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  • Lindbergh's New Tools | Time and Navigation
    of celestial navigation While instructing Lindbergh he used several new innovations most of his own design After this training Lindbergh would never again fly long distances without having the latest in celestial navigation equipment By ordinary methods it requires from fifteen minutes to half an hour to plot a position Weems simplified method reduces this time to forty seconds on a starlit night or two minutes by day Popular Science Monthly August 1928 In 1933 Charles and Anne Morrow Lindbergh undertook a demanding five month four continent airline survey flight from the North Atlantic to Europe Africa and South America that tested the viability of the Weems System of Navigation Their open cockpit Lockheed Sirius Tingmissartoq was far better outfitted for navigation than the Spirit of St Louis Charles and Anne demonstrated that long range air navigation could be safe practical and reliable Weems Navigational Tools Charles Lindbergh used this celestial navigation equipment while under instruction by P V H Weems in May 1928 Credit National Museum of American History Smithsonian Institution Bureau of Standards Model 2 Bubble Sextant Weems used this sextant in training Charles Lindbergh and Lincoln Ellsworth Credit National Museum of American History Smithsonian Institution Tingmissartoq Route Map 1933 Airline Survey Flight Route map created by Charles and Anne Morrow Lindbergh after their flight in the Tingmissartoq Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Pioneer Mark 3 Model 1 Aircraft Octant This octant was used by the Lindberghs in the Tingmissartoq Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Star Altitude Curves Weems star altitude curves helped simplify celestial navigation Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Lockheed Sirius Tingmissartoq Charles Lindbergh and his wife Anne Morrow made a series of transoceanic airline survey flights in this Lockheed Sirius Credit National Air and Space Museum

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/early-air-navigators/charles-lindbergh/lindberghs-new-tools (2016-02-13)
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  • Two Men in a Hurry | Time and Navigation
    the Winnie Mae served as a flying laboratory for many new technologies including the new Weems System of Navigation Besides having the best equipped aircraft for navigation Post had convinced Gatty to install the latest in cockpit instrumentation the Sperry artificial horizon and directional gyro These instruments would prove crucial as the Winnie Mae spent much of its flight in the clouds and Post who had lost an eye in an industrial accident had to endure incredibly demanding tests of concentration Post and Gatty took off from New York with great fanfare Their first stop was Harbor Grace Newfoundland From there the 14 stop course included England Germany Russia Siberia Alaska Canada Cleveland and finally New York on July 1 1931 They completed the circuit in 8 days 15 hours and 51 minutes Hall s admiration for his pilot prompted him to give the Winnie Mae to Post If Charles Lindbergh s 1927 flight to Paris with minimal navigational training or equipment marked the immature state of air navigation technology the around the world flight of the Winnie Mae suggested that in four years overseas air navigation had finally become practical Post spent the following year exhibiting the plane and conducting flight tests He overhauled the engine and installed a loaned prototype Air Corps radio compass and the first commercial model of the new Sperry autopilot These two components made the Winnie Mae for that moment at least the best equipped aircraft in the nation The Winnie Mae The Winnie Mae served as a flying laboratory for many new technologies Meet the Navigator Harold Gatty The shortest distance between two points on a globe is not always a straight line Wiley Post and Will Rogers Wiley Post and Will Rogers before their fatal accident Credit National Air and Space Museum

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/early-air-navigators/two-men-in-a-hurry (2016-02-13)
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  • The Winnie Mae | Time and Navigation
    most capable air navigator in the nation Gatty utilized the tools and techniques of the Weems System for the flight including his prototype drift meter which became highly successful in later forms Gatty occupied the main cabin and Post had a hatch installed in the cabin ceiling behind the wing spar so Gatty could make his celestial observations On July 15 1933 Post left New York Closely following his former route but making only 11 stops he circled the world in 7 days 18 hours and 49 minutes Post knew no more about navigation in 1933 than in 1931 so his decision to go solo without a navigator was far riskier Fortunately both the radio compass and autopilot worked flawlessly and he completed the flight with minimal trouble Post next modified the Winnie Mae for long distance high altitude operation He recognized the need to develop some means of enabling the pilot to operate in a cabin atmosphere of greater density than the outside atmospheric environment Because of its design the Winnie Mae could not be equipped with a pressure cabin Post therefore asked the B F Goodrich Company to assist him in developing a full pressure suit for the pilot Post hoped that by equipping the plane with an engine supercharger and jettisonable landing gear and himself with a pressure suit he could cruise for long distances at high altitude in the jetstream On March 15 1935 Post flew from Burbank California to Cleveland Ohio a distance of 2 035 miles in 7 hours 19 minutes At times the Winnie Mae attained a ground speed of 340 miles per hour indicating that the airplane was indeed operating in the jetstream Wiley Post died shortly afterward in the crash of a hybrid Lockheed Orion Sirius floatplane near Point Barrow Alaska on August 15 1935 His companion humorist Will Rogers also perished in the accident The Smithsonian Institution acquired the Winnie Mae from Mrs Post in 1936 During its high altitude flight research the Winnie Mae made use of a special tubular steel landing gear developed by Lockheed engineers Clarence L Kelly Johnson and James Gerschler It was released after takeoff by the pilot using a cockpit lever thus reducing the total drag of the plane and eliminating its weight The Winnie Mae would then continue on its flight and land on a special metal covered spruce landing skid glued to the fuselage During these flights Post wore the world s first practical pressure suit an important step on the road to human space travel The suit was the third type developed by Post and Russell S Colley of the B F Goodrich Company It consisted of three layers long underwear an inner black rubber air pressure bladder and an outer contoured cloth suit A pressure helmet was then bolted onto the suit It had a removable faceplate Post could seal when he reached an altitude of 17 000 feet The helmet had an oxygen system and could accommodate earphones and

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/early-air-navigators/two-men-in-a-hurry/winnie-mae (2016-02-13)
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  • Harold Gatty | Time and Navigation
    Wrong Amelia Earhart Navigation at War The Wartime Navigator Harry Crosby Tools of the Trade Naval Aviation Meet the Navigators WAVES A New Era in Time and Navigation Hyperbolic Systems LORAN Meet the Clockmaker Alfred Loomis Navigate the Skies Activity Explore More P V H Weems Article in Popular Science Magazine P V H Weems with Charles and Anne Morrow Lindbergh Mary Tornich Gee Lattice Chart Eastern Chain Pembroke Paris 2nd Edition August 1944 1 500000 scale Wolfgang von Gronau Germany Meet The Navigator Harold Gatty Described by Charles Lindbergh as the Prince of Navigators Harold Gatty was one of the first professional air navigators in the United States Wiley Post with Harold Gatty as navigator circled the world in 1931 shattering previous records Their plane the Winnie Mae served as a flying laboratory for many new technologies including the new Weems System of Navigation Gatty became chief navigation engineer for the U S Army Air Corps in 1932 as it was starting to develop strategies for long range navigation After returning to his native Australia he continued to provide invaluable service by helping develop air resupply routes in the South Pacific and helping create the U S Navy s navigation handbook for survivors adrift at sea on rafts Gatty received the Distinguished Flying Cross from President Herbert Hoover at the White House for his intrepid courage remarkable endurance and matchless skill materially advancing the science of aerial navigation This was an exceptional honor for a noncitizen Hoover offered to push special legislation to grant U S citizenship to Tasmanian born Gatty but he refused the offer Harold Gatty is the only back seat driver that ever made good Will Rogers Harold Gatty Receives the Distinguished Flying Cross Presented by President Herbert Hoover at the White House on August 18

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/early-air-navigators/two-men-in-a-hurry/harold-gatty (2016-02-13)
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  • Amelia Earhart | Time and Navigation
    B 3 Drift Meter Amy Johnson John Frost and Gordon Scott A Navigator Taking a Sextant Sighting through an Astrodome Navigation Gone Wrong Amelia Earhart During an around the world flight attempt in 1937 Amelia Earhart and her expert navigator Fred Noonan vanished in the South Pacific What Happened The Lockheed Model 10E s limited range forced them to use tiny and remote Howland Island as a refueling stop Missing it would guarantee disaster They overflew the Gilbert Islands their best means of fixing position in the dark Their eastbound route led them into headwinds that cost them fuel Clouds hampered their navigational sightings Neither knew Morse code critical for the ship based radio direction finder system the Navy used to support their flight The plane was poorly outfitted for navigation and long range communication and neither was well trained on the radio equipment they did have Fred Noonan is the only one of Commander Weems students who has ever been lost at sea Baltimore Sun 1937 The Consequences Their flight required an effective blend of dead reckoning celestial navigation and radio direction finding but poor planning inexperience and circumstance compromised all three They never reached Howland Island and likely perished in the ocean Lessons Learned The exact errors that caused Earhart and Noonan to miss Howland Island may never be known but their disappearance served as warning to other aviators not to take navigation lightly Fred Noonan and Amelia Earhart They vanished in the South Pacific on June 2 1937 Credit Purdue University Archives Amelia Earhart Holding Bendix Radio Direction Finder Loop Antenna Earhart s lack of familiarity with the Bendix radio direction finder was a significant liability Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Lockheed Model 10E Electra The 10E was an excellent aircraft but it lacked

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/early-air-navigators/amelia-earhart (2016-02-13)
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  • The Wartime Navigator | Time and Navigation
    Gone Wrong Amelia Earhart Navigation at War The Wartime Navigator Harry Crosby Tools of the Trade Naval Aviation Meet the Navigators WAVES A New Era in Time and Navigation Hyperbolic Systems LORAN Meet the Clockmaker Alfred Loomis Navigate the Skies Activity Explore More Ryan NYP Spirit of St Louis AN APN 4 LORAN Set Captain Pietro Ratti Italy Hot Rock Cartoon No Respect for the Navigator LORAN Station Adak Alaska The Wartime Navigator The U S Army Air Forces trained tens of thousands of inexperienced young men to do what only a handful of skilled air navigators a decade earlier could do During World War II air navigators served in all the military services and in all theaters of operation This was a new concept for the military The Army Air Corps had only adopted the idea of the air navigator as a specialized crew member in 1939 Suddenly tens of thousands were needed Most navigators in the Army Air Forces started as pilot cadets who washed out of pilot training often in PT 17s Good math skills were considered essential for those who made the transition to navigator Harry Crosby Learn about the remarkable experiences of a wartime navigator Tools of the Trade Army Air Forces navigators in World War II benefitted from a wide range of tools and equipment Harry H Crosby s Wrecked B 17 Just a Snappin On October 8 1943 the 100th Bomb Group targeted the heavily defended German industrial city of Bremen The amazing tale of survival of Crosby and his crew drew media attention Here he inspects the remnants of his navigator s compartment after his B 17 Credit Rebecca Crosby Hutchinson Harry H Crosby as 100th Bomb Group Navigator After the harrowing losses of 1943 Crosby and his fellow crew members found

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/navigation-at-war/wartime-navigator (2016-02-13)
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  • Harry Crosby | Time and Navigation
    Innovation Artifacts Learning Resources Multimedia Gallery Research Journal Visit the Exhibition Navigating in the Air Challenges of Air Navigation Flying Boats Cross the Seas Overcoming the Challenges Celestial Navigation Radio Navigation Dead Reckoning Navigate the Skies Activity Early Air Navigators Dying to Set Records Charles Lindbergh s Calculated Risk The Business of Air Navigation The Teacher P V H Weems The Air Navigation Community Radio Time for Aviation Lindbergh s New Tools Two Men in a Hurry The Winnie Mae Meet the Navigator Harold Gatty Navigation Gone Wrong Amelia Earhart Navigation at War The Wartime Navigator Harry Crosby Tools of the Trade Naval Aviation Meet the Navigators WAVES A New Era in Time and Navigation Hyperbolic Systems LORAN Meet the Clockmaker Alfred Loomis Navigate the Skies Activity Explore More Martin M 130 USA APQ 7 Scope Image Kaster Spherant Gee Lattice Chart Eastern Chain Pembroke Paris 2nd Edition August 1944 1 500000 scale U S Naval Observatory Quartz Clock Harry H Crosby Harry H Crosby Lead navigator of the 100th Bomb Group Eighth Air Force Credit Rebecca Crosby Hutchinson Harry Crosby Harry Crosby served as lead navigator for the 100th Bomb Group Eighth Air Force in the war torn skies of Europe He finished the war as one of the Army Air Forces most experienced and combat hardened navigators but his first overseas flight nearly ended in disaster Flip through the scrapbook below for a window into how Harry Crosby went from a novice navigator who occasionally got lost to one of the military s best in the span of a few months Download a PDF of the Lt Col Harry H Crosby Scrapbook The Lt Col Harry H Crosby Scrapbook Previous Next Navigating at Sea Challenges of Sea Navigation Navigating Without a Clock The Longitude Problem The U S

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/navigation-at-war/wartime-navigator/harry-crosby (2016-02-13)
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  • Tools of the Trade | Time and Navigation
    War era Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Tools of the Trade Army Air Forces navigators in World War II benefited from a wide range of tools and equipment Many of the tools they used first appeared in simpler forms during the 1930s Besides P V H Weems and Harold Gatty several other innovators deserve recognition for their contributions in developing the equipment that was essential to sustaining long range air operations Albert Hegenberger did the most within the Army Air Corps in the interwar years to advance the state of navigational equipment Thomas Thurlow worked hard on the eve of World War II to ensure that newly minted 20 year old navigators had the training and experience in this equipment to perform effectively And Curtis LeMay helped make the navigator an essential crewmember on bomber aircraft Here is a sample of what they used in their celestial and dead reckoning navigation E 6B Dead Reckoning Computer A refinement of the Dalton Mark VII Dead Reckoning Computer the E 6B remains the most successful flight computer ever made Hundreds of thousands have been produced through the present day Learn more AN 5740 Master Navigation Chronometer Many Army Air Forces navigators in World War II carried a chronometer set to Greenwich Civil Time later Greenwich Mean Time and mounted in a special hardened case with shock absorbing springs Learn more A 10A Sextant The compact A 10 was one of the most commonly used sextants in the Army Air Forces Tens of thousands were made during World War II and many remained in service with the Air Force through the 1950s Key features include a lighted bubble and a recording disk to determine averages Learn more Dividers and Compass One of the navigator s most essential tools was his set of dividers used to measure distances on charts Learn more Mark IB Astrograph The British invented astrograph helped navigators determine the altitude curves of principal stars by projecting reels of film corresponding to certain latitudes Suspended above the chart table in medium and heavy American bombers the astrograph quickly fell out of favor because it was heavy and unreliable Learn more Model 3 B Protractor Most navigators used chart tables for plotting courses Plotters such as this allowed them to precisely lay out courses and intersecting lines of position Learn more B 3 Drift Meter The B 3 was used on bombers and transports when ground or water could be clearly seen It evolved from the earlier Gatty drift meters Learn more Astrocompass Mark II The astrocompass was mainly used to determine magnetic variation in the angular difference between an aircraft s bearing to the magnetic North Pole and the geographic North Pole Charles Blair used this one on the first trans polar solo flight in 1951 Learn more Air Position Indicator The Air Position Indicator API was a remarkable electromechanical system of dead reckoning It took inputs from airspeed sensors and gyro magnetic compasses and continuously computed latitude

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/navigation-at-war/wartime-navigator/tools-of-the-trade (2016-02-13)
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