors can be classified into two types those that divide and proliferate rapidly and those that do so more slowly This has led scientists to wonder whether the more dormant stem cells in a tumor might evade cancer drugs To investigate this possibility the team zeroed in on TGF β transforming growth factor beta which is known to restrict growth in many healthy tissues The lab s previous research has shown that mice whose normal skin stem cells cannot respond to TGF β become susceptible to develop tumors that grow rapidly Paradoxically however TGF β contributes to metastasis in many cancers The researchers wanted to know How can TGF β act both to suppress cancers and promote them By visualizing TGF β signaling within developing mouse tumors the researchers found that the cancer stem cells located nearest to the blood vessels of the tumor receive a strong TGF β signal while others further away don t receive any To see this difference and its effects they used a red tag to illuminate those cells exposed and responding to TGF β and a green genetic tag which they could switch on to track the stem cells progeny Over time they saw that TGF β responding stem cells proliferate more slowly but they simultaneously invade scatter and move away from the tumor The opposite was true of cancer stem cells too far away to receive TGF β which proliferated rapidly but were less invasive growing as a tumor mass We tested the implications for drug resistance by injecting cisplatin a commonly used chemotherapy drug for these types of cancers into the mice with tumors While the drug killed off most of the TGF β nonresponding cancer cells it left behind many of the responders Oshimori says When the drug was withdrawn the lingering TGF β responding cancer stem cells grew back the tumor We found that the TGF β heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment produces some cancers stem cells that divide rapidly and lead to accelerated tumor growth and other cancer stem cells that invade surrounding healthy tissue and escape cancer therapies Fuchs explains Moreover conventional wisdom might say that a leisurely pace of cell division like that seen in the TGF β responders makes it possible for these cells to circumvent anticancer treatments that target rapidly dividing cells While this may be true for some types of anticancer drugs we found changes in antioxidant activity in these cells are more important for

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2015/02/26/growth-signal-can-influence-cancer-cells-vulnerability-to-drugs-study-suggests/ (2016-02-13)
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  • squamous cell cancer | Newswire
    causes changes in mouse tumor stem cells that help them evade a widely used anti cancer drug This did not happen to cells that did not receive TGF β More Tags drug resistance Elaine Fuchs Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Biology and Development Naoki Oshimori squamous cell cancer TGF β tumor heterogeneity Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014 2013 2012

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/squamous-cell-cancer/ (2016-02-13)
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  • TGF-β | Newswire
    Cell Biology and Development Naoki Oshimori squamous cell cancer TGF β tumor heterogeneity August 4 2014 Science News An embryonic cell s fate is sealed by the speed of a signal Early in development chemical signals tell cells whether to turn into muscle bone brain or other tissue By tracking cells responses to signals researchers found the speed at which the signal arrives has an unexpected influence on that decision

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/tgf-%ce%b2/ (2016-02-13)
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  • One signal means different things to stem cells versus their progeny | Newswire
    and also make and repair tissues as well as how disrupted signaling might lead to diseases such as cancer Nearly every tissue of our body has resident stem cells whose job is to replace dying tissue cells and repair wounds after injury explains Fuchs In many tissues stem cells divide infrequently but must be called into action rapidly to generate tissue in response to injury Hair follicles cycle through bouts of rest growth and destruction she says making these tiny organs ideal subjects for studying how stem cell behavior changes as they make tissue Once activated many stem cells including those of the hair follicle produce short lived progeny called transiently amplifying cells TACs an intermediate step on the way to producing differentiated tissue cells In the hair follicle TACs give rise to the specific types of cells that form the hair shaft and the channel that supports it Altered fate One type of TACs green normally differentiate into hair shaft and supportive channel cells Without their BMP receptors the TACs formed supportive channel cells rather than hair shaft cells Previously the Fuchs lab discovered that BMPs help keep hair follicle stem cells in their resting phase When BMP signaling is turned off in these stem cells the stem cells begin to proliferate and make TACs BMPs are believed to then play a subsequent role in telling TACs to specialize and differentiate into the hair shaft or the channel In separate experiments we disabled the receptors that bind to BMPs in hair follicle stem cells and in TACs says Maria Genander the first author and a former postdoc in the lab who is now with the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden For the stem cells we confirmed previous results BMP signaling helps prevent stem cells from dividing and when it is lost irreversibly this can result in tumors With regard to the TACs we discovered that loss of BMP signaling causes these cells to produce an excess of supportive channel cells at the expense of hair shaft progenitors Once a cell receives a BMP signal it activates a DNA transcription factor of the SMAD family In the nucleus activated SMAD complexes bind to DNA and change the expression of genes that affect how the cells behave To better understand the mechanics behind BMPs distinct roles in stem cells and TACs Genander looked at the locations on the cells genome where SMADs bound We discovered that despite many similarities SMADs also bound to unique sets of genes in stem cells versus TACs and each non overlapping set correlated to the tailor made jobs that these cells have in the hair follicle Genander says She and her co authors then confirmed these gene roles in stem cell quiescence and hair production by inactivating them in mice There are still many mysteries to be solved Fuchs says These results gave us some clues as to how SMADs might selectively bind to one set of target genes in stem cells and another in its progeny

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2014/10/13/one-signal-means-different-things-to-stem-cells-versus-their-progeny/ (2016-02-13)
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  • BMP signaling | Newswire
    of human embryonic stem cells to tiny circular patterns on glass plates researchers have for the first time coaxed them into organizing themselves just as they would under natural conditions More Tags Ali H Brivanlou BMP signaling developmental biology gastrulation human embryonic stem cells March 21 2001 Science News Researchers Discover Promoter of Nerve Tissue in Frogs Researchers at The Rockefeller University have discovered that a protein known to be

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/bmp-signaling/ (2016-02-13)
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  • hair follicle | Newswire
    respond to a protein the cells began dividing prematurely Meanwhile when the same was done to their progeny cells the fate of these cells shifted More Tags BMP signaling differentiation Elaine Fuchs hair follicle Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Biology and Development Maria Genander Stem Cells Development Regeneration transit amplifying cells Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/hair-follicle/ (2016-02-13)
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