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  • Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 Part 123 Definitions | HACCP | Food Safety Training | Rutgers NJAES Office of Continuing Professional Education
    frog aquatic turtle jellyfish sea cucumber and sea urchin and the roe of such animals other than birds or mammals and all mollusks where such animal life is intended for human consumption e Fishery product means any human food product in which fish is a characterizing ingredient f Food safety hazard means any biological chemical or physical property that may cause a food to be unsafe for human consumption g Importer means either the U S owner or consignee at the time of entry into the United States or the U S agent or representative of the foreign owner or consignee at the time of entry into the United States who is responsible for ensuring that goods being offered for entry into the United States are in compliance with all laws affecting the importation For the purposes of this definition ordinarily the importer is not the custom house broker the freight forwarder the carrier or the steamship representative h Molluscan shellfish means any edible species of fresh or frozen oysters clams mussels or scallops or edible portions of such species except when the product consists entirely of the shucked adductor muscle i Preventive measure means physical chemical or other factors that can be used to control an identified food safety hazard j Process monitoring instrument means an instrument or device used to indicate conditions during processing at a critical control point k 1 Processing means with respect to fish or fishery products Handling storing preparing heading eviscerating shucking freezing changing into different market forms manufacturing preserving packing labeling dockside unloading or holding 2 The regulations in this part do not apply to Page 271 i Harvesting or transporting fish or fishery products without otherwise engaging in processing ii Practices such as heading eviscerating or freezing intended solely to prepare a

    Original URL path: http://www.cpe.rutgers.edu/food/haccp/cfr21123/cfr21123.html (2014-06-13)
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  • The Final Rule on Pathogen Reduction and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Systems | Food Safety Training | Rutgers NJAES Office of Continuing Professional Education
    when the first major meat inspection law was passed in 1906 At that time animal diseases were the major concern and invisible hazards such as pathogenic microorganisms and drug residues had not yet attracted the attention of public health authorities and regulators Since that time changes have been made in the inspection program to reflect changes in the production of meat and poultry address chemical residues in slaughter plants address bacteria in processed products and increase the efficiency of inspection However the current program does not adequately target and reduce pathogenic microorganisms on raw meat and poultry And it does not integrate systematic preventive process control into the production process to make all meat and poultry products as safe as possible Implementation of the final rule will help to correct these gaps While precise data on the incidence of illness associated with microbiological contamination of meat and poultry products is limited foodborne illness is an important public health problem in the United States Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggest that foodborne microbial pathogens account for up to 7 million cases of foodborne illness each year and up to 7 000 deaths Of these nearly 5 million cases of illness and more than 4 000 deaths may be associated with meat and poultry products The seriousness of the problem was illustrated by the outbreak of foodborne illness that occurred in several western states in early 1993 The outbreak was attributed to undercooked hamburgers contaminated with E coli O157 H7 that were served at a chain of fast food restaurants This particular outbreak led to hundreds of cases of illness and four deaths This conclusion is consistent with many external studies conducted during the past decade The National Academy of Sciences the General Accounting Office the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods and many others have called for change in the current inspection system to better address microbial pathogens and make the system more prevention oriented Top THE RULEMAKING PROCESS To address these concerns FSIS on February 3 1995 published a proposal on Pathogen Reduction and HACCP that would mandate HACCP set targets for pathogen reduction require daily microbial testing to determine compliance with the targets and require three near term initiatives standard operating procedures for sanitation antimicrobial treatments and carcass cooling standards FSIS conducted a thorough and interactive rulemaking process on the proposal by soliciting extensive public comment and encouraging dialogue between FSIS and interested parties on the many policy and technical issues involved in the proposal During the comment period which was extended twice FSIS held seven information briefings three scientific and technical conferences a two day public hearing six issue focused public meetings a Federal State conference and a Food Safety Forum chaired by Secretary of Agriculture Dan Glickman In addition FSIS received approximately 7 500 written comments on the proposal FSIS carefully evaluated the written comments and input received through the various public events and addressed the many issues raised in formulating a final rule Top THE FINAL RULE Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points HACCP FSIS is requiring that all federally inspected meat and poultry plants adopt HACCP systems to ensure that they have in place science based process controls to prevent and reduce the significant food safety hazards that may arise in their particular processes and products The HACCP approach is a system of process control that is widely recognized by scientific authorities and international organizations and is used extensively in the food industry to produce products in compliance with health and safety requirements HACCP also provides a framework for better targeting FSIS inspection on the most significant food safety hazards and controls and more efficiently using inspection resources Implementation of HACCP will clarify the responsibility of industry and FSIS to produce safe meat and poultry products FSIS s role is to set appropriate food safety standards and maintain vigorous inspection oversight to ensure that those standards are met Plants will be required to develop HACCP plans based on the seven principles articulated by the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods hazard analysis critical control point identification establishment of critical limits monitoring procedures corrective actions recordkeeping and verification procedures Plants will identify and evaluate the food safety hazards that could affect the safety of their products and institute controls necessary to prevent those hazards from occurring or to keep them within acceptable limits HACCP systems will be required to cover those critical control points that affect product safety as opposed to those related to economic adulteration and quality Each meat or poultry product produced must be covered by a HACCP plan Plants will be required to validate their own HACCP plans that is ensure that they do what they were designed to do FSIS will not approve HACCP plans in advance but will review them for conformance with the final HACCP regulations Verification making sure the plan is adequate and working on a day to day basis will be the responsibility of both industry and FSIS Industry will monitor and verify the performance of the controls in their HACCP plans and maintain records of this monitoring and verification FSIS will evaluate the HACCP plan s adequacy and successful operation as part of the inspection process HACCP plans found by FSIS to be inadequate will have to be corrected or the plant will face appropriate regulatory action FSIS currently carries out carcass by carcass inspection in slaughter plants to remove diseased animals from the food supply Carcass by carcass inspection will continue in these plants However in light of improvements in process control that are expected under HACCP FSIS of illness and four deaths USDA s review of the outbreak concluded that the current food safety system does not adequately address the risk of microbial contamination This conclusion is consistent with many external studies conducted during the past decade The National Academy of Sciences the General Accounting Office the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods and many others have called for change in the current inspection system to better address microbial pathogens and make the system more to examine current tasks related to carcass by carcass inspection and determine what changes should be made to improve inspection effectiveness and make the use of inspection resources more productive FSIS is committed to implementing HACCP as rapidly as possible taking into account the logistical effort required for such a fundamental change in industry practices and FSIS inspection strategy FSIS has revised its proposed implementation schedule so that it is based on plant size rather than product category Large plants with 500 or more employees will be required to have a HACCP system in place 18 months after publication of the final rule The revised implementation schedule will ensure that 75 percent of slaughter production and 45 percent of processed products will be produced under a HACCP system within 18 months As a result most of the Nation s meat and poultry supply will come under HACCP based process control one year earlier than originally proposed Smaller plants with 500 or fewer but 10 or more employees must have a HACCP system in place 30 months after publication of the final rule Very small establishments those having fewer than 10 employees or annual sales of less than 2 5 million have until 42 months after publication of the final rule to have their HACCP systems in place Top ASSISTANCE FOR SMALL PLANTS HACCP is a useful tool for improving food safety in plants of all sizes FSIS recognizes however that many small plants may lack familiarity with HACCP Thus FSIS plans an array of assistance activities that will facilitate implementation of HACCP in small plants FSIS is developing 13 generic HACCP models for the major process categories which will be available in final form before plants must begin work on their HACCP plans The generic models will serve only as illustrations rather than as prescriptive blueprints for a specific HACCP plan FSIS will also conduct small plant demonstration projects during the two year period following issuance of the final rule at a number of sites around the country to show how HACCP systems can work in even the smallest plants under actual operating conditions FSIS is also making available guidance materials as appendices to the final regulations that will assist small as well as large plants in conducting their hazard analyses and developing HACCP plans They include a Guidebook for the Preparation of HACCP Plans and a Hazards and Preventive Measures Guide Additional guidance materials addressing other parts of the final regulations also are available Top HACCP IMPLEMENTATION CONFERENCE FSIS plans to convene a three day HACCP implementation conference to be held in Washington D C about 60 days after publication of the final rule and intends to hold regional HACCP implementation conferences at several sites around the country The purpose of the conference is to continue the dialogue among a diverse array of interested parties on a variety of issues related to HACCP implementation such as training and enforcement issues Top PATHOGEN REDUCTION AND MICROBIAL TESTING The HACCP requirement will ensure that all meat and poultry plants implement science based process controls to prevent and reduce the significant food safety hazards that are reasonably likely to occur in their particular processes and products But HACCP based process control must be combined with objective means of verifying that meat and poultry plants are achieving acceptable levels of food safety performance While FSIS has in place microbiological performance standards for ready to eat and other processed products microbiological performance criteria or standards for raw products with the exception of E coli O157 H7 in ground beef do not exist FSIS believes it is essential to the reduction of nationwide exposure to foodborne pathogens that slaughter establishments control their operations to prevent fecal contamination and that all plants producing raw meat and poultry products institute process controls to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella These regulations provide both an objective means to verify process control in slaughter plants with respect to fecal contamination and pathogen reduction performance standards for raw products that will reduce the nationwide exposure to Salmonella the most common cause of foodborne illness among enteric pathogens Top GENERIC E COLI TESTING FOR PROCESS CONTROL FSIS is requiring meat and poultry slaughter plants to test carcasses for generic E coli as an indicator of the adequacy of the plant s process control for fecal contamination Plants will be required to conduct E coli testing 6 months after publication of the final rule FSIS is seeking further comment on certain technical issues such as testing frequency and sampling procedures and will be holding a conference on these issues approximately 45 days after publication of the final rule FSIS will make any appropriate technical amendments to the E coli testing protocols at least 30 days before the effective date of the rule FSIS inspectors will not use E coli testing results as an indication of process control until 6 months after the effective date for the testing requirement A second conference is tentatively planned for approximately 9 months following publication of this rule to provide an opportunity for members of industry and others to discuss with FSIS new information based on the three months of testing that will have occurred that might justify further adjustments to the protocol FSIS is adopting E coli verification performance criteria for each species that reflect the frequency and levels of contamination of the microorganism on such carcasses produced nationwide as determined by FSIS baseline surveys FSIS is using the term criteria because they are guidelines not regulatory standards FSIS will not use the test results by themselves to take any regulatory action but will consider them in conjunction with other information to evaluate whether a problem exists that requires regulatory action The required frequency of E coli testing is based on production volume Slaughter plants will be able to adopt alternative testing frequencies when they implement HACCP if the alternative is equally or more effective in verifying process control for fecal contamination FSIS intends to update the E coli criteria periodically based on future surveys and data generated by the testing to ensure that the criteria adequately reflect an appropriate and adequate level of performance with respect to prevention and removal of fecal contamination The requirement for E coli testing in slaughter plants will become effective 6 months after publication of the final rule E coli test results will provide process control data that will help plants find and correct process control problems at this most fundamental phase of production The results will also support more objective assessments by inspectors of whether plants are meeting current statutory requirements for sanitation and the prevention of adulteration They will also play an integral role in the successful implementation of HACCP in slaughter plants Top PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR SALMONELLA AND FSIS TESTING FSIS is adopting pathogen reduction performance standards for Salmonella to verify that plant HACCP systems are effective in reducing contamination with this pathogenic microorganism FSIS believes that the production of raw meat and poultry with Salmonella prevalence below the current national level is readily achievable with available technology and production methods Salmonella was selected as the target pathogen because it is the leading cause of foodborne illness among enteric pathogens it is present at varying frequencies on all types of raw meat and poultry products and it can easily be tested for in a variety of products Furthermore improvements in process control that result in reductions in Salmonella are expected to result in reductions of other pathogens found in the intestines of animals The microbiological performance standards FSIS is adopting are part of a fundamental shift in FSIS regulatory philosophy and strategy FSIS is shifting from an extensive reliance on command and control regulations which generally prescribe how desired objectives are to be achieved to much greater reliance on performance standards which generally express the objective but do not specify the means for achieving it FSIS believes that its food safety and consumer protection goals can in most cases be achieved most effectively by establishing clear objectives in terms of performance standards providing industry flexibility to devise the optimal means of achieving the objective and then verifying through inspection and other forms of oversight that firms are meeting the established standard The pathogen reduction performance standards for Salmonella and the E coli verification performance criteria complement one another While E coli testing is a good indicator of fecal contamination it is not directly correlated with Salmonella contamination which is affected by other factors as well including the condition of incoming animals The Salmonella standards will force plants not currently meeting the standards to take steps to reduce pathogens that can cause foodborne illness Plants will be required to achieve a prevalence of Salmonella contamination that is below the baseline prevalence for each raw product as reflected in the FSIS baseline surveys These are regulatory standards that FSIS will require the plant to meet consistently over time as a condition to maintaining inspection FSIS rather than the plant will test for Salmonella to ensure compliance with the standards FSIS will conduct initial testing prior to actual enforcement of the performance standards to determine whether each plant is meeting the standard These results will assist plants in preparing for implementation of HACCP and the pathogen reduction performance standards FSIS will continue its testing program once the standards become effective to ensure compliance The frequency and intensity of testing will be based on past plant performance and other factors The Salmonella enforcement strategy embodies an objective uniform systems approach that will be administered and applied in a fair equitable and common sense manner The Agency will continually monitor and adjust its enforcement program and activities to reflect these principles while ensuring food safety Implementation will coincide with the implementation schedule for HACCP Slaughter plants and plants producing raw ground product or fresh pork sausage will be required to meet the standards at the same time the plant is required to implement HACCP Approximately 15 months after the publication of this final rule FSIS will convene a public conference to review available data and discuss whether they warrant refining the Salmonella performance standards The Salmonella standards being established are a first step in what FSIS expects to be a broader reliance in the future on pathogen specific performance standards for raw products FSIS plans to repeat its baseline surveys and collect substantial data through other means and on that basis adjust the Salmonella targets and possibly set targets for additional pathogens as appropriate Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures Insanitary conditions during the production of meat and poultry products increase the likelihood that pathogenic bacteria will contaminate the finished product Poor sanitation is the most frequently observed problem in meat and poultry plants FSIS is requiring that all meat and poultry plants adopt maintain and follow written Standard Operating Procedures SOPs for sanitation The written sanitation SOPs must describe the specific activities plant management has determined are necessary to maintain good sanitation and prevent direct product contamination The SOP must specify the persons responsible for carrying out these activities Daily records must be kept showing when procedures are accomplished and when corrective actions are taken Sanitation SOPs will clarify that sanitation is industry s responsibility They will make it easier for FSIS inspectors to perform their proper role of verifying that plant management is carrying out its sanitation responsibilities and will allow FSIS to focus on the prevention and correction of direct product contamination risks Requirements for Foreign Establishments and State Programs Foreign countries exporting to the United States must establish inspection system requirements that are equivalent to U S requirements Thus all foreign meat and poultry plants that export to the United States must operate HACCP type process control systems that are equivalent to HACCP and adopt equivalent performance standards State inspection programs must operate programs equal to the Federal program and will

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  • Rutgers Food Science Short Course Instructor Don Schaffner | Rutgers Office of Continuing Professional Education
    utilized Dr Schaffner s expertise as a member of the IFT Food Defense Risk Factor Expert Panel and as a member of blue ribbon panels for Food and Drug Administration contract work Dr Schaffner has authored more than 100 peer reviewed publications book chapters and abstracts and has given numerous presentations on microbial risk assessment and food safety issues Please visit http www foodsci rutgers edu schaffner for more information

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  • Pesticide Calibration | Training for Pesticide Applicators | Rutgers NJAES Office of Continuing Professional Education | Formerly Cook College
    application and one mistake at any stage could turn an emerald green lawn into a barren burned out eyesore Not to mention the cost in time and money from inaccurate applications Please bring a calculator to class Download Brochure PDF Credits The October 31 2013 offering of this course was approved for the following credits We will reapply for similar credits the next time the course runs but we cannot guarantee credit approval for future offerings Pesticide Credits NJ CT 8 units in CORE PA 6 units in 00 CORE NY 3 75 units in 3A 3B and 25 MD 8 units in CORE MA 4 contact hours DE This course will be submitted for approved pesticide credits upon completion of the program if requested by attendees Certified Public Works Manager CPWM Credits 4 Technical Landscape Architecture Continuing Education System LA CES Credits 3 75 hours Please call 732 932 9271 ext 625 for the latest credit information Fees Early Registration Fee TBD Registration Fee TBD Substitutions are permitted View cancellation policy Meals Continental breakfast and pizza lunch will be provided to you at no additional cost NOTE If you have any dietary restrictions or special needs please alert us at least 1 week in advance of the course date so that we may accommodate you Location GPS systems may not recognize campus addresses Even if they take you to the correct building they will not take you to the assigned parking lot Therefore we strongly recommend that you use the directions we provide Cook Campus Center 59 Biel Rd New Brunswick NJ 08901 Directions Parking Information Map Parking permit required for this location will be provided to registrants Note Pre registration is required We re sorry but we cannot guarantee a seat materials or meals for walk in registrants

    Original URL path: http://www.cpe.rutgers.edu/courses/current/al0416ca.html (2014-06-13)
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  • Hazardous Tree Identification Course, Arborist / Landscape Training | Rutgers NJAES Office of Continuing Professional Education
    International Society of Arboriculture ISA Credits 5 Certified Arborist 2 5 BCMA Practice 2 5 BCMA Management Landscape Architecture Continuing Education System LA CES Credits 5 25 hours Community Forestry Program Credits 5 CEUs Please call 732 932 9271 ext 625 for the latest credit information Fees Early Registration Fee TBD Registration Fee TBD Substitutions are permitted View cancellation policy Meals Continental breakfast and lunch will be provided to you at no additional cost NOTE If you have any dietary restrictions or special needs please alert us at least 1 week in advance of the course date so that we may accommodate you Location GPS systems may not recognize campus addresses Even if they take you to the correct building they will not take you to the assigned parking lot Therefore we strongly recommend that you use the directions we provide Extension Conference Center 18 Ag Extension Way New Brunswick NJ 08901 Directions Parking Information Map Parking permit required for this location will be provided to registrants Note Pre registration is required We re sorry but we cannot guarantee a seat materials or meals for walk in registrants Location is subject to change registrants will be notified in the event of a change Register Sorry Registration is not currently available Would you like to be notified when the next offering is scheduled Here are 3 convenient ways to be added to our mailing list 1 Click here to join our mailing list please reference Hazardous Tree Identification or Course Code AL0803 2 Call us at 732 932 9271 3 E mail us at ocpe njaes rutgers edu Attention U S Veterans All of the courses offered by the Rutgers Office of Continuing Professional Education are approved by the New Jersey State Approving Agency for Veterans Training for tuition reimbursement through

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