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  • Artifacts | Time and Navigation
    E 6B Float Light GEE Giovilabio GOES GPS Inertial Navigation Lindbergh Hour Angle Watch Line of Position Longitude LORAN Maps Mechanical Mike Mechanical solutions Navigational Radar Octant Pendulum Clock Periscopic Sextant Plotting Pre Comp Navigation Quartz Clock Quartz Oscillator Quartz Resonator Radio Compass Radio Range Radio Time Signals Radius of Action book Satellite Sea Chronometer Sea Clock SECOR Sextant SINS Star Altitude Curves Tables Timation Transit VOR Windscreen ZB 1 Radio Homing Adapter Navigation Methods Any Celestial Navigation Dead Reckoning Inertial Navigation Radio Navigation Satellite Navigation Navigators Inventors Any Bert Acosta John Arnold Lloyd Bertaud Ferdinand Berthoud Charles Blair William Cranch Bond Nathaniel Bowditch Emory B Bronte L C Bygrave Richard Byrd Jorge de Castilho François Coli Douglas Corrigan Dieudonné Costes Eleanor Creesy Harry H Crosby Philip Dalton William Davis Jr Charles Stark Draper Amelia Earhart Thomas Earnshaw Lincoln Ellsworth Galileo Galilei Harold Gatty Art Goebel George Haldeman Leslie Hamilton John Harrison Albert F Hegenberger Christiaan Huygens Amy Johnson Lisette Kapri Vilas Knope Curtis LeMay Charles Levine Anne Morrow Lindbergh Charles Lindbergh Ed Link Alfred Lee Loomis James A Lovell Jr James V Medcalf Henry Dick Merrill Thomas Mudge Jet Propulsion Laboratory Navigators Fred Noonan Wiley Post Carlo del Prete Max Pruss Jesse Ramsden Peter Redpath Pierre Le Roy Edward Schlee Gordon Scott Thomas Sumner Patrick Gordon Bill Taylor Thomas Thurlow Mary Tornich WAVES Philip Van Horn Weems Charles Wilkes Charles Zweng Artifacts Displaying 1 5 of 147 A 10A Sextant Artifact This compact averaging sextant was widely used in the U S Army Air Forces in World War II Learn More Air Position Indicator Artifact This electo mechanical system computed positions based on a series of dead reckoning inputs Learn More AN 5740 Master Navigation Chronometer Artifact One of the most common navigation watches produced with many used by

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/artifacts/search (2016-02-13)
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  • Time and Navigation
    New resources will be added and we invite your feedback at timenavcomments si edu Grade Level Any Grades 3 5 Grades 6 8 Grades 9 12 Pre K 2 Standard Any History and Social Studies Math Science and Technical Subjects Type Any Gallery Guides Lessons and Activities Primary Sources Reference Materials Harry Crosby Scrapbook Primary sources gathered by museum curators and displayed in the form of a World War II notebook Air Navigation during World War II This PowerPoint is a curated tour of the top World War II objects in the Time and Navigation exhibition How a World at War Changed the Tools of Air Navigation This PowerPoint includes pre war and wartime navigation tools labels will discuss compare and contrast Navigating in Space by the Stars During the early days of space flight engineers planned with the navigation techniques they knew They taught astronauts to take star sightings and determine their position using celestial navigation just as sailors and pilots did Scientists of the United States Exploring Expedition From 1838 1842 the crew United States Exploring Expedition had a number of scientists on board to study and document their discoveries This Power Point introduces you to a few of the scientists who participated in the expedition Themes ALL Themes World War II Advances Air Navigation To the Moon Navigation and American Exploration in the 19th Century Time and Navigation Online Conference Want to know more Join our experts to learn more about Time and Navigation Research Journal Postings February 25 2014 Twenty Years of GPS and Instrument Flight On February 16 1994 a significant milestone in American aviation occurred when the Federal Aviation Administration Read More December 13 2013 Meet Sydney Meet Sydney The newest addition to the Time and Navigation gallery is a life size bronze statue

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/learning-resources/downloads (2016-02-13)
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  • World War II Advances Air Navigation | Time and Navigation
    War II drove the United States to develop new navigational technologies Pre war navigational techniques were not suited for use in all weather military operations or by the tens of thousands of inexperienced young navigators entering military service Many of the tools and technologies developed then are still in use today In particular one technology became essential during the war and beyond LORAN LORAN LOng RANge Navigation is system of radio navigation based on measuring the time delay between sets of radio signals The big advantage of this system over celestial navigation is that it was more accurate during the day and worked at night even when the sky was cloudy Downloadable Resources Harry Crosby Scrapbook Primary sources gathered by museum curators and displayed in the form of a World War II notebook Air Navigation during World War II This PowerPoint is a curated tour of the top World War II objects in the Time and Navigation exhibition How a World at War Changed the Tools of Air Navigation This PowerPoint includes pre war and wartime navigation tools labels will discuss compare and contrast Related Artifacts Multimedia Assets E 6B Dead Reckoning Computer Artifact The E 6B remains the most successful flight computer ever made Learn More Western Electric AN APS 2E Radar Plan Position Indicator Artifact This Navy radar scope would have been used on long range patrol aircraft for navigation and target location late in World War II and during the early Cold War Learn More Dividers and Compass Artifact These tools were critical for quickly accessing distances and plotting courses Learn More AAF Special Air Navigation Chart S 145 Stephenville to Reykjavik 1946 Scale 1 3 000 000 Map A wartime chart of a commonly used ferry route Learn More Pages 1 2 3 4 next last

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/theme/world-war-ii-advances-air-navigation (2016-02-13)
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  • To the Moon! | Time and Navigation
    determine spacecraft locations in space The early missions missed their target because precision paths were difficult to achieve The first U S spacecraft to escape Earth s gravity and get near the Moon was Pioneer 4 It worked with the new tracking antennae at Goldstone California which was the first of several antennas that make up the Deep Space Network In the early 1960s Ranger spacecraft were designed to land on the surface of the Moon After some initial failures Rangers 7 8 and 9 impacted the lunar surface In 1968 humans orbited the Moon To accomplish this engineers had to think about navigating in a different environment space Downloadable Resources Navigating in Space by the Stars During the early days of space flight engineers planned with the navigation techniques they knew They taught astronauts to take star sightings and determine their position using celestial navigation just as sailors and pilots did Related Artifacts Multimedia Assets Pioneer 4 Artifact Unflown duplicate of Pioneer 4 an early satellite designed for lunar exploration Learn More Pioneer 4 Inspection Photograph Wernher von Braun John Casani and James Van Allen inspect the Pioneer 4 satellite Learn More 26 Meter Antenna at Goldstone Photograph First tested by Pioneer 4 this 26 meter antenna would later become part of the Deep Space Network Learn More Ranger 1 Satellite 1 24 Scale Model Artifact NASA planned to place the Ranger 1 satellite into an elliptical orbit around Earth but it never reaching its intended orbit Learn More Pages 1 2 next last Themes ALL Themes World War II Advances Air Navigation To the Moon Navigation and American Exploration in the 19th Century View Downloadable Resources Time and Navigation Online Conference Want to know more Join our experts to learn more about Time and Navigation Research Journal Postings

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/theme/to-the-moon (2016-02-13)
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  • Navigation and American Exploration in the 19th Century | Time and Navigation
    prospectors to the California gold fields and they explored uncharted oceans One notable voyage was in 1838 the U S Exploring Expedition also known as the Wilkes Expedition Aboard six U S Navy vessels were several hundred sailors and scientists under the command of Lieutenant Charles Wilkes Authorized by Congress this expedition explored and mapped the Pacific Antarctica and the northwest coast of the United States A tremendous feat of navigation the expedition broadened knowledge of unchartered areas of the world and helped expand American commerce industry and scientific knowledge It cemented the nation s status as a new world economic leader Downloadable Resources Scientists of the United States Exploring Expedition From 1838 1842 the crew United States Exploring Expedition had a number of scientists on board to study and document their discoveries This Power Point introduces you to a few of the scientists who participated in the expedition Related Artifacts Multimedia Assets Ship Model of USS Porpoise Artifact One of six ships of the U S Exploring Expedition the Porpoise sailed around the world between 1838 and 1842 Learn More Map of the Oregon Territory Map Map produced by the U S Exploring Expedition Learn More Charles Wilkes Photograph Captain Charles Wilkes led the U S Exploring Expedition which sailed around the world between 1838 and 1842 Learn More Playing on the ice sketch by Charles Wilkes Illustration A sketch by Charles Wilkes during the U S Exploring Expedition Learn More Pages 1 2 3 4 next last Themes ALL Themes World War II Advances Air Navigation To the Moon Navigation and American Exploration in the 19th Century View Downloadable Resources Time and Navigation Online Conference Want to know more Join our experts to learn more about Time and Navigation Research Journal Postings February 25 2014 Twenty Years of

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/theme/navigation-and-american-exploration-in-the-19th-century (2016-02-13)
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  • Twenty Years of GPS and Instrument Flight | Time and Navigation
    no longer separated from civilization by extended periods of poor weather Business aircraft can reach many smaller airfields that were previously off limits in low visibility conditions Aviators also have access to a higher level of GPS performance than the typical dashboard GPS installation made possible through WAAS Wide Area Augmentation System Most importantly GPS is allowing greatly improved safety and efficiency in all aspects of air travel Pilots are not simply receiving better navigational guidance Under the old system of ground based radio beacons and radar surveillance navigation and air traffic control services varied widely by region Air traffic was routed over networks of airways that meandered from one beacon or electronic fix to another Air traffic control depended on radar to see the aircraft but radar coverage has had many gaps and limitations GPS is now allowing the untangling of this network of airway bottlenecks and filling in the gaps of radar coverage with a consistently accurate and precise capability Not only do pilots and controllers now have better positioning GPS also makes it much easier to share this data The mechanism for sharing is something known as ADS B Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast This bewildering acronym of a system is a transponder that can relay and in many cases receive positioning and other critical flight data With the old infrastructure known as the Common System data about aircraft movements was largely restricted to the individual controllers in communication with an aircraft Pilots had to rely on the controllers for information about other air traffic This inability to share information broadly could and did compromise safety in certain situations Today pilots controllers and virtually anyone else who wants to know are far better informed If you want to see how this plays out in real time a number of third party vendors provide apps and other interfaces to see ADS B data around the world A decade ago it was science fiction to imagine that anyone could see exactly what a specific airliner was doing almost at that instant on the other side of the world see it for yourself here The Federal Aviation Administration calls the transition from ground based to satellite based navigation and control services NextGen Other benefits arising from the revolution launched by the Garmin GPS 155 include lower environmental impacts improved traffic flow at busy airports and accommodation of weather diversions in dense air traffic environments Also the current demand for integration of unmanned aircraft into the national airspace systems is only technically possible with the flexibility of a system like NextGen One area where the advantages of GPS might not be obvious is the use of something called RNP Required Navigation Performance This opaque acronym describes the ability to fly flight paths that are far more precise which in turn allows much more efficient approach procedures into busy airports reducing time in the air and air traffic delays In simple terms instrument approach paths previously required turns and other maneuvers guided by

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/research/twenty-years-of-gps-and-instrument-flight (2016-02-13)
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  • Meet Sydney! | Time and Navigation
    a small iceberg near the coast of Antarctica Wilkes himself is the figure at the lower left Later in the expedition Sydney would experience the opposite to this frigid surface While accompanying his shipmates on an exploration of Hawaii s Kilauea volcano he scorched his paws on hot lava Although references to Sydney are meager we ve learned some basics especially about the way he looked Wilkes noted his dog s extraordinary size and strength and sketched him as a big dog Charles Erskine one of the expedition s 200 seamen described Sydney as a beautiful large Newfoundland Newfoundlands are commonly all black but we can see in the Wilkes sketch that the dog is predominantly white with dark markings Sydney likely had a variation of the breed s coloring today called Landseer after the 19th century painter who frequently depicted mostly white Newfoundlands in his works From Erskine s description of a practical joke we also know Sydney was so big that three men could simultaneously rest their heads on him One very warm and pleasant night in the mid watch seeing three of our quarter growlers old sailors taking a siesta on deck and enjoying our big dog Sydney as a pillow I hunted up a bone and place it about a foot from the dog s nose As soon as Sydney got a smell of the bone he suddenly sprang up and the sleepers heads came down on deck with a thump Such a growling Why they were like three old bears with sore heads We also learned Sydney played an important role on the expedition to protect the leader Charles Wilkes My dog Sydney was of especial service in watching over me Wilkes wrote He firmly believed that in repeated encounters with unfriendly Pacific islanders he owed Sydney his life For landing parties Wilkes described how Sydney was always in the bow of his boat first on shore and first to sound the alarm for hidden dangers with a peculiar angry growl Sydney continued to keep watch as Wilkes did his observations for the island surveys never leaving his side for hours at a time He was Wilkes concluded the most intelligent and faithful dog I ever knew From Charles Erskine we know too that Sydney was still with the expedition in 1841 when the squadron celebrated the 4th of July with an all hands parade at Fort Nisqually near today s Tacoma Washington Wilkes was at the head of the parade and Sydney trooped happily along farther back with Vendovi a member of Fiji Island royalty held captive by the expedition But after that we lose the big dog s trail It s a treat to see him reappear in Time and Navigation See details on how our colleagues at the Smithsonian s Office of Exhibits Central made the bronze statue of Sydney For further reading on Sydney see Charles Erskine Twenty Years Before the Mast With the More Thrilling Scenes and Incidents While Circumnavigating

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/research/meet-sydney (2016-02-13)
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  • Finding History on eBay | Time and Navigation
    The target designated on the map was an industrial town in eastern Germany Ruhland The oil refineries there were a frequent target for the B 17s of the Eighth and Fifteenth Air Forces After researching the movement of the frontlines in the two months after the Battle of the Bulge relative to the inked on flak defenses and knowing the dates of missions to Ruhland I could pinpoint the map to a particular bombing raid one that had enormous significance beyond its place in history as a military operation The Eighth Air Forces Mission 832 on February 15 1945 was to strike the refineries at Ruhland Böhlen and Madgeburg with 1 131 heavy bombers The oil plants did not stand out enough on the H2X radar used by the B 17 pathfinders so when the bombers on the Ruhland and Bohlen target runs found their aim points obscured by clouds they diverted to their secondary radar target of opportunity the railroad marshaling yards of Dresden Bomber crews knew that with the limited accuracy of bombing under radar only 50 of bombs would land within a mile of the target aiming at an urban rail yard on radar meant simply targeting the city itself Generally up to this time American commanders had avoided listing cities as targets in their own right and instead focused on picking specific military or industrial targets as aim points In reality the inaccuracy of radar as well as visual bombing was such that striking targets in or adjacent to cities was operationally no different than the heavy bombing raids of the British Royal Air Force RAF whose night missions focused principally urban areas RAF leadership was more willing to target cities as part of a strategic doctrine of undermining enemy morale but the operational reality was that cities were the only target that could be reliably struck at night when bombers were less vulnerable to fighters and flak Dresden was no different than dozens of other German cities in terms of being targeted in this manner However Dresden stands out in history as being a particularly devastating example of area bombing not because it was fire bombed with incendiaries or because of the tonnage of bombs dropped or even because of Kurt Vonnegut s visceral accounts of the effects in his Slaughterhouse Five Rather because of the reliance on radar bombing and poor weather on February 15th an unusually high number of bombers diverted to Dresden creating a nearly continuous chain of British and American bombing raids on the city over thirty six hours in duration In most other German cities that had been bombed raids lasted several hours at most Even when firestorms occurred there was often some respite to fight fires flee or dig out from the rubble Dresden was already suffering under an unusual confluence of intensive RAF raids on the nights of February 13th and 14th and American Army Air Forces raids during the day on the 14th When the redirected raids

    Original URL path: http://timeandnavigation.si.edu/research/finding-history-on-ebay (2016-02-13)
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