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  • The U.S. Goes to Sea | Time and Navigation
    of Innovation Artifacts Learning Resources Multimedia Gallery Research Journal Visit the Exhibition Navigating at Sea Challenges of Sea Navigation Navigation Gone Wrong A British Fleet is Lost at Sea Navigate at Sea Activity Navigating Without a Clock Early Voyages Dead Reckoning Celestial Navigation The Longitude Problem Cash for Creativity Early Sea Clock Experiments Innovations in England Innovations in France The Chronometer Observing the Skies Navigation Gone Wrong Wreck of the Arniston The U S Goes to Sea Early Contributions Meet the Clockmaker William Cranch Bond Meet the Navigator Eleanor Creesy Wilkes Expedition Meet the Mapmaker Charles Wilkes Maps and Charts The Scientifics Navigate at Sea Activity Explore More Galileo Galilei What Makes a Sea Chronometer So Precise Ferdinand Berthoud s marine clock No 24 1782 Gekkos Bronze Replica of Sydney the Dog The U S Goes to Sea Oceans and waterways shaped the country from the very beginning As a young nation the United States was eager to join the world s maritime powers Its commercial reach spread around the globe in the 19th century and American ships sailed every ocean They carried immigrants to new homes exotic goods from Asia and prospectors to the California gold fields American seaports flourished Shipping grew faster safer and more reliable Early Contributions America s earliest contributions to navigation aimed to lessen the dangers of seafaring Wilkes Expedition The United States dispatched an ambitious mission to uncharted oceans The New American Practical Navigator A useful handbook of astronomical tables meteorological information and navigational instructions Credit Smithsonian Institution Libraries The Arrival of the Collins Line Steamer Atlantic in May 1850 Painting by Louis Gamain Credit National Museum of American History Smithsonian Institution Dial for Marine Timekeeper made by William Cranch Bond 1812 1815 Credit Smithsonian Institution Libraries previous pause resume next Navigating at Sea

    Original URL path: https://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-at-sea/us-goes-to-sea (2016-02-13)
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  • Navigate at Sea! Activity | Time and Navigation
    Arniston The U S Goes to Sea Early Contributions Meet the Clockmaker William Cranch Bond Meet the Navigator Eleanor Creesy Wilkes Expedition Meet the Mapmaker Charles Wilkes Maps and Charts The Scientifics Navigate at Sea Activity Navigate at Sea Activity Navigators have long used reliable clocks and the stars to find their position at sea Come aboard and try your hand at celestial navigation A star s position in the sky changes depending on the time and your location Star Horizon Earlier Later 3 30 3 45 4 00 4 15 4 30 4 45 5 00 5 15 5 30 5 45 6 00 You can use a sextant to measure a star s position above the horizon Adjust the sextant until you see the star line up with the horizon Star Horizon Change Angle 0 degrees 10 degrees 15 degrees 20 degrees 25 degrees 30 degrees 35 degrees 40 degrees 45 degrees 50 degrees There are other places on Earth where the star would be at the same angle at the same time Using a mathematical table we can calculate where all these possible positions would be They would form a circle on the Earth When we look closely this forms a line called a Line of Position Your ship is somewhere on this line To find where you are you need to measure a second star and find where these two lines of position intersect I m up for the challenge No thanks Do it for me First let s sight the star Which measurement best suits the angle between the horizon and the bright star Select the correct angle The star is 15 degrees above the horizon Star Horizon Increase Angle 0 degrees 5 degrees 15 degrees 25 degrees 5 15 25 Now observe the chronometer

    Original URL path: https://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-at-sea/challenges/navigate-the-sea-activity (2016-02-13)
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  • Navigating in the Air | Time and Navigation
    Learning Resources Multimedia Gallery Research Visit the Exhibition Search form Search Facebook Twitter Google Plus Pinterest YouTube Time and Navigation The untold story of getting from here to there Search form Search Navigating at Sea Navigating in the Air Navigating in Space Satellite Navigation Navigation for Everyone Timeline of Innovation Artifacts Learning Resources Multimedia Gallery Research Journal Visit the Exhibition Navigating in the Air Aviators needed faster more accurate and more reliable navigation than sailors The introduction of air travel brought new challenges for navigators Finding position in the air was more difficult than at sea and becoming lost often meant death Innovators worked to adapt nautical tools and techniques for aerial use and to make them easier to use World War II spurred great advances in air navigation to meet the urgent needs of nations at war Challenges of Air Navigation Early Air Navigators Navigation at War Navigate the Skies Activity Navigating at Sea Challenges of Sea Navigation Navigating Without a Clock The Longitude Problem The U S Goes to Sea Navigate at Sea Activity Navigating in the Air Challenges of Air Navigation Early Air Navigators Navigation at War Navigate the Skies Activity Navigating in Space Challenges of Space

    Original URL path: https://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air (2016-02-13)
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  • Challenges of Air Navigation | Time and Navigation
    in Time and Navigation Hyperbolic Systems LORAN Meet the Clockmaker Alfred Loomis Navigate the Skies Activity Did You Know Early aviators helmets masks and goggles hint at the discomfort that made it so challenging to perform aerial celestial navigation See what they were wearing Learn More Explore More The Tingmissartoq Sets Out Run Time 0 33 João Ribeiro de Barros Brazil Weems Mark II Plotter Harry H Crosby s Navigation School Certificate Army Air Corps Waltham A 6 Master Navigation Aerochronometers Challenges of Air Navigation The hazards of aviation created a demand for specialized navigation and timing technology Early aviators on long flights sometimes faced great danger because they could not figure out exactly where they were Fixing position over water in the dark or in poor weather was difficult The consequences of getting lost could be dire The celestial navigation tools sailors used at sea didn t work as well in the air Aviators needed new equipment and techniques Why was navigating in the air more difficult than navigating at sea Speed Airplanes moved many times faster than ships so air navigators had to work faster to fix their position Even minor miscalculations could result in much greater errors Instability The natural roll of the airplane and air turbulence made taking accurate sightings and readings challenging Weather Haze obscured the horizon line needed for sextant sightings Clouds could keep navigators from sighting the Sun and stars or determining wind drift Cockpit Environment Cramped open cockpits low temperatures and wind speeds over 160 kilometers 100 miles per hour made air navigation unpleasant Heavy gloves or frozen fingers made sighting with a sextant determining drift and making calculations nearly impossible Flying Boats Cross the Seas Flying boats spearheaded aerial exploration and overseas transport in the 1920s and 30s Overcoming the Challenges

    Original URL path: https://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/challenges (2016-02-13)
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  • Early Air Navigators | Time and Navigation
    N A C I COMSOPAC No 8K 1943 The Atlantic Flown Again Run Time 2 10 Kingsford Smith Luck Holds Run Time 1 40 Early Air Navigators 1927 was a year of unprecedented attempts to establish new records for long distance flight It was exciting but dangerous Many people tried and many died Most often remembered as the year Charles Lindbergh flew alone across the Atlantic 1927 also witnessed other record flights that presented far greater challenges But the limitations of navigation technology often proved deadly Even the relatively simple navigational task of crossing the North Atlantic claimed many lives These disasters marked a turning point in navigational systems Engineers greatly improved aircraft performance between the world wars but they gave little thought to the challenges of navigation A handful of dedicated inventors worked hard to overcome this problem From 1928 to 1931 a new system of navigation emerged that made long distance flights safe and reliable The long range military and commercial operations it made possible would help usher in a new age of economic and military opportunity and uncertainty John Pedlar Vilas Knope and Mildred Doran John A Pedlar and Mildred Doran posing with M R Lawing Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution William Brock and Edward Schlee William S Billy Brock and Edward F Schlee Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Clarence Chamberlin and Charles Levine Charles Levine and Clarence D Chamberlin in front of their Bellanca WB 2 Miss Columbia Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Albert F Hegenberger and Lester J Maitland Lt Albert F Hegenberger and Lt Lester J Maitland Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Ernest Smith and Emory Bronte Ernest L Smith and navigator Emory B Bronte of the first civilian flight from the

    Original URL path: https://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/early-air-navigators (2016-02-13)
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  • Navigation at War | Time and Navigation
    France Lisette Kapri Army Air Corps Waltham A 6 Master Navigation Aerochronometers Albert F Hegenberger United States B 3 Drift Meter Navigation at War World War II drove the United States to develop new navigational technologies on an unprecedented scale Celestial navigation was not well suited for use in all weather military operations or by the tens of thousands of inexperienced young navigators entering military service To remedy this Great Britain and the United States created complex radio navigation systems that used advances in timing technologies and electronic computing These systems revolutionized navigation Link A 12 Sextant The Link A 12 Sextant represented a new generation of averaging sextants Credit National Museum of American History Smithsonian Institution AAF Special Air Navigation Chart S 145 Stephenville to Reykjavik 1946 Scale 1 3 000 000 A wartime chart of a commonly used ferry route Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution AN 5740 Master Navigation Chronometer One of the most common navigation watches produced with many used by the U S military well into the Cold War era Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Harry H Crosby as 100th Bomb Group Navigator After the harrowing losses of 1943 Crosby and his fellow crew members found less opposition in 1944 and 1945 However navigational challenges increased as missions moved deeper into central Europe Credit Rebecca Crosby Hutchinson Harry H Crosby s Wrecked B 17 Just a Snappin Ill On October 8 1943 the 100th Bomb Group targeted the heavily defended German industrial city of Bremen The amazing tale of survival of Crosby and his crew drew media attention Credit Rebecca Crosby Hutchinson B 3 Drift Meter A standard military drift sight through the World War II and early Cold War eras Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution Chart

    Original URL path: https://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/navigation-at-war (2016-02-13)
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  • Navigate the Skies! Activity | Time and Navigation
    Top Right Bottom Left Top A Top B Bottom A Bottom B Campbell Bennett Aperiodic Compass Sun Compass Gyro Magnetic Compass Ground Speed and Drift Meter Time Speed Distance Computer Wind Correction Computer Bubble Sextant Star Altitude Curves H O 214 Hour Angle Altitude Azimuth Tables Line of Position Table Star Finder Fairchild Kruesi Radio Compass Bendix Gyro FluxGate Compass Air Position Indicator Mark II Astrocompass B 3 Drift Sight Mark IV Float Lights E 6B Dead Reckoning Computer Model 3 B Protractor Mark V Averaging Bubble Sextant Astrodome AN 5740 Navigation Chronometer Air Almanac AN APN 4 LORAN SCR 717 ASV Radar Radio Compass Earth Indicator Compass Drift Angle Meter Drift Computer Float Smoke Flares x12 Chart Board Parallel Ruler Bubble Sextant Bygrave Slide Rule Hydrographic Office Tables Torpedo Boat Watch SE 1385 Radio Set Nortronics NAS 14V2 Astro Inertial Navigation System Nortronics NAS 14V2 Astro Intertial Navigation System AR ARN 118 V TACAN AN ARA 48 Automatic Direction Finder Start Over Departing San Francisco Now using radio navigation There s the first signal ship The signal s fading Using celestial navigation We have a clear view of the stars We re on course Looks like clouds ahead Using dead reckoning It s not very accurate but it s the best we have It looks like the clouds are breaking up Select the best type of navigation You can switch it as conditions change Is there anything more accurate Choose another type of navigation now Good choice We re losing the radio signal Correct Celestial navigation is the best choice Yes Dead reckoning is a good choice with these clouds ahead Yes Dead reckoning is our only option right now There s land ahead It s Hawaii Coming in for a water landing You are going in the wrong

    Original URL path: https://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/challenges/navigate-the-skies-activity (2016-02-13)
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  • Navigating in Space | Time and Navigation
    Innovation Artifacts Learning Resources Multimedia Gallery Research Visit the Exhibition Search form Search Facebook Twitter Google Plus Pinterest YouTube Time and Navigation The untold story of getting from here to there Search form Search Navigating at Sea Navigating in the Air Navigating in Space Satellite Navigation Navigation for Everyone Timeline of Innovation Artifacts Learning Resources Multimedia Gallery Research Journal Visit the Exhibition Navigating in Space To journey across the vast expanses of space navigators drew on age old methods and invented new ones Space navigators drew upon techniques used on the sea and in the air They also had to invent a new science of space navigation using star sightings precise timing and radio communications The great distances spacecraft had to travel called for even greater precision in timing and positioning than ever before Challenges of Space Navigation Reaching for the Moon Navigating in Deep Space Navigate in Space Activity Navigating at Sea Challenges of Sea Navigation Navigating Without a Clock The Longitude Problem The U S Goes to Sea Navigate at Sea Activity Navigating in the Air Challenges of Air Navigation Early Air Navigators Navigation at War Navigate the Skies Activity Navigating in Space Challenges of Space Navigation Reaching

    Original URL path: https://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-space (2016-02-13)
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