archive-edu.com » EDU » R » ROCKEFELLER.EDU

Total: 1631

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • Gensat | Newswire
    means of exploring the new horizons for themselves Rockefeller University scientists led by Nat Heintz Ph D and Mary Beth Hatten Ph D are well under way on a genetic atlas of the mammalian brain that provides unprecedented access to central nervous system regions cell classes and pathways More Tags Gensat Mary E Hatten Nathaniel Heintz Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/gensat/ (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive


  • Gene Involved in Brain Development Identified | Newswire
    cocaine and radiation can hinder the migration of neurons during fetal development In the new study Hatten and her colleagues found a gene Astrotactin in the neurons of mice that contains the instructions to make the astrotactin protein Neurons use the protein which Hatten discovered to grab hold of fibers in the developing brain and move along them The migration of neurons is critical to survival During the development of the fetus cells form a tube that will grow into the brain and spinal cord After cells are born they move through the tube s thickening wall to form the layers of what will be the cortex the brain s outer layer known as gray matter By completing this journey the neurons develop and organize into the brain s architecture The migration of young neurons in the brain s cerebellar cortex which controls movement and balance continues until a child reaches the age of two Although a neuron s journey along the glial fiber highway is just a few millimeters this distance is comparable to a person traveling from New York City to Chicago Hatten says The nerve cells can migrate at speeds of 20 to 50 microns per hour about one thousandth of an inch which is considered fast for a neuron In addition the cerebellum the researchers pinpointed active Astrotactin genes in the brain s cortex hippocampus and olfactory system responsible for thinking memory and smelling Hatten and her coinvestigators also identified a second function of astrotactin The astrotactin protein helps glial cells to sustain their health and identity explains coauthor Nathaniel Heintz Ph D head of the at Rockefeller and an HHMI investigator Without a connection to astrotactin the glial cells collapse In contrast astrotactin is not essential to maintaining the health of neurons With the cloning

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/1996/04/18/gene-involved-in-brain-development-identified/ (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • glial | Newswire
    critical member in shaping sensory experience More Tags glial Shai Shaham July 11 2008 Science News Glia guide brain development in worms When the stakes are high communication is crucial In a landmark discovery Rockefeller University scientists have identified a system in the C elegans brain that allows them to study how brain cells neurons and glia talk to each other the dialogue that shapes and guides the developing brain More Tags glial Shai Shaham August 14 2006 Science News Leprosy bacteria lead to new understanding of nerve damage and cell proliferation Rockefeller University scientists using M leprae bacteria have uncovered new molecular pathways that lead to the breakdown of the nerve fiber s myelin sheath and to cell proliferation The findings could teach scientists about how neurodegenerative diseases develop and they may also have implications for regenerative medicine More Tags Anura Rambukkana glial leprosy Schwann cells October 17 2005 Science News Specialized GPCR proteins are the key to protecting the fly brain New research from Rockefeller University shows that a class of molecules called G protein coupled receptors GPCRs is essential for healthy glial cells brain cells which support nourish and protect neurons More Tags glial GPCR Ulrike Gaul April 18 1996 Science News Gene Involved in Brain Development Identified Scientists from The Rockefeller University and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute HHMI have for the first time identified a gene involved in directing nerve cells to their destinations as the brain grows Their work appears in the April 19 Science More Tags astrotactin glial Mary E Hatten February 15 1996 Science News Cells Leap Frog On The Way To Becoming Nerve Cells Kids aren t the only ones who play Leap Frog Cells destined to become nerves in the brain do too according to scientists from The Rockefeller University

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/glial/ (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Fragments of tRNA suggest a novel mechanism for cancer progression | Newswire
    how genes are regulated inside our cells Scientists have found tRNA fragments in all walks of life and they consistently increase in number when cells are exposed to low oxygen levels and other forms of cellular stress But their purpose in the body has remained mysterious What those fragments are there for and their role is poorly defined says Tavazoie The research led by postdoctoral fellow Hani Goodarzi discovered that breast cancer cells generate tRNA fragments when exposed to low levels of oxygen And cancer cells that carry more of these particular genetic fragments are less likely to metastasize What s more adding these fragments to cells reduced the growth and progression of cancer blocking the fragments in turn led to the opposite effect Looking closer the researchers saw that tRNA fragments that come from specific tRNAs glutamic acid aspartic acid glycine tyrosine bind to a key player in the life cycle of a cancer cell This key player known as an oncogene normally binds to other RNAs and increases their numbers causing them to make more of the oncogenes that help cancer cells divide and spread These tRNA fragments bind the oncogene called YBX1 and push out the other RNAs that encode for oncogenes reducing cancer cells ability to grow and metastasize By doing so they represent a new class of molecules in the cell we call tumor suppressors says Goodarzi These tRNA fragments are demonstrating an entirely novel way of regulating gene expression Tavazoie says By blocking YBX1 s ability to bind other RNAs whose expression YBX1 increases tRNA fragments are playing a part in how the body expresses genes It makes sense that the number of tRNA fragments would increase in periods of cellular stress such as when the cell is exposed to low oxygen levels says

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2015/05/07/fragments-of-trna-suggest-a-novel-mechanism-for-cancer-progression/ (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • tRNA | Newswire
    fragments of a type of RNA known as transfer RNA or tRNA appear to be capable of reducing the growth and spread of breast cancer cells More Tags breast cancer cancer Elizabeth and Vincent Meyer Laboratory of Systems Cancer Biology metastasis Sohail Tavazoie tRNA Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 more About Contact Follow rockefelleruniv Like

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/trna/ (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Chemical tag marks future microRNAs for processing, study shows | Newswire
    and take a closer look at how cells normally identify and process microRNAs says study author Sohail Tavazoie Leon Hess Associate Professor Senior Attending Physician and head of the Elizabeth and Vincent Meyer Laboratory of Systems Cancer Biology Claudio Alarcón a research associate in my lab has discovered that cells can increase or decrease microRNAs by using a specific chemical tag Long known as the intermediary between DNA and proteins RNA has turned out to be a versatile molecule Scientists have discovered a number of RNA molecules including microRNAs that regulate gene expression MicroRNAs are encoded into the genome as DNA then transcribed into hairpin loop RNA molecules known as primary microRNAs These loops are then clipped to generate microRNA precursors To figure out how cells know which hairpin loops to start trimming Alarcón set out to look for modifications cells might make to the RNA molecules that are destined to become microRNAs Using bioinformatics software he scanned for unusual patterns in the unprocessed RNA sequences The sequence GGAC code for the bases guanine guanine adenine cytosine stood out because it appeared with surprising frequency in the unprocessed primary microRNAs GGAC in turn led the researchers to an enzyme known as METTL3 which tags the GGAC segments with a chemical marker a methyl group at a particular spot on the adenine Once we arrived at METTL3 everything made sense The methyl in adenosines m6A tag is the most common known RNA modification METTL3 is known to contribute to stabilizing and processing messenger RNA which is transcribed from DNA but it is suspected of doing much more Alarcón says Now we have evidence for a third role the processing of primary microRNAs In series of experiments the researchers confirmed the importance of methyl tagging finding high levels of it near all

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2015/03/24/chemical-tag-marks-future-micrornas-for-processing-study-shows/ (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • METTL3 | Newswire
    molecules destined to become gene regulating microRNAs by tagging them Because microRNAs help control processes throughout the body this discovery has wide ranging implications for development health and disease including cancer More Tags cancer Claudio Alarcón Laboratory of Systems Cancer Biology m6A METTL3 microRNA RNA Sohail Tavazoie Search for Categories Science News Awards and Honors Campus News Grants Gifts Topics Video Archive 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 more About Contact

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/tag/mettl3/ (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Research implicates metabolic process of the liver in the spread of colorectal cancer | Newswire
    Elizabeth and Vincent Meyer Laboratory of Systems Cancer Biology The research is published this week in Cell The discovery of the importance of metabolic processes within the liver began with a genetic comparison between cells that successfully metastasize and those that don t First author Jiamin Loo a graduate student in Tavazoie s lab screened some 600 distinct microRNAs in search of those that prevented human colorectal cancer cells from colonizing liver tissue He then evaluated the levels of specific microRNAs in populations of highly metastatic compared to poorly metastatic cancer cells taken from the same patient Two microRNAs known miR 483 and miR 551 were linked to poor metastasis in both sets of experiments Pathological studies in collaboration with researchers at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center confirmed the clinical significance of these molecules A lot needs to go right for a cancer cell to successfully leave the site of its original tumor travel in the bloodstream enter a distant organ and begin to colonize it The vast majority of cells don t make it The liver is a particularly hostile environment for a metastasizing cancer cell cancer cells arrive into the liver in blood that is poorly oxygenated while liver cells can efficiently consume glucose leaving relatively little for a cancer cell to use as an energy source It turns out that the two microRNAs identified by Loo are linked to the process by which cancer cells can overcome the second of these issues Cells that are able to shut down the activity of miR 483 and miR 551 the researchers found increase production of an enzyme known as CKB which can help the cells convert compounds found abundantly in the liver tumor environment into an energy source Indeed experiments in living tissue showed that inhibiting CKB activity in

    Original URL path: http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2015/01/26/research-implicates-metabolic-process-of-the-liver-in-the-spread-of-colorectal-cancer/ (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive