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  • Radio Navigation: “Flying the Beam” | Time and Navigation
    stations and beacons connected by airways began to cover the globe When war broke out new military equipment revolutionized air navigation This allowed less experienced users to achieve the same results as highly trained celestial navigators and eventually decreased the need for professional navigators TOOLS Radio Direction Finding RDF stations radio compasses radio range Very High Frequency Omni Range VOR YE ZB radar Gee Decca LORAN GPS ADVANTAGE Works when out of sight of the ground and or sky DISADVANTAGE Requires complex and heavy equipment in the aircraft and a complex array of ground and or space based equipment and infrastructure CHALLENGES Subject to natural or manmade interference Most prone to technical failure Westport Radio Compass Receiver Wiley Post used this radio compass for a nonstop stratospheric transcontinental flight attempt in his Lockheed Vega Winnie Mae He had to position the square antenna loop manually to home in on commercial broadcast radio stations Learn more Westport Radio Compass Indicator Wiley Post used this radio compass for a nonstop stratospheric transcontinental flight attempt in his Lockheed Vega plane the Winnie Mae He had to position the square antenna loop manually to home in on commercial broadcast radio stations Learn more Westport Radio Compass Loop Antenna Wiley Post used this radio compass for a nonstop stratospheric transcontinental flight attempt in his Lockheed Vega Winnie Mae He had to position the square antenna loop manually to home in on commercial broadcast radio stations Learn more RCA AVR 15A Radio Range Receiver This is a typical radio range receiver used in the late 1930s on private airplanes Learn more Type 62A GEE Mark II Indicator Unit The British Royal Air Force and the U S Eighth Air Force relied extensively on the GEE hyperbolic system in their bombing campaigns over Europe where it was essential in the overcast skies Late in the war GEE combined with a system of radar beacons known as GEE H allowed the bomber crews to attack their targets without seeing them Learn more Western Electric AN APS 2E Radar Plan Position Indicator This Navy radar scope would have been used on long range patrol aircraft such as the Consolidated PB4Y late in World War II and during the early Cold War U S bombers during World War II used radar for short range navigation under 80 kilometers 50 miles and for bombing through clouds and at night but less accurately than conventional bombsights The system was only effective in locating cities and shorelines Learn more AN APN 4 LORAN Set The APN 4 was the first LORAN set for aircraft to enter service It had a separate receiver and display unit The navigator had a leather hood to put over the oscilloscope s cathode ray tube so he could clearly see it in daylight LORAN was most valuable when the skies couldn t be seen for celestial navigation and when coastlines couldn t be picked up by radar It did require a skilled operator Learn more Narco VHT 2

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/challenges/overcoming-challenges/radio-navigation (2016-02-13)
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  • Dead Reckoning: An Educated Guess | Time and Navigation
    the surface by using computed positions from celestial observations or by bearings and lines of position from radio navigation stations Between these fixes aviators had to depend on a best guess in the form of a calculated position known as dead reckoning The process of dead reckoning depends on determining wind drift through observations or estimates and predicting the movement of the aircraft based on heading and speed Over time this process has gone from manual computation to computer automation including the implementation of inertial navigation systems in the Cold War that measured acceleration in multiple axes to determine movement over time TOOLS Radio Direction Finding RDF stations radio compasses radio range Very High Frequency Omni Range VOR YE ZB radar Gee Decca LORAN GPS ADVANTAGE Works when out of sight of the ground and or sky DISADVANTAGE Requires complex and heavy equipment in the aircraft and a complex array of ground and or space based equipment and infrastructure CHALLENGES Subject to natural or manmade interference Most prone to technical failure Pioneer Earth Inductor Compass The earth inductor compass was popular in the United States for long distance flights in the period 1924 1934 Charles Lindbergh relied on this type of compass on his New York to Paris flight to maintain course until it malfunctioned It s primary attraction was that it was far more stable than liquid filled whiskey magnetic compasses and featured a controller that could dial in a heading that could be followed with a left right indicator similiar to that used for VOR navigation decades later This made is far easier to hold a heading over long periods particularly when fatigued It used a wind driven generator to create an induction field that created variable current as it interacted with the Earth s magnetic field Less reliable than a liquid compass it fell out of favor by the mid 1930s replaced by gyroscopic heading indicators Albert Hegenberger oversaw its development in the early 1920s for the U S Army Air Service Learn more Waltham Eight Day Clock Lindbergh brought this clock with him on his transatlantic flight in the Spirit of St Louis His simple dead reckoning approach to navigation did not require an accurate clock Eight day refers to how long the clock would run on a full winding Learn more Pioneer Drift Meter Lindbergh carried a Navy drift meter like this one to measure wind drift He never used it because it was too difficult to mount and operate outside the window while flying and still manage to control the aircraft safely Learn more Louis Levin B 2 Drift Indicator Weems and the famous air navigator Harold Gatty worked together to develop this new drift indicator It could determine drift and ground speed without a cumbersome apparatus deployed outside the aircraft Learn more Weems Mark II Plotter Weems developed this simple but effective plotter for aeronautical charts in 1935 It remains the most popular aviation plotter in the United States Richard Byrd used this

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/challenges/overcoming-challenges/dead-reckoning (2016-02-13)
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  • Dying to Set Records | Time and Navigation
    A New Era in Time and Navigation Hyperbolic Systems LORAN Meet the Clockmaker Alfred Loomis Navigate the Skies Activity Did You Know Government supported record attempts using sturdy flying boats had the best chance of success Privately financed flights with land planes flown by amateurs often ended in disaster The Slipstream October 1927 This is represented in a 1927 political cartoon about this period of aviation Explore More Fred Noonan navigating a Pan Am Sikorsky S 42 Winnie Mae in New York 1933 Run Time 0 30 Radio Compass Longines Weems Second Setting and Lindbergh Hour Angle Watch Advertisement Nortronics NAS 14V2 Astroinertial Navigation System Cartoon Slipstream Magazine October 1927 Cartoon Slipstream Magazine October 1927 A 1927 political cartoon showcasing the dangers of cross oceanic flying Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Dying to Set Records Aviators made unprecedented long distance flights It was exciting but dangerous Many people tried and many died Most often remembered as the year Charles Lindbergh flew alone across the Atlantic 1927 also witnessed other record flights that presented far greater challenges But the limitations of navigation technology often proved deadly Even the relatively simple navigational task of crossing the North Atlantic claimed many lives These disasters marked a turning point in navigational systems Old Glory Hit Sea at Terrific Speed Wreckage Shows Effects of Impact Lloyd Bertaud James Hill and Philip Payne Maine to Rome Learn More Close No Accident for Brock Wives Thrilled as Two Detroit Airmen Reach London Goal William Brock and Edward Schlee Newfoundland to Great Britain Learn More Close Byrd Plane Reported Wrecked Flyers Safe Richard Byrd Bert Acosta Bernt Balchen and George Noville New York to Paris Learn More Close Nation s Officials Hail Chamberlin President Cables His Rejoicing Clarence Chamberlin and Charles Levine New York to Germany Learn More Close Costes and Le Brix Fly on 1 200 Miles They Bring Plane to Point 300 Miles from Rio Dieudonné Costes and Joseph Le Brix Senegal to Brazil Learn More Close Portuguese Flyer Crosses Atlantic Fights Gales on Way Sarmento de Beires Jorge de Castilho and Manuel Gouveia Portuguese Guinea to Brazil Learn More Close Plane Fell 800 Miles Short of Goal in Paris But Aviation Leaders Praise Ruth Elder s Feat Ruth Elder and George Haldeman New York to Paris Learn More Close Ocean Fliers Missing After Recent Efforts Navy Sees One Chance in 1 000 to Find Fliers John Frost and Gordon Scott Dole Race California to Hawaii Learn More Close Prizes Handed Dole Winners Goebel and Jensen Receive Rewards of Flight Arthur Goebel William Davis Jr Martin Jensen and Paul Schluter Dole Race California to Hawaii Learn More Close Throngs Cheer Pacific Fliers Great Days for American Aviation Lester Maitland and Albert Hegenberger California to Hawaii Learn More Close Lost Princess Hunt Goes On Private Agencies Aid Search Frederick Minchin Leslie Hamilton and Princess Löwenstein Wertheim Great Britain to Ontario Learn More Close Fate of Nungesser is Still a Mystery But Search Goes On

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/early-air-navigators/dying-to-set-records (2016-02-13)
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  • Lindbergh's Calculated Risk | Time and Navigation
    Navigate the Skies Activity Lindbergh s Calculated Risk Charles Lindbergh s 1927 transatlantic flight highlighted the limitations of early air navigation technology Though not the first person to cross the Atlantic by air over 100 had preceded him Lindbergh demonstrated that transatlantic flight would soon be practical Because he lacked any means for fixing position his flight also illustrated that until better navigational tools and techniques were developed this type of flying could be a gamble Indeed many who attempted it perished Lindbergh s Simple Tools for a Difficult Crossing Lindbergh navigated the Spirit of St Louis on his transatlantic flight with an earth inductor compass a drift sight a speed timer a stopwatch for the drift sight and an eight day clock Despite weather deviations and extreme fatigue Lindbergh reached the coast of Ireland within 5 kilometers 3 miles of his intended great circle course But he knew that chance not skill or equipment had allowed such accuracy winds during his flight had caused no significant drift Besides being uncertain of his position at times on his transatlantic flight Charles Lindbergh found himself lost several times on his Caribbean and Latin American tour In each case faulty equipment let him down He realized he had to find better ways of fixing position if he was going to continue to make long range flights and promote safe long distance air travel Lindbergh with the Spirit of St Louis Charles Lindbergh in front of his Ryan NYP Spirit of St Louis in St Louis Missouri Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution P V H Weems with Charles and Anne Morrow Lindbergh Probably in San Diego 1930 Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Ryan NYP Spirit of St Louis The Ryan NYP Spirit of St Louis flown by

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/early-air-navigators/charles-lindbergh/lindberghs-calculated-risk (2016-02-13)
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  • The Business of Air Navigation | Time and Navigation
    and Navigation Hyperbolic Systems LORAN Meet the Clockmaker Alfred Loomis Navigate the Skies Activity Explore More Amy Johnson Hot Rock Cartoon No Respect for the Navigator Armeno Lotti France Thomas Thurlow demonstrates a sextant Record Flight New York Paris Moscow Run Time 1 01 The Business of Air Navigation The problems of reliable air navigation experienced by Lindbergh and his peers was finally addressed in the late 1920s by a few dedicated innovators who often worked with little official support to make improvements in dead reckoning and radio and celestial navigation equipment As the nation entered the Great Depression the military services often lacked the resources to truly address the problem Phillip Van Horn Weems a Navy officer operating with virtually no support from his superiors became the most successful source for new navigational innovations in this period He also trained and advised many of the top American and European aviators There were other important innovators including Albert Hegenberger of the Army Air Corps who ultimately made long distance flight safe and reliable during the 1930s Philip Van Horn Weems Celestial navigation innovator and instructor Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Philip Dalton Developed navigation computers Credit National Naval Aviation Museum Ed Link and P V H Weems in a Link Celestial Navigation Trainer Developed navigation equipment Credit Binghamton University Libraries Special Collections and Archives Charles Blair examines his astrocompass shortly before his 1951 trans polar solo flight Made first trans polar flight with assistance of P V H Weems Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Henry Dick Merrill Chief pilot for Eastern Airlines Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Thomas Thurlow Army Air Corps navigation engineer Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution D Corrigan Run Time 0 30 Wrong Way Corrigan

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/early-air-navigators/charles-lindbergh/business-of-air-navigation (2016-02-13)
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  • The Teacher: P. V. H. Weems | Time and Navigation
    attention at the time for tutoring Lindbergh most Lindbergh biographers have entirely overlooked this episode Explore More Armeno Lotti France Japan s Goodwill Plane Returns Run Time 1 13 Astrocompass Mark II Ed Link and P V H Weems in a Link Celestial Navigation Trainer Lt Harry H Crosby The Teacher P V H Weems America s new hero needed instruction in navigation He found a teacher in P V H Weems As Charles Lindbergh retired the Spirit of St Louis to the Smithsonian Institution in 1928 he was planning even riskier oceanic flights He knew his seat of the pants approach to navigation was no longer enough So Lindbergh sought out the best navigation instructor he could find U S Navy officer Lt Cmdr Philip Van Horn Weems P V H Weems tutored Charles Lindbergh and other air navigation pioneers in new techniques of celestial navigation Weems had been inspired while serving in support for the NC 4 s Atlantic crossing in 1919 Often angering his traditional thinking superiors he pursued new methods of air navigation Weems spent two weeks in 1928 instructing Lindbergh in his more practical system of celestial navigation Lindbergh stayed in touch with Weems afterward and helped promote his new air navigation business Weems improved the processes and equipment for fixing position He also established programs and schools to educate many of the most influential aviators of the 1930s His greatest legacy was influencing the air navigation programs of U S airlines and the military His techniques became the standard for long range navigation for three decades P V H Weems first demonstrated his new methods of celestial air navigation in a Navy mail plane off the coast of California in 1927 Weems chief navigation instructor in the early 1930s was Harold Gatty who was widely regarded as the nation s most capable air navigator He taught navigation to Charles Lindbergh s wife and co pilot Anne Morrow Lindbergh and convinced the Army Air Corps and Pan American Airways to adopt the Weems System of Navigation P V H Weems presents navigational equipment to Richard E Byrd Distance flier and polar explorer Credit National Museum of American History Smithsonian Institution Philip Van Horn Weems Celestial navigation innovator and instructor Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution P V H Weems with Charles and Anne Morrow Lindbergh Probably in San Diego 1930 Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution P V H Weems Article in Popular Science Magazine Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Harold Gatty Developed navigation tools trained distance fliers in air navigation and advised the Army Air Corps Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Bygrave Position Line Slide Rule A shortcut method of speeding up celestial computations Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Louis Levin B 2 Drift Indicator Early 1930s military version of the Gatty Drift Indicator Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution The Air Almanac It reduced computations for celestial sightings

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/early-air-navigators/charles-lindbergh/business-of-air-navigation/p-v-h-weems (2016-02-13)
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  • The Air Navigation Community | Time and Navigation
    V H Weems taught him air navigation in the late 1930 s Learn More Close Curtis LeMay Advanced Navigation in Bombers Trained in Air Navigation by Gatty Curtis LeMay learned navigation under Harold Gatty at Rockwell Field California in the early 1930 s Before becoming the architect of the fire bombing campaign and a temperamental Air Force Chief of Staff at the height of the Cold War LeMay pioneered navigational techniques for bombers in the late 1930 s His efforts culminated in the interception of the Italian liner Rex in May 1938 Learn More Close Ed Link Collaborated with Weems Developed Navigation Equipment Flight simulator pioneer Ed Link developed several navigational training tools with his close friend P V H Weems including the A 12 sextant I suggested to Link that his standard trainer might be used for celestial navigation training P V H Weems Learn More Close Fred Noonan Trained by Weems Lead Navigator Pan Am As navigator Fred Noonan helped pioneer transpacific airline service with Pan American Airways He learned air navigation from P V H Weems and Mary Tornich He later went on to become Amelia Earhart s navigator on her 1937 around the world flight and disappeared with her as they approached Howland Island Noonan had been flying for Pan American for many years and it was all in his day s work to hit smaller islands than Howland square on the nose P V H Weems After Noonan disappeared en route to Howland Island with Amelia Earhart in 1937 Learn More Close Harold Gatty Developed Gatty Drift Meter Trained in Air Navigation One of the first professional air navigators Harold Gatty instructed such aeronautical elites as Anne Morrow Lindbergh in air navigation and invented new equipment He developed the Gatty drift indicator for use in aircraft Gatty served as Wiley Post s navigator on his record breaking around the world flight He had been trained in air navigation by P V H Weems and managed the Weems System of Navigation while Weems was on sea duty during the Depression Gatty and Lindbergh convinced Pan American Airways to adopt the Weems System Gatty became the Army Air Corps chief navigation engineer Learn More Close Harold Gatty Navigation for Wiley Post Managed Weems System of Navigation One of the first professional air navigators Harold Gatty instructed such aeronautical elites as Anne Morrow Lindbergh in air navigation and invented new equipment He developed the Gatty drift indicator for use in aircraft Gatty served as Wiley Post s navigator on his record breaking around the world flight He had been trained in air navigation by P V H Weems and managed the Weems System of Navigation while Weems was on sea duty during the Depression Gatty and Lindbergh convinced Pan American Airways to adopt the Weems System Gatty became the Army Air Corps chief navigation engineer Learn More Close Harold Gatty Navigation Advisor for Air Corps Managed Weems System of Navigation One of the first professional air navigators Harold

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/early-air-navigators/charles-lindbergh/air-navigation-community (2016-02-13)
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  • Radio Time for Aviation | Time and Navigation
    Amelia Earhart Navigation at War The Wartime Navigator Harry Crosby Tools of the Trade Naval Aviation Meet the Navigators WAVES A New Era in Time and Navigation Hyperbolic Systems LORAN Meet the Clockmaker Alfred Loomis Navigate the Skies Activity Did You Know Navigators used radio time signals to accurately set their second setting watches Stations around the world broadcast these time signals hourly Explore More Charles Zweng Albert Hegenberger in the Bird of Paradise s Celestial Sighting Station P V H Weems teaches Amy Johnson navigational techniques Albert F Hegenberger United States A Tragedy in the Pacific Run Time 1 23 Radio Time for Aviation Aviators learned to use radio signals to set their watches to the second While ships could carry reliable chronometers to time celestial observations aviators needed smaller lighter and more accessible time pieces Such clocks could be made but at the cost of precision and accuracy One solution was the use of radio broadcasts of time signals that allowed air navigators to accurately set their watches to the second Weems Second Setting Watch Blueprint Patent drawing 1928 Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Longines Wittnauer Weems Second Setting Watch Standard Model For use with radio time signals Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Longines Wittnauer Weems Second Setting Watch Sidereal Model Uses sidereal star time with a day of 23 hours 56 minutes 4 1 seconds long Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Longines Lindbergh Hour Angle Watch The Linbergh Hour Angle Watch eliminated a simple but troublesome calculation in celestial computations Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution U S Naval Observatory Quartz Clock Used to provide radio time signals to ships and aircraft Credit National Museum of American History Smithsonian Institution previous pause resume next Innovations Longines

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/early-air-navigators/charles-lindbergh/business-of-air-navigation/radio-time-for-navigation (2016-02-13)
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