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  • Lynx2 | Newswire
    a gene in mice to anxious behavior raises the prospect that we get some anxiety disorders from a piece of DNA we share with the little mammals The gene Lynx2 alters neurotransmission in parts of the mouse brain associated with anxiety The same parts are associated with anxiety in humans More Tags Lynx2 Nathaniel Heintz Stress Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/lynx2/ (2016-02-13)
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  • In mice, anxiety is linked to immune system | Newswire
    of stressful conditions including asthma and food allergies Lethargy has also been associated with an excess of mast cells However we have now been the first to manipulate mast cells genetically and pharmacologically and show an immediate behavioral effect says Pfaff In their work Pfaff and postdoc Ana Ribeiro and the Columbia team led by senior author Rae Silver and graduate student Kate Nautiyal bred mice that lacked mast cells and compared their behavior in stressful situations to the behavior of mice that had a full or a moderate arsenal of mast cells The researchers observed how willing the mice were to navigate open and lit environments and high spaces which mice find anxiety producing In the wild if a mouse is down in its own burrow it s not visible to predation But if it s bold that is if it has low anxiety it will go out where it can potentially be seen by predators and hunted The results were striking When the researchers placed the mice in an elevated maze with four long arms two simulated a canyon and the other two a cliff mice that lacked mast cells preferred to stay in the canyons entering and investigating the doors to the cliffs significantly fewer times than mice with mast cells When placed in a square box mast cell deficient mice preferred to scuttle against the walls and were more hesitant to venture out to the center of the box than mice with mast cells They also defecated more a physiological sign of anxiety However the genetically different mice did not show differences in overall arousal or locomotion suggesting that their behavioral changes were specific to their anxious state To confirm the behavioral and physiological differences among the genetically different mice the researchers conducted an additional experiment

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2008/10/27/in-mice-anxiety-is-linked-to-immune-system/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Stress response in the brain relies on a blood-thinning protein | Newswire
    Laboratory of Neurobiology and Genetics and postdoc Erin Norris have taken the research a step further to see whether tPA has anything to do with how stress affects memory learning ability and anxiety Prior research from the Strickland lab had shown that mice lacking tPA also seem to lack fear a behavior largely dictated by a part of the brain called the amygdala To determine whether tPA also affects behavior controlled by the hippocampus Norris and Strickland compared normal mice to tPA deficient ones Then they divvied the mice up further Half of each group they left alone and the rest they exposed to six hours of painless restraint stress Once the groups were complete the researchers placed each mouse wild type stressed wild type tPA deficient and stressed tPA deficient into a small chamber where the rodents were exposed to a sound paired with a small electric shock The next day they returned the mice to the chamber but this time left them alone All of the non stressed as well as the stressed wild type mice appeared to have learned from experience showing their fear of the chamber in the form of freezing behavior In comparison the mice lacking tPA had significantly reduced freezing responses So they were either less fearful of their situation or they just didn t remember they didn t learn from their training Norris says We could say that if you don t have tPA and you are in a stressful situation you don t have synaptic plasticity changes in the hippocampus The wild type mice were capable of learning because tPA could induce changes in their brains neural synapses Norris and Strickland believe that the underlying mechanism for this has to do with a receptor that normally resides at the cell membrane but

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2007/11/19/stress-response-in-the-brain-relies-on-a-blood-thinning-protein/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Sidney Strickland | Newswire
    June 15 2010 Science News Problematic blood clotting contributes to Alzheimer s disease Alzheimer s disease isn t just about twisted brain cells It s also about the blood vessels that feed those neurons New research at Rockefeller University has shown how the most common element of the plaque deposits found outside the brain cells of Alzheimer s patients interacts with a blood clotting agent and causes clots to form faster and become harder to break down The scientists suggest new drugs that would target this association could potentially treat what is increasingly recognized as a crucial element of the disease the vascular component More Tags Alzheimer s disease amyloid β Laboratory of Neurobiology and Genetics Sidney Strickland January 15 2009 Science News Discovery could help scientists stop the death cascade of neurons after a stroke Millions of stroke victims suffer permanent brain damage every year because neurons start spitting out the neurotransmitter glutamate when they are deprived of oxygen It doesn t take long before the brain cells drown in their own salts Now a team of scientists at Rockefeller University have for the first time found a way to slow cell death by blocking a specific subunit of the glutamate receptor a method that avoids the devastating side effects of disrupting the receptor as a whole More Tags Neurons Sidney Strickland stroke November 19 2007 Science News Stress response in the brain relies on a blood thinning protein Our ability to learn from stressful situations allows us to try to avoid them in the future New research by Rockefeller University scientists shows that a protein called tPA in the hippocampus a region of the brain responsible for memory learning and fear plays an essential role in this learned fear response and could be involved in depression More Tags

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/sidney-strickland/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Chronic stress effects attention by altering neuronal response in the brain | Newswire
    painless restraints for six hours a day Then after 21 days they used a complex progression of trials to test how quickly the rats learned to make associations between different cues and the location of hidden food First Liston provided two different materials for the rats to dig in such as sand and sawdust and buried food consistently under only one Next he left the food in the same material but scented it with strong spices like cumin or nutmeg that were unrelated to the food s location Then he buried the food according to scent teaching the rats to use odor as the location cue in other words it could be buried in either sawdust or sand as long as it smelled like cumin Finally Liston flip flopped the scent cues so that the rats had to unlearn the prior scent association and remember a new one The stressed rats performed as well as the unstressed ones in all but the last task It took them significantly more time to catch on to a new pattern With the collaboration of John Morrison a neuroscientist at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine the researchers looked at neurons in two parts of the rats brains the medial prefrontal cortex mPFC and the orbital frontal cortex OFC and saw a correlation The prefrontal cortex is typically involved in working memory paying attention to one thing at the expense of another and shifting that attention from one focus to another And sure enough neurons in the stressed rats mPFC were shorter and had less branching or arborization than those in the control rats Prior experiments had shown that lesions in this area of the brain could cause this effect But it was remarkable that stress produced almost as large a deficit in attention

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2006/11/02/chronic-stress-effects-attention-by-altering-neuronal-response-in-the-brain/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Genetic ‘stress response’ may explain how bacteria resist drugs | Newswire
    resort vancomycin Previous studies have tried to characterize the mechanisms for vancomycin resistance says Rockefeller s Alexander Tomasz the senior author of the study but the major problem has been that no vancomycin susceptible parental strain was available that could be used for comparison In our study we had access to isolates of S aureus from a single patient at different times during vancomycin therapy and this provided us with an opportunity to look at how the bacteria change over time in response to antibiotic treatment Using custom designed gene chips Tomasz and colleagues compared samples of S aureus bacteria from the patient taken at different times during treatment looking for variations in their genetic blueprints Their experiments confirmed that both the resistant and the susceptible parental bacteria were isogenic meaning they carried the same genetic determinants The scientists then turned their attention to how those genes were read in the drug susceptible isolates as compared to the drug resistant ones A surprisingly large number of genes showed abnormal activity over expression or repression in the resistant cells and many of the over expressed genes belonged to proteins involved with the synthesis of staphylococcal cell walls unsurprising since vancomycin kills bacteria by targeting their cell wall Further research showed that not only did these genes turn on when the bacteria were first exposed to antibiotic treatment they remained stuck in the on position in the resistant cells Susceptible bacteria treated with vancomycin respond by activating genes involved in their stress response These same genes are active in the resistant bacteria too even without any antibiotic present The mechanism of this type of vancomycin resistance seems to involve the permanent fixation of a stress response in the genome of the resistant bacteria says Tomasz Understanding the mechanisms that the bacteria adopt

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2006/02/22/genetic-stress-response-may-explain-how-bacteria-resist-drugs/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Alexander Tomasz | Newswire
    Tomasz antibiotics staph February 22 2006 Science News Genetic stress response may explain how bacteria resist drugs Bacteria have a nasty habit of developing resistance to even our most powerful pharmaceuticals But by tracking the staph infection of a single patient during a course of antibiotic treatment Rockefeller University scientists have discovered new clues to how bacteria evolve resistance More Tags Alexander Tomasz antibiotics drug resisitance Stress November 1 2005 Science News Bacteria build walls to withstand antibiotics Antibiotic resistant bacteria which are proliferating in hospitals and causing major headaches for physicians cheat death by finding ways to fortify their cell walls against the deadly drugs Now new research from the laboratory of Rockefeller s Alexander Tomasz shows that one gene called mecA enables them to this More Tags Alexander Tomasz antibiotics March 5 2002 Science News Superbug Update Only a few families of Staphylococci cause most drug resistant diseases in hospitals worldwide The culprits behind antibiotic resistant diseases now plaguing hospitals worldwide have been harboring a secret one that Rockefeller scientists have recently exposed It seems these infectious microbes termed Staphylococcus aureus are not independent criminals working alone Rather they are members of only a few massive superbug families which have spread out and conquered the globe More Tags Alexander Tomasz antibiotics staph August 21 2001 Science News Researchers Propose New Model of Drug Resistance in Staph Bacteria Researchers at The Rockefeller University have established a new model to explain how the infectious staph bacterium evades several widely used antibiotics They show that a protein previously thought to play no role in drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is in fact essential More Tags Alexander Tomasz drug resisitance staph August 8 2001 Science News Researchers Trace the Origin of a Widespread Antibiotic Resistant Superbug One of the most widely disseminated strains of an antibiotic resistant bacterium responsible for hundreds of infections in European hospitals can be traced back to the 1950s according to researchers at The Rockefeller University Using the molecular tool called DNA fingerprinting they have shown that this persistent lineage of Staphylococcus aureus is an expert at acquiring resistance to antibiotics More Tags Alexander Tomasz staph superbug April 25 2000 Science News Rockefeller Researchers Identify Novel Penicillin resistance Gene in Pneumonia Bacteria Penicillin resistance of the bacterium that causes pneumonia the pneumococcus is a growing global health problem Although S pneumoniae was once considered to be routinely susceptible to penicillin since the mid 1980s the incidence of resistance of this organism to penicillin and other antimicrobial agents has been increasing in the United States and throughout the world Now researchers at The Rockefeller University reporting in the April 25 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences show that resistance can be stopped by inactivating a pair of genes responsible for producing molecules called branched muropeptides the availability of which appears to be essential for the bacterium to survive in the presence of penicillin The finding suggests that the branched peptides may be a new drug

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/alexander-tomasz/ (2016-02-13)
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  • drug resisitance | Newswire
    evades several widely used antibiotics They show that a protein previously thought to play no role in drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is in fact essential More Tags Alexander Tomasz drug resisitance staph April 25 2000 Science News Rockefeller Researchers Identify Novel Penicillin resistance Gene in Pneumonia Bacteria Penicillin resistance of the bacterium that causes pneumonia the pneumococcus is a growing global health problem Although S pneumoniae was once considered to be routinely susceptible to penicillin since the mid 1980s the incidence of resistance of this organism to penicillin and other antimicrobial agents has been increasing in the United States and throughout the world Now researchers at The Rockefeller University reporting in the April 25 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences show that resistance can be stopped by inactivating a pair of genes responsible for producing molecules called branched muropeptides the availability of which appears to be essential for the bacterium to survive in the presence of penicillin The finding suggests that the branched peptides may be a new drug target for fighting penicillin resistant bacteria More Tags Alexander Tomasz drug resisitance penicillin S pneumoniae May 10 1996 Science News Bacteria Steal Genes Spread Antibiotic Resistance

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/drug-resisitance/ (2016-02-13)
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