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  • Reaching for the Moon | Time and Navigation
    Learning Resources Multimedia Gallery Research Journal Visit the Exhibition Navigating in Space Challenges of Space Navigation Navigation Gone Wrong Mariner 1 Navigate in Space Activity Reaching for the Moon First Attempts Hitting the Moon Human Steps Meet the Navigator James A Lovell Jr Navigating in Deep Space Gravity Assist Radio Network Visiting Other Worlds Meet the Navigator Jet Propulsion Laboratory Navigate in Space Activity Did You Know Today you could purchase a 10 calculator with as much computing power as the Apollo Guidance and Navigation System had Explore More Earthrise The Moon from Ranger 9 Apollo Sextant and Eye Piece Atomic Clock for Goldstone Equipment Mariner 10 Spacecraft Reaching for the Moon The United States and the Soviet Union each tried to reach the Moon with robotic spacecraft in the early 1960s They sent spacecraft to orbit the Moon pass nearby or crash land on the surface After some initial failures advances in navigation and propulsion technology eventually led to success With the Pioneer probes the United States tried to send small spacecraft to the vicinity of the Moon The later Ranger probes succeeded in crashing onto the lunar surface The Pioneer and Ranger programs led to successes with later robotic programs and eventually human landings on the Moon Video of Assignment Shoot the Moon Episode 5 Assignment Shoot the Moon Episode 5 Length 25 Minutes 15 Seconds Credit U S National Archives and Records Administration First Attempts The Pioneer program was a series of missions to send small spacecraft to the vicinity of the Moon Hitting the Moon Ranger spacecraft were designed to impact the surface of the Moon Launches began in 1961 Human Steps In December 1968 Apollo 8 left Earth orbit and traveled a vast distance to a precise orbit around the Moon Navigating at Sea Challenges

    Original URL path: https://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-space/reaching-for-the-moon (2016-02-13)
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  • Navigating in Deep Space | Time and Navigation
    the Navigators Jet Propulsion Laboratory Atomic Clock for Goldstone Equipment Mariner 2 Navigation in Space Navigating in Deep Space Timing is crucial for communicating with a spacecraft traveling across the solar system Such a spacecraft navigates using precisely timed radio signals sent back and forth to Earth Navigators on Earth track its location and speed and transmit course adjustments These techniques allow navigators to guide a probe to a planetary rendezvous or a pinpoint landing Navigating a spacecraft to distant locations in the solar system requires a team of scientists and engineers using sophisticated radios large antennas computers and precise timing equipment Before and during a mission the team carefully plots the spacecraft s course and maps the locations of planets and moons whose gravitational forces will affect its trajectory Using the large dish antennas of the Deep Space Network they locate the spacecraft by sending precisely timed signals to it and measuring the time it takes for the signals to be received and retransmitted back to Earth If the spacecraft is not on course they send signals instructing it to adjust its trajectory Using these techniques the team can bring a spacecraft to a precise landing on Mars or into an orbit around a moon of Saturn after a journey of millions of kilometers Juno Spacecraft Approaching Venus This illustration depicts the Juno spacecraft arriving at Jupiter in July 2016 Credit Courtesy of NASA JPL 70 Meter Antenna at Goldstone Facility This antenna at Goldstone California has become a symbol of space communication Credit Courtesy of NASA JPL Caltech Personnel Working on a Tracking Antenna Two people work on a Deep Space Network antenna in Goldstone California Credit Courtesy of NASA JPL Caltech Earth Lights at Night The 3 Deep Space Network stations are separated by about 120 degrees

    Original URL path: https://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-space/deep-space (2016-02-13)
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  • Navigate in Space! Activity | Time and Navigation
    at Sea Navigating in the Air Navigating in Space Satellite Navigation Navigation for Everyone Timeline of Innovation Artifacts Learning Resources Multimedia Gallery Research Journal Visit the Exhibition Navigating in Space Challenges of Space Navigation Navigation Gone Wrong Mariner 1 Navigate in Space Activity Reaching for the Moon First Attempts Hitting the Moon Human Steps Meet the Navigator James A Lovell Jr Navigating in Deep Space Gravity Assist Radio Network Visiting Other Worlds Meet the Navigator Jet Propulsion Laboratory Navigate in Space Activity Navigate in Space Activity Cancel Yes Start Over Start Over Plan Track Maneuver Restart Next Restart Next Restart Next Test trajectory Restart Next Try again Do it for me Launch Restart Next Restart Next Restart Next Let s find out if you re on course Restart Correct course now Restart Plan your correction Restart Restart Next Simulation complete Send these instructions to your spacecraft Transmit to spacecraft The course correction will not reach the window Try simulation again Do it for me Up Right Down Left Use thrusters to reach the window Time to window 00 00 00 Watch the flyby footage Restart Navigating at Sea Challenges of Sea Navigation Navigating Without a Clock The Longitude Problem The

    Original URL path: https://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-space/challenges/navigate-in-space-activity (2016-02-13)
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  • Satellite Navigation | Time and Navigation
    Multimedia Gallery Research Visit the Exhibition Search form Search Facebook Twitter Google Plus Pinterest YouTube Time and Navigation The untold story of getting from here to there Search form Search Navigating at Sea Navigating in the Air Navigating in Space Satellite Navigation Navigation for Everyone Timeline of Innovation Artifacts Learning Resources Multimedia Gallery Research Journal Visit the Exhibition Satellite Navigation During the Cold War the U S military sought more reliable global time and navigation systems The possibilities of traveling in space inspired plans to navigate from space Innovators tried different approaches to see whether radio transmissions from orbiting satellites could be used to determine positions on Earth They found that time from precise clocks on satellites transmitted by radio signals could in fact determine location The military combined several systems into one and created the Global Positioning System GPS Challenges of Satellite Navigation Reliable Global Navigation Global Positioning System GPS Who Uses Satellite Navigation Navigating at Sea Challenges of Sea Navigation Navigating Without a Clock The Longitude Problem The U S Goes to Sea Navigate at Sea Activity Navigating in the Air Challenges of Air Navigation Early Air Navigators Navigation at War Navigate the Skies Activity Navigating in Space

    Original URL path: https://timeandnavigation.si.edu/satellite-navigation (2016-02-13)
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  • Challenges of Satellite Navigation | Time and Navigation
    Timeline of Innovation Artifacts Learning Resources Multimedia Gallery Research Journal Visit the Exhibition Satellite Navigation Challenges of Satellite Navigation Navigation Gone Wrong Soviets Shoot Down an Airliner Reliable Global Navigation Inertial Navigation Charles Stark Draper Developing Inertial Navigation The First Satellite Navigation System Transit Satellites Navigating a Submarine Improving Satellite Navigation Clocks in Space Evolving Solutions Global Positioning System GPS GPS Begins The Satellite Constellation Synchronized Accurate Time Risks to the System International Systems Who Uses Satellite Navigation Military Applications Civilian Applications The Commercial Market Improving Accuracy Looking Ahead Explore More USS Alabama Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver PLGR Magellan PathMaster Navigation Information System Joint Precision Air Drop System JPADS Parachute and Guidance Unit Deputy Chief of the Worchester Fire Department John F Sullivan Challenges of Satellite Navigation Modern global navigation services use orbiting satellites to meet many demands AVAILABILITY Positioning information must be available all the time regardless of time of day weather conditions or other factors COVERAGE Services must be available anywhere in the world so satellites need to be visible anywhere on Earth and their orbits must be carefully tracked ACCURACY Precise positions need to be determined to identify tiny land features locate individual structures and allow vehicles ships and aircraft to avoid hazards USER EQUIPMENT Equipment used on Earth must be small and portable requiring satellites to operate precise time and data systems in the harsh environment of space USABILITY Positions must be determined quickly without requiring users to receive extensive training or perform multiple steps Navigation Gone Wrong Soviets Shoot Down an Airliner A Korean Air Lines jumbo jetliner strayed into Soviet airspace GPS Constellation GPS satellites are positioned in precise circular orbits 18 000 kilometers 11 000 miles above the Earth They orbit once every 12 hours Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution

    Original URL path: https://timeandnavigation.si.edu/satellite-navigation/challenges-of-satellite-navigation (2016-02-13)
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  • Reliable Global Navigation | Time and Navigation
    Shoot Down an Airliner Reliable Global Navigation Inertial Navigation Charles Stark Draper Developing Inertial Navigation The First Satellite Navigation System Transit Satellites Navigating a Submarine Improving Satellite Navigation Clocks in Space Evolving Solutions Global Positioning System GPS GPS Begins The Satellite Constellation Synchronized Accurate Time Risks to the System International Systems Who Uses Satellite Navigation Military Applications Civilian Applications The Commercial Market Improving Accuracy Looking Ahead Explore More Magellan 2000 XL 1996 High Precision GPS Survey Man made Radio Interference Inertial Navigation Solar Interference Reliable Global Navigation The Cold War created new navigational challenges In a potential worldwide conflict military response had to be immediate accurate under all conditions and reliable on any part of the globe High speed jet aircraft and ballistic missiles especially needed better mechanisms for navigation Ground based radio navigation techniques could be used but satellite based systems were developed to solve the problems of global navigation Inertial navigation systems were developed and improved to provide guidance between fixes provided by celestial or radio navigation systems USS Alabama The USS Alabama was outfitted with a SINS system for navigation Credit U S Navy General Dynamics Electric Boat Lockheed SR 71 Blackbird in Flight Advances in computing made celestial navigation practical for the Mach 3 SR 71 Credit U S Air Force photo by Tech Sgt Michael Haggerty SINS Stable Platform and Housing Assembly Information about the ship s position speed heading and attitude were constantly transmitted from the Ship s Inertial Navigation System SINS Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution previous pause resume next Inertial Navigation An Inertial Navigation System INS uses motion and rotation sensors along with a computer to figure out the position orientation and speed of movement The First Satellite Navigation System Beeping radio signals from Sputnik inspired the idea of

    Original URL path: https://timeandnavigation.si.edu/satellite-navigation/reliable-global-navigation (2016-02-13)
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  • Global Positioning System (GPS) | Time and Navigation
    Navigation Clocks in Space Evolving Solutions Global Positioning System GPS GPS Begins The Satellite Constellation Synchronized Accurate Time Risks to the System International Systems Who Uses Satellite Navigation Military Applications Civilian Applications The Commercial Market Improving Accuracy Looking Ahead Explore More Blue Force Tracker System Testing the 621B System Garmin eTrex 2007 Ted Maxwell Using a Transit Receiver The GBU 39 Small Diameter Bomb Global Positioning System GPS In 1973 the Defense Department combined its competing satellite navigation systems The new joint program under the Air Force was called the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System or GPS It introduced synchronized time from space provided by onboard atomic clocks The system was intended for a range of military applications including locating ships and targeting weapons GPS designers envisioned that civilians would use the system as well GPS Constellation GPS satellites are positioned in precise circular orbits 18 000 kilometers 11 000 miles above the Earth They orbit once every 12 hours Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution U S Naval Observatory Alternate Master Clock The U S Naval Observatory Alternate Master Clock at Schriever Air Force Base Credit U S Air Force System Maintenance The successful operation of a satellite navigation system requires around the clock monitoring of the satellites health and the periodic replacement of older satellites Credit U S Air Force How Does GPS Work From maintaining infrastructure transporting goods delivering services or just meeting friends people often use technology just as sophisticated as that used by pilots and soldiers How does it work Credit National Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institution previous pause resume next GPS Begins Developing GPS components began in 1973 when the Joint Program Office was established under the Air Force The Satellite Constellation In 1974 Rockwell International now a division of Boeing was

    Original URL path: https://timeandnavigation.si.edu/satellite-navigation/gps (2016-02-13)
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  • Who Uses Satellite Navigation | Time and Navigation
    Search form Search Facebook Twitter Google Plus Pinterest YouTube Time and Navigation The untold story of getting from here to there Search form Search Navigating at Sea Navigating in the Air Navigating in Space Satellite Navigation Navigation for Everyone Timeline of Innovation Artifacts Learning Resources Multimedia Gallery Research Journal Visit the Exhibition Satellite Navigation Challenges of Satellite Navigation Navigation Gone Wrong Soviets Shoot Down an Airliner Reliable Global Navigation Inertial Navigation Charles Stark Draper Developing Inertial Navigation The First Satellite Navigation System Transit Satellites Navigating a Submarine Improving Satellite Navigation Clocks in Space Evolving Solutions Global Positioning System GPS GPS Begins The Satellite Constellation Synchronized Accurate Time Risks to the System International Systems Who Uses Satellite Navigation Military Applications Civilian Applications The Commercial Market Improving Accuracy Looking Ahead Explore More Magellan eXplorist 2010 Quartz Resonator for Transit Satellites USS Alabama Transit Receiver Trimble 4800 GPS Total Station 1997 Who Uses Satellite Navigation Global navigation systems like GPS and easy to use devices have revolutionized many aspects of life Innovations that integrate positioning technology communications and map data have led to a wealth of applications From maintaining infrastructure transporting goods delivering services or just meeting friends people often use technology just as sophisticated as that used by pilots and soldiers Almost anyone can be a navigator Military Applications Time and positioning go beyond navigation Civilian Applications Texas Instruments Rockwell Collins Magnavox and Interstate Electronics were the first to offer GPS receivers for civilian users GPS Use during Mountain Climbing Jim Whittaker uses a Magellan GPS receiver on Mt Rainier Credit Dianne Roberts Navigating at Sea Challenges of Sea Navigation Navigating Without a Clock The Longitude Problem The U S Goes to Sea Navigate at Sea Activity Navigating in the Air Challenges of Air Navigation Early Air Navigators Navigation at War Navigate

    Original URL path: https://timeandnavigation.si.edu/satellite-navigation/who-uses-satellite-navigation (2016-02-13)
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