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  • Every Woman Counts | Resources for Health Professionals
    News Employment Contact Us Every Women Counts Quality Assurance Project The Latest News Topics and Updates noscript news and topic The QAP website is a resource for health professionals involved in the early detection and diagnosis of breast and cervical cancer Visitors will find continuing medical education opportunities clinical tools including breast cancer diagnostic algorithms and cervical cancer consensus guidelines as well as information on quality assurance issues affecting breast

    Original URL path: http://qap.sdsu.edu/ (2015-02-04)
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  • Cancer Screening & Diagnosis | Breast Cancer | Cervical Cancer | Primary Care Resource
    DIAGNOSIS Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Facts Stats Breast Cancer Review Patient Treatment Guide Breast Algorithms 4th Ed Cervical Cancer Cervical Cancer Facts Stats Guidelines Terminology Cancer Screening and Diagnosis This section includes facts and statistics about breast and cervical cancer breast cancer diagnostic algorithms links to cervical cancer consensus guidelines and other related resources for healthcare providers who perform breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services If you have

    Original URL path: http://qap.sdsu.edu/screening/index.html (2015-02-04)
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  • Cancer Screening & Diagnosis | Breast Cancer | Cervical Cancer | Primary Care Resource
    may increase risk for ovarian cancer per some studies Both combined hormone therapy and estrogen therapy alone also appear to increase the risk of heart disease blood clots and strokes 2 Radiation therapy to the chest when young Risk is strongly increased for women treated with radiation to the chest for another cancer as children or young adults as with Hodgkin s lymphoma The risk is highest for those treated during adolescence when the breasts are still developing The most vulnerable ages appear to be between ages 10 to 14 7 Weight Excess weight as measured by body mass index and or weight gain after menopause is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer In contrast excess weight in premenopausal women has been associated with a lower risk The reason for this observed relationship in premenopausal women is unclear 7 Alcohol Compared with non drinkers women who drink alcoholic beverages are at increased risk The risk increases with the amount of alcohol consumed Risk for those who consume 2 to 5 drinks daily is increased by about 1 times normal 2 Height Height has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in a majority of studies Risk is about 20 greater for women 69 inches or taller as compared with women less than 63 inches tall 7 Other factors Exposure to certain environmental substances and conditions may also increase a woman s risk of developing breast cancer Currently there is conflicting evidence regarding the risk of environmental exposure to organochlorines some exert a weak estrogenic effect tobacco smoke as well as night shift work Research is ongoing in these and other areas of our current environment with potential for effecting breast cancer risk 2 Risk Reduction For women at average risk the emphasis is on regular screening and healthy lifestyle choices e g low fat diet regular exercise breastfeeding Women at increased risk for breast cancer are advised to consider additional risk reduction strategies in consultation with their health care providers Physical activity Regular physical exercise has been shown to provide some protection against breast cancer especially in postmenopausal women The reduction in risk for physically active women compared with women who are least active may be as much as 25 7 Diet A diet that is rich in vegetables fruit poultry fish and low fat dairy products has been associated with a lower risk of breast cancer in some studies 2 There is also some evidence that soy rich diets may reduce risk 6 Overall however the influence of dietary factors on breast cancer risk remains inconclusive Breastfeeding The risk reducing effect of breastfeeding has been shown in multiple studies especially if the breast feeding lasts 1 to 2 years 2 For every year of breastfeeding the reduction in relative risk has been estimated at approximately 4 7 Screening Guidelines The US Preventative Services Task Force USPSTF recommends that biennial screening mammography begin at age 50 for women at average risk The Task Force states that

    Original URL path: http://qap.sdsu.edu/screening/breastcancer/facts.html (2015-02-04)
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  • Breast Cancer Diagnostic Algorithms (2011)
    The Breast Cancer Diagnostic Algorithms for Primary Care Providers was developed to aid primary care clinicians with the work up of breast abnormalities and to promote the practice of routine risk assessment Originally published in 1997 the 4th edition incorporates the latest research and guideline updates into a brief user friendly format Health care providers are encouraged to use the algorithms as an adjunct to clinical decision making they are

    Original URL path: http://qap.sdsu.edu/screening/breastcancer/bda/index.html (2015-02-04)
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  • Cancer Screening & Diagnosis | Breast Cancer | Cervical Cancer | Primary Care Resource
    weaker immune systems during pregnancy are possible reasons 3 Family history of cervical cancer A woman with a mother or sister with cervical cancer has 2 to 3 times the risk of women without this family history 7 Oral contraceptives The long term use 5 or more years of oral contraceptives has been shown to increase the risk of developing cervical cancer 3 A collaborative analysis of data from 24 epidemiological studies found that risk increases with duration and declines after use ceases After 10 or more years of cessation risk appears to return to that of normal 11 Clinicians are encouraged to discuss with their patients whether the benefits of fertility management outweigh the potential risks Chlamydia infection Some studies have shown higher relative risk in women whose blood test results show evidence of either past or current chlamydia infection 3 Diet and weight A diet low in fruits and vegetables as well as being overweight may place women at increased risk for developing cervical cancer 3 Diethylstilbestrol DES DES may increase the risk of a rare form of cervical cancer in women whose mothers took DES when pregnant About 1 case of this rare form occurs in every 1 000 DES daughters 3 DES was given to some pregnant women in the United States from 1940 to 1971 Risk Reduction HPV Vaccines Two FDA approved vaccines brand names Gardasil and Cervarix are highly effective in preventing infection with the types of HPV they target Gardasil targets HPV types 6 11 16 and 18 and Cervarix targets against types 16 and 18 16 and 18 are responsible for about 70 of all cervical cancers The FDA has approved Gardasil for use in females and males ages 9 to 26 and Cervarix for use in females ages 9 to 25 12 Patients should be vaccinated before becoming sexually active that is before they may be exposed to HPV However even for persons who have been infected with one or more HPV types the vaccine can still prevent infection from HPV types not yet acquired 13 Screening Vaccination is not a substitute for screening with Pap tests Even in women who have been vaccinated cervical cancer can still occur Screening is the most effective means for finding changes in the cervix before cancer has a chance to develop Screening Guidelines There are minor differences in the U S screening guidelines for women with average risk The following table compares the current 2012 recommendations of two different groups the U S Preventive Services Task Force USPSTF and a multidisciplinary partnership among the American Cancer Society American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology American Society for Clinical Pathology ACS ASCCP ASCP 14 15 Comparison of ACS ASCCP ASCP and USPSTF Screening Guidelines ACS ASCCP ASCP USPSTF Recommendations apply to both conventional and liquid based cytology When to Start Age 21 Age 21 Intervals Ages 21 29 Cytology alone every 3 years Ages 30 65 HPV and cytology co testing every 5 years is

    Original URL path: http://qap.sdsu.edu/screening/cervicalcancer/facts.html (2015-02-04)
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  • Training Center | Breast Cancer | Cervical Cancer | Primary Care Resource
    is offered on numerous dates and locations throughout California For more information see Cervical Cancer Screening Diagnostic Follow Up Core Competencies of CBE Video This video covers the nine key elements of a comprehensive clinical breast exam For more information or to view the video see Core Competencies of CBE Training on Web This section of the website has been newly added for offering online trainings for clinicians and staff

    Original URL path: http://qap.sdsu.edu/education/index.html (2015-02-04)
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  • Training Center | Cervical Training | Breast Cancer | Cervical Cancer | Primary Care Resource
    This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and Policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education through the joint providership of the University of California Davis Health System and the California Department of Health Care Services Every Woman Counts Program The University of California Davis Health System is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians CREDIT DESIGNATION Physician Credit

    Original URL path: http://qap.sdsu.edu/education/cervicalscreen/index.html (2015-02-04)
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  • Training Center | CBE Training | Breast Cancer | Cervical Cancer | Primary Care Resource
    Cancer Screening Diagnostic Follow Up Schedule Registration CBE Training Core Competencies of CBE Training on Web Clinical Breast Exam Training At this time the California Department of Health Care Services is not offering regularly scheduled training courses If you are interested in obtaining training for yourself or your clinicians please contact Kelly McMorris MPE Training Coordinator Every Woman Counts kmcmorris mail sdsu edu To review the nine key elements of

    Original URL path: http://qap.sdsu.edu/education/clinicalbreastexam/index.html (2015-02-04)
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