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  • Clipper Pilots Train Cadets in Navigation [Run Time 0:55] | Time and Navigation
    42s Caption Air Corps navigation training Type Newsreel Image Date 1940 Credit National Archives and Records Administration Origin RKO Pathe Related Resources Topics Navigating in the Air Navigation Methods Celestial Navigation Dead Reckoning Keyword Search Search by MEDIA Any Animation Artifact Document Film Illustration Map Newsreel Photograph Search by TOPIC Any Maps and Charts Navigating at Sea Navigating in Space Navigating in the Air Navigation for Everyone Navigation Tools Satellite Navigation Significant Voyages Timekeeping Innovations Any 621B A 12 Sextant Aerial Sextant Air Position Indicator Aircraft Astrocompass Astrodome Astrograph Astroinertial Navigation System Atomic Clock Bubble Sextant Celestial Computer Celestial Navigation Trainer Celestial Table Charts Chronometer Compass Dead Reckoning Computer Drift Indicator Drift Meter Drift Sight E 6B Float Light GEE Giovilabio GOES GPS Lindbergh Hour Angle Watch Line of Position Longitude LORAN Maps Mechanical Mike Mechanical solutions Navigational Radar Octant Pendulum Clock Periscopic Sextant Plotting Pre Comp Navigation Quartz Clock Quartz Oscillator Quartz Resonator Radio Compass Radio Range Radio Time Signals Radius of Action book Satellite Sea Chronometer Sea Clock SECOR Sextant SINS Star Altitude Curves Tables Timation Transit VOR Windscreen ZB 1 Radio Homing Adapter Navigation Methods Any Celestial Navigation Dead Reckoning Inertial Navigation Radio Navigation Satellite Navigation Navigators Inventors Any Bert Acosta John Arnold Lloyd Bertaud Ferdinand Berthoud Charles Blair William Cranch Bond Nathaniel Bowditch Emory B Bronte L C Bygrave Richard Byrd Jorge de Castilho François Coli Douglas Corrigan Dieudonné Costes Eleanor Creesy Harry H Crosby Philip Dalton William Davis Jr Charles Stark Draper Amelia Earhart Thomas Earnshaw Lincoln Ellsworth Galileo Galilei Harold Gatty Art Goebel George Haldeman Leslie Hamilton John Harrison Albert F Hegenberger Christiaan Huygens Amy Johnson Lisette Kapri Vilas Knope Curtis LeMay Charles Levine Anne Morrow Lindbergh Charles Lindbergh Ed Link Alfred Lee Loomis James A Lovell Jr James V Medcalf Henry Dick Merrill

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/multimedia-asset/clipper-pilots-train-cadets-in-navigation-run-time-055 (2016-02-13)
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  • Mariner 1 Destroyed | Time and Navigation
    for the Moon First Attempts Hitting the Moon Human Steps Meet the Navigator James A Lovell Jr Navigating in Deep Space Gravity Assist Radio Network Visiting Other Worlds Meet the Navigator Jet Propulsion Laboratory Navigate in Space Activity Explore More Mariner 1 Launch Project Mercury Earth Path Indicator Apollo 8 Astronauts James A Lovell Jr William A Anders and Frank Bowman Soyuz Salyut Navigation Instrument Apollo Capsule Guidance Controls Navigation Gone Wrong Mariner 1 Destroyed The first American spacecraft sent to explore another planet Mariner 1 was launched on July 22 1962 But it never reached Venus It never even reached space WHAT HAPPENED Unbeknownst to its operators the launch computer that controlled the Atlas rocket carrying Mariner 1 contained a tiny programming error A single character had been left out of the guidance equations THE CONSEQUENCES About four minutes into its flight the Atlas rocket carrying Mariner 1 began behaving erratically The rocket had to be destroyed and with it Mariner 1 LESSONS LEARNED The disaster revealed a critical need to thoroughly debug software before launch NASA also learned that software can be engineered so that small errors do not impact safety Thanks to NASA s corrective actions several Apollo lunar modules safely landed on the Moon despite minor software bugs Mariner 1 Launch Launch of Mariner 1 on July 22 1962 Credit NASA Kennedy Space Center via National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Mariner 1 Control Testing Room Engineers testing systems before the launch of Mariner 1 in 1962 Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Mariner 2 A backup Mariner spacecraft hangs in the National Air and Space Museum s Milestones of Flight gallery Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Mercury Control Room Beginning in 1961 U S manned space missions were controlled

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-space/challenges/mariner-1-destroyed (2016-02-13)
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  • First Attempts | Time and Navigation
    a pyrotechnic display above the beach It was called a catastrophic failure and informally became known as Pioneer 0 Explore More Earthrise Soyuz Salyut Navigation Instrument Mariner 2 Pioneer 4 Trajectory Quartz Oscillator First Attempts Beginning in 1958 the United States tried to send small spacecraft to the vicinity of the Moon with the Pioneer program Pioneer 4 was the first U S spacecraft to escape Earth s gravity and reach the vicinity of the Moon It was launched in 1959 two months after the Soviet probe Luna 1 passed within a few thousand kilometers of the Moon Using timing accurate to one thousandth of a second mission planners hoped Pioneer 4 would pass within 32 000 kilometers 20 000 miles of the Moon But the spacecraft had no ability to change its course once its booster rocket cut off and it did not come closer than three times that distance Although Pioneer 4 failed to get close to the Moon it did successfully test a new space communications system that scientists would develop into a global network of tracking antennas known as the Deep Space Network Pioneer 4 Inspection Wernher von Braun John Casani and James Van Allen inspect the Pioneer 4 satellite Credit Courtesy of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Launch of Pioneer 4 Launch of Pioneer 4 on a Juno II rocket on March 3 1959 Credit Courtesy of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Pioneer 4 Unflown duplicate of Pioneer 4 an early satellite designed for lunar exploration Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution 26 Meter Antenna at Goldstone First tested by Pioneer 4 this 26 meter antenna would later become part of the Deep Space Network Credit Courtesy NASA JPL Caltech Engineers prepare for Pioneer 4 Engineers at Goldstone prepare for the launch of

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-space/reaching-for-the-moon/first-attempts (2016-02-13)
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  • Hitting the Moon | Time and Navigation
    This film was based on H G Wells The First Men in the Moon 1901 and Jules Verne s From the Earth to the Moon 1865 Explore More Meet the Navigators Jet Propulsion Laboratory 70 Meter Antenna at Goldstone Facility Guidance Navigation and Control Apollo Guidance Computer NEAR Shoemaker after Landing on the Asteroid Eros NAVIGATE IN SPACE Activity Do you have what it takes to navigate a spacecraft Hitting the Moon Ranger spacecraft were designed to reach the surface of the Moon Launches began in 1961 Rangers were navigated by radio from Goldstone California and made mid course corrections using onboard thrusters The first Ranger missions failed although Ranger 4 managed to impact the lunar surface Rangers 7 8 and 9 also struck the Moon after returning detailed images of the lunar surface The goal of the first two Ranger missions was to place the spacecraft into elliptical orbits around the Earth However both spacecraft reentered the atmosphere instead Rangers 3 4 and 5 each carried a television camera to return images of the Moon right up to the point of impact They also carried a seismometer designed to operate after impact Only Ranger 4 impacted the Moon and none of the three probes returned data Rangers 7 8 and 9 finally succeeded in crashing into the Moon as planned after returning detailed images of the lunar surface The Moon from Ranger 9 First Ranger 9 photograph of the Moon Credit Courtesy of NASA Ranger 1 Satellite 1 24 Scale Model NASA planned to place the Ranger 1 satellite into an elliptical orbit around Earth but it never reaching its intended orbit Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Ranger 7 Replica of Ranger 7 lunar probe made from parts of test vehicles Replica is on display in

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-space/reaching-for-the-moon/hitting-the-moon (2016-02-13)
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  • Human Steps | Time and Navigation
    Space Gravity Assist Radio Network Visiting Other Worlds Meet the Navigator Jet Propulsion Laboratory Navigate in Space Activity Did You Know Only 24 people have flown within a few hundred kilometers of the Moon Only 12 people have actually walked on it Explore More Guidance Navigation and Control Landing Ellipse for the Curiosity Rover Mars mission Atomic Clock for Goldstone Equipment Mariner 10 on board an Atlas Centaur Rocket Apollo 8 Astronauts James A Lovell Jr William A Anders and Frank Bowman Human Steps The Apollo 8 mission marked the first time people navigated away from Earth In December 1968 Apollo 8 left Earth orbit and traveled a vast distance to a precise orbit around the Moon To accomplish this feat the astronauts used an onboard system that incorporated inertial radio and celestial navigation Apollo 8 met its goal of orbiting the Moon at an altitude of only 100 kilometers 60 miles after a journey of almost 400 000 kilometers 250 000 miles the farthest humans had ever traveled The Apollo 8 crew used sightings on stars the Moon and the Earth to update navigational data stored in their Apollo Guidance Computer which calculated the spacecraft s velocity and location The results were compared with data computed by Earth based tracking stations MIT s Instrumentation Laboratory developed this system for NASA Earthrise This famous Earthrise image was taken from Apollo 8 just after it emerged from behind the Moon Credit Courtesy of NASA Apollo 8 Astronauts James A Lovell Jr William A Anders and Frank Bowman Left to right Apollo 8 astronauts James A Lovell Jr William A Anders and Frank Borman Credit Courtesy of NASA previous pause resume next Innovations Apollo Sextant and Eye Piece To determine position in space an Apollo astronaut located a specific star using a

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-space/reaching-for-the-moon/human-steps (2016-02-13)
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  • James A. Lovell, Jr. | Time and Navigation
    Attempts Hitting the Moon Human Steps Meet the Navigator James A Lovell Jr Navigating in Deep Space Gravity Assist Radio Network Visiting Other Worlds Meet the Navigator Jet Propulsion Laboratory Navigate in Space Activity Did You Know Former NASA astronaut James Lovell appeared in the movie version of his famous Apollo 13 mission He has an unaccredited role as Leland Kirkemo captain of the USS Iwo Jima the ship that recovered the astronauts and the command module Odyssey on splashdown Explore More Apollo 8 Astronauts James A Lovell Jr William A Anders and Frank Bowman Alphonsus Crater Space Shuttle Star Tracker Mariner 1 Launch Ranger 1 Satellite 1 24 Scale Model Meet The Navigator James A Lovell Jr James Lovell navigated to the Moon and back twice He served as command module pilot on Apollo 8 the first mission to the Moon and as spacecraft commander on Apollo 13 the aborted lunar landing mission All three astronauts helped navigate the Apollo 8 spacecraft but Lovell was responsible for getting it to the Moon and back Among the tools Lovell used was a sextant much like those once used by mariners at sea With the ill fated Apollo 13 mission Lovell became the only astronaut to orbit the Moon twice without landing John Young and Gene Cernan went twice but both walked on the Moon James A Lovell Jr James Lovell looks through the telescope in the Apollo 8 command module Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Portrait of James A Lovell Jr James Lovell was an Apollo astronaut who navigated to the Moon and back twice Credit National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA via National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Apollo 8 Astronauts James A Lovell Jr William A Anders and Frank Bowman Left to right Apollo

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-space/reaching-for-the-moon/human-steps/james-a-lovell-jr (2016-02-13)
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  • Gravity Assist | Time and Navigation
    option is to fly near one planet to eventually get to the final destination The spacecraft uses the helping hand of gravity at the first planet to receive a boost so the spacecraft can be launched from Earth with a smaller rocket Many missions would not be possible without this type of gravity assist trajectory Explore More Launch of Pioneer 4 Engineers prepare for Pioneer 4 Alphonsus Crater The Moon from Ranger 7 Meet the Navigators Jet Propulsion Laboratory Gravity Assist To reach destinations beyond the Moon space navigators learned to take advantage of gravity A spacecraft can use the gravity of one celestial body to propel it toward another While the trajectory is longer than a more direct route a gravity assist saves fuel But it requires complex calculations precise navigation and atomic clocks for timing Many planetary missions would be impractical without gravity assist because of the extra fuel and larger rockets they would otherwise need Helping Hand from Gravity Launched in 1973 Mariner 10 used the gravity of Venus to propel it to Mercury with minimal use of fuel To reach Mercury Mariner 10 first passed by Venus threading through a narrow 400 kilometer 250 mile window of space a few thousand kilometers above the surface That level of accuracy had not been possible with the navigation systems available for the Pioneer 4 mission in 1959 After a gravitational assist from Venus Mariner 10 entered an orbit around the Sun that allowed it to pass by Mercury three times in 1974 and 1975 NAVIGATE IN SPACE Activity Do you have what it takes to navigate a spacecraft Mariner 10 Trajectory Trajectory of Mariner 10 After launch and flyby of Venus it orbited the Sun to fly by Mercury three times Credit National Air and Space Museum NASM

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-space/deep-space/gravity-assist (2016-02-13)
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  • Radio Network | Time and Navigation
    Mojave Desert was chosen because it was remote from power lines and free from interference from commercial radio and television signals NAVIGATE IN SPACE Activity Do you have what it takes to navigate a spacecraft Explore More JPL Pasadena Control Room in 1964 test Engineers on the night of launch of Pioneer 4 Earth Lights at Night James A Lovell Jr Radio Network A spacecraft s faint signal transmitted at low power across millions of kilometers has been likened to a whisper from space To listen and respond accurately timing is everything Traveling beyond the Moon s orbit requires a complex navigation system In the late 1950s NASA built a global network of tracking stations now known as the Deep Space Network The Deep Space Network consists of large parabolic antennas located at stations in California Spain and Australia These locations ensure that at least one station can communicate with a spacecraft at all times The main antennas are 64 meters 210 feet across and can be pointed to within a fraction of a degree They are supplemented by smaller antennas located nearby Each station has its own computers and time and frequency standards and communicates with the main control center in Pasadena California 70 Meter Antenna at Goldstone Facility This antenna at Goldstone California has become a symbol of space communication Credit Courtesy of NASA JPL Caltech NEAR Shoemaker after Landing on the Asteroid Eros This illustration depicts NEAR Shoemaker after landing on the asteroid Eros Credit Courtesy of Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Deep Space Operations Control Room The Deep Space Operations Control Center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory coordinates the three Deep Space Network stations Credit Courtesy of NASA JPL Caltech previous pause resume next Innovations Goldstone Timing Equipment This is the master clock used at

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-space/deep-space/radio-network (2016-02-13)
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