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  • Navigate in Space! Activity | Time and Navigation
    at Sea Navigating in the Air Navigating in Space Satellite Navigation Navigation for Everyone Timeline of Innovation Artifacts Learning Resources Multimedia Gallery Research Journal Visit the Exhibition Navigating in Space Challenges of Space Navigation Navigation Gone Wrong Mariner 1 Navigate in Space Activity Reaching for the Moon First Attempts Hitting the Moon Human Steps Meet the Navigator James A Lovell Jr Navigating in Deep Space Gravity Assist Radio Network Visiting Other Worlds Meet the Navigator Jet Propulsion Laboratory Navigate in Space Activity Navigate in Space Activity Cancel Yes Start Over Start Over Plan Track Maneuver Restart Next Restart Next Restart Next Test trajectory Restart Next Try again Do it for me Launch Restart Next Restart Next Restart Next Let s find out if you re on course Restart Correct course now Restart Plan your correction Restart Restart Next Simulation complete Send these instructions to your spacecraft Transmit to spacecraft The course correction will not reach the window Try simulation again Do it for me Up Right Down Left Use thrusters to reach the window Time to window 00 00 00 Watch the flyby footage Restart Navigating at Sea Challenges of Sea Navigation Navigating Without a Clock The Longitude Problem The

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-space/challenges/navigate-in-space-activity (2016-02-13)
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  • Satellite Navigation | Time and Navigation
    Multimedia Gallery Research Visit the Exhibition Search form Search Facebook Twitter Google Plus Pinterest YouTube Time and Navigation The untold story of getting from here to there Search form Search Navigating at Sea Navigating in the Air Navigating in Space Satellite Navigation Navigation for Everyone Timeline of Innovation Artifacts Learning Resources Multimedia Gallery Research Journal Visit the Exhibition Satellite Navigation During the Cold War the U S military sought more reliable global time and navigation systems The possibilities of traveling in space inspired plans to navigate from space Innovators tried different approaches to see whether radio transmissions from orbiting satellites could be used to determine positions on Earth They found that time from precise clocks on satellites transmitted by radio signals could in fact determine location The military combined several systems into one and created the Global Positioning System GPS Challenges of Satellite Navigation Reliable Global Navigation Global Positioning System GPS Who Uses Satellite Navigation Navigating at Sea Challenges of Sea Navigation Navigating Without a Clock The Longitude Problem The U S Goes to Sea Navigate at Sea Activity Navigating in the Air Challenges of Air Navigation Early Air Navigators Navigation at War Navigate the Skies Activity Navigating in Space

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/satellite-navigation (2016-02-13)
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  • Challenges of Satellite Navigation | Time and Navigation
    Satellite Navigation Navigation for Everyone Timeline of Innovation Artifacts Learning Resources Multimedia Gallery Research Journal Visit the Exhibition Satellite Navigation Challenges of Satellite Navigation Navigation Gone Wrong Soviets Shoot Down an Airliner Reliable Global Navigation Inertial Navigation Charles Stark Draper Developing Inertial Navigation The First Satellite Navigation System Transit Satellites Navigating a Submarine Improving Satellite Navigation Clocks in Space Evolving Solutions Global Positioning System GPS GPS Begins The Satellite Constellation Synchronized Accurate Time Risks to the System International Systems Who Uses Satellite Navigation Military Applications Civilian Applications The Commercial Market Improving Accuracy Looking Ahead Explore More Magellan 2000 XL 1996 How Stanley Sees A Screen for a Future Incident Commander Console SINS Typewriter Roy Bardole in His Tractor Challenges of Satellite Navigation Modern global navigation services use orbiting satellites to meet many demands AVAILABILITY Positioning information must be available all the time regardless of time of day weather conditions or other factors COVERAGE Services must be available anywhere in the world so satellites need to be visible anywhere on Earth and their orbits must be carefully tracked ACCURACY Precise positions need to be determined to identify tiny land features locate individual structures and allow vehicles ships and aircraft to avoid hazards USER EQUIPMENT Equipment used on Earth must be small and portable requiring satellites to operate precise time and data systems in the harsh environment of space USABILITY Positions must be determined quickly without requiring users to receive extensive training or perform multiple steps Navigation Gone Wrong Soviets Shoot Down an Airliner A Korean Air Lines jumbo jetliner strayed into Soviet airspace GPS Constellation GPS satellites are positioned in precise circular orbits 18 000 kilometers 11 000 miles above the Earth They orbit once every 12 hours Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Navigating at Sea Challenges of

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/satellite-navigation/challenges-of-satellite-navigation (2016-02-13)
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  • Reliable Global Navigation | Time and Navigation
    Reliable Global Navigation Inertial Navigation Charles Stark Draper Developing Inertial Navigation The First Satellite Navigation System Transit Satellites Navigating a Submarine Improving Satellite Navigation Clocks in Space Evolving Solutions Global Positioning System GPS GPS Begins The Satellite Constellation Synchronized Accurate Time Risks to the System International Systems Who Uses Satellite Navigation Military Applications Civilian Applications The Commercial Market Improving Accuracy Looking Ahead Explore More Commercial Chip Scale Atomic Clock CSAC Garmin GPS 45XL 1994 Nortronics NAS 14V2 Astroinertial Navigation System Blue Force Tracker System Juno Spacecraft Approaching Venus Reliable Global Navigation The Cold War created new navigational challenges In a potential worldwide conflict military response had to be immediate accurate under all conditions and reliable on any part of the globe High speed jet aircraft and ballistic missiles especially needed better mechanisms for navigation Ground based radio navigation techniques could be used but satellite based systems were developed to solve the problems of global navigation Inertial navigation systems were developed and improved to provide guidance between fixes provided by celestial or radio navigation systems USS Alabama The USS Alabama was outfitted with a SINS system for navigation Credit U S Navy General Dynamics Electric Boat Lockheed SR 71 Blackbird in Flight Advances in computing made celestial navigation practical for the Mach 3 SR 71 Credit U S Air Force photo by Tech Sgt Michael Haggerty SINS Stable Platform and Housing Assembly Information about the ship s position speed heading and attitude were constantly transmitted from the Ship s Inertial Navigation System SINS Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution previous pause resume next Inertial Navigation An Inertial Navigation System INS uses motion and rotation sensors along with a computer to figure out the position orientation and speed of movement The First Satellite Navigation System Beeping radio signals from Sputnik

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/satellite-navigation/reliable-global-navigation (2016-02-13)
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  • Global Positioning System (GPS) | Time and Navigation
    Clocks in Space Evolving Solutions Global Positioning System GPS GPS Begins The Satellite Constellation Synchronized Accurate Time Risks to the System International Systems Who Uses Satellite Navigation Military Applications Civilian Applications The Commercial Market Improving Accuracy Looking Ahead Explore More Intentional Jamming Model of Ship s Inertial Navigation SINS Stable Platform Global Transportation Links KAL Boeing 747 Shot Down in 1983 GPS Use during Mountain Climbing Global Positioning System GPS In 1973 the Defense Department combined its competing satellite navigation systems The new joint program under the Air Force was called the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System or GPS It introduced synchronized time from space provided by onboard atomic clocks The system was intended for a range of military applications including locating ships and targeting weapons GPS designers envisioned that civilians would use the system as well GPS Constellation GPS satellites are positioned in precise circular orbits 18 000 kilometers 11 000 miles above the Earth They orbit once every 12 hours Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution U S Naval Observatory Alternate Master Clock The U S Naval Observatory Alternate Master Clock at Schriever Air Force Base Credit U S Air Force System Maintenance The successful operation of a satellite navigation system requires around the clock monitoring of the satellites health and the periodic replacement of older satellites Credit U S Air Force How Does GPS Work From maintaining infrastructure transporting goods delivering services or just meeting friends people often use technology just as sophisticated as that used by pilots and soldiers How does it work Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution previous pause resume next GPS Begins Developing GPS components began in 1973 when the Joint Program Office was established under the Air Force The Satellite Constellation In 1974 Rockwell International now a division of

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/satellite-navigation/gps (2016-02-13)
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  • Who Uses Satellite Navigation | Time and Navigation
    Plus Pinterest YouTube Time and Navigation The untold story of getting from here to there Search form Search Navigating at Sea Navigating in the Air Navigating in Space Satellite Navigation Navigation for Everyone Timeline of Innovation Artifacts Learning Resources Multimedia Gallery Research Journal Visit the Exhibition Satellite Navigation Challenges of Satellite Navigation Navigation Gone Wrong Soviets Shoot Down an Airliner Reliable Global Navigation Inertial Navigation Charles Stark Draper Developing Inertial Navigation The First Satellite Navigation System Transit Satellites Navigating a Submarine Improving Satellite Navigation Clocks in Space Evolving Solutions Global Positioning System GPS GPS Begins The Satellite Constellation Synchronized Accurate Time Risks to the System International Systems Who Uses Satellite Navigation Military Applications Civilian Applications The Commercial Market Improving Accuracy Looking Ahead Explore More NIST 7 Cesium Frequency Standard PSN 8 Manpack GPS Receiver Technicians Building a GOES Satellite Engineer Working on a SECOR Satellite How Does the NIST 7 Atomic Clock Work Who Uses Satellite Navigation Global navigation systems like GPS and easy to use devices have revolutionized many aspects of life Innovations that integrate positioning technology communications and map data have led to a wealth of applications From maintaining infrastructure transporting goods delivering services or just meeting friends people often use technology just as sophisticated as that used by pilots and soldiers Almost anyone can be a navigator Military Applications Time and positioning go beyond navigation Civilian Applications Texas Instruments Rockwell Collins Magnavox and Interstate Electronics were the first to offer GPS receivers for civilian users GPS Use during Mountain Climbing Jim Whittaker uses a Magellan GPS receiver on Mt Rainier Credit Dianne Roberts Navigating at Sea Challenges of Sea Navigation Navigating Without a Clock The Longitude Problem The U S Goes to Sea Navigate at Sea Activity Navigating in the Air Challenges of Air Navigation Early Air

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/satellite-navigation/who-uses-satellite-navigation (2016-02-13)
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  • Navigation for Everyone | Time and Navigation
    Pinterest YouTube Time and Navigation The untold story of getting from here to there Search form Search Navigating at Sea Navigating in the Air Navigating in Space Satellite Navigation Navigation for Everyone Timeline of Innovation Artifacts Learning Resources Multimedia Gallery Research Journal Visit the Exhibition Navigation for Everyone Global time and navigation services are revolutionizing daily life Innovators have combined precise navigation positioning and timing information with digital maps and other data to form essential utilities all over the worlds These new applications are changing the definitions of navigation and raising new questions How is navigation technology changing your life A Global View depiction of global transportation routes Aircraft tracks in yellow and ships at sea in blue Meet a Professional Navigator What Do You Think Take the Poll Personal Navigation Stories Latest Story May 2 2015 Modern Stone Age I am a Flight Instructor and university professor I love to teach people to fly and the best part is teaching them to navigate Read Full Story Navigating at Sea Challenges of Sea Navigation Navigating Without a Clock The Longitude Problem The U S Goes to Sea Navigate at Sea Activity Navigating in the Air Challenges of Air Navigation Early

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigation-for-everyone (2016-02-13)
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  • Time and Navigation
    the Rocks of Scilly October 22 1707 artist unknown 18th century Credit National Maritime Museum Greenwich UK 1707 Wreck of the Association While returning from Gibraltar in 1707 a squadron of British Royal Navy ships went badly astray off the coast of England with disastrous results The tragedy the worst maritime disaster in British history to that time provoked demands for safer navigation Parliament passed the Longitude Act of 1714 which created a panel of experts to oversee rewards for solving the problem of finding longitude at sea Learn More 1754 1754 French and Indian War Seven Years War 1801 1826 1851 1876 1837 1837 Line of Position Graphic representing Thomas Sumner s line of position technique Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution 1837 Line of Position While nearing land on his way to Scotland in 1837 Captain Thomas Sumner of Boston had an insight that ultimately changed the practice of celestial navigation With only one sighting on the Sun Sumner made three different calculations based on estimates of his latitude Plotted on a chart the results lay along a straight line He realized that any ship seeing the Sun at the same altitude in the sky must be located somewhere on that line This was confirmed by sailing along that course until a lighthouse was sighted on the coast Sumner published his method for determining what was later called a line of position in 1843 Learn More 1838 1838 VOYAGE The U S Exploring Expedition Charles Wilkes Credit National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1838 VOYAGE The U S Exploring Expedition In 1838 six U S Navy vessels set out on a great voyage of exploration Aboard were several hundred seamen and scientists under the command of Lieutenant Charles Wilkes Authorized by Congress the U S Exploring Expedition also known as the Wilkes Expedition would explore and map the Pacific Antarctica and the northwest coast of the United States A tremendous feat of navigation the expedition broadened knowledge of uncharted areas of the world and helped expand American commerce industry and scientific knowledge Learn More 1883 1883 Standard Time Cover Travelers Official Guide December 1883 Credit National Museum of American History Smithsonian Institution 1883 Standard Time On November 18 1883 Standard Railway Time went into effect in North America Most United States and Canadian railroads replaced nearly fifty local times with five zones Intercolonial Eastern Central Mountain and Pacific each of which had a uniform time within its boundaries The zones were calculated on meridians 15 degrees apart counted from Greenwich as the prime meridian 0 degrees longitude Although pockets of resistance to railroad standard time persisted into the twentieth century most large cities in North America immediately adopted it The Standard Time Act of 1918 made the system federal law 1884 1884 Prime Meridian Attendees of the International Meridian Conference in Washington D C 1884 Credit National Archives and Records Administration 1884 Prime Meridian In October 1884 diplomats and technical specialists gathered in Washington D C to consider establishing a single internationally recognized prime meridian The International Meridian Conference recommended that the nations of the world establish a prime meridian at Greenwich England count longitude east and west from the prime meridian up to 180 degrees in each direction and adopt a universal day beginning at Greenwich at midnight there The conference suggestions resulted in the gradual worldwide adoption of a time zone based system counted from Greenwich at zero degrees longitude Learn More 1861 1861 U S Civil War 1901 1911 1921 1926 1926 Radio Range A nationwide system of directional radio beams to provide guidance for commercial aircraft Credit National Archives and Records Administration 1926 Radio Range The U S National Bureau of Standards undertook the creation of a nationwide system of directional radio beams called the Radio Range to provide guidance for commercial aircraft This system remained in use in the United States until the early 1970s Learn More 1907 1907 Radio Direction Finding Stations Ettore Bellini and Alessandro Tosi in Italy developed the first practical direction finding system Credit National Archives and Records Administration 1907 Radio Direction Finding Stations Ettore Bellini and Alessandro Tosi in Italy developed the first practical direction finding system Direction finding was used operationally in World War I By the early 1920s a series of stations in Europe and North America were providing guidance to ships and aircraft 1913 1913 Radio NAA broadcast time by radio Towers for U S Navy radio station NAA Arlington Virginia Credit D C Public Library 1913 Radio NAA broadcast time by radio The U S Navy established a radio station NAA in Arlington Virginia and broadcasted time signals Longitude between the U S Naval Observatory and the Paris Observatory was established through the repeated exchange of radio siganls from the NAA towers in Arlington and the Eiffel Tower in Paris in 1913 14 1927 1927 Quartz Clock First quartz clock built Credit AT T Archives and History Center 1927 Quartz Clock Canadian born telecommunications engineer Warren Marrison and his supervisor J W Horton constructed the first quartz clock at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York in 1927 The clock emerged from research into reliable ways to measure and control the frequencies for transmitting telephone messages Marrison and Horton devised an instrument based on the regular vibrations of a quartz crystal in an electrical circuit and a method to convert high frequency quartz vibrations 50 000 times a second to one second pulses to run a clock dial Learn More 1903 1903 Wright brothers flight 1914 1914 World War I 1931 1941 1951 1950 1950 Inertial Navigation Navigating with no reference to the outside world Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution 1950 Inertial Navigation Inertial navigation uses a combination of accelerometers gyroscopes a clock and a comptuer to navigate without any reference to the outside world Military systems use it because it cannot be jammed and commercial aircraft use it when out of range of ground based radar Learn More 1960 1960

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/timeline2 (2016-02-13)
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