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  • epidemics through monitoring seasonal fluctuations in mosquito activity and population size Control of yellow fever Discover information regarding the clinical features transmission and diagnosis of yellow fever This page contains important tips for the control of cases contacts and the environment during an epidemic More arbovirus information Learn more about the replication morphology genome and mode of transmission of arboviruses by connecting to this link Classification of Flavivirus Understand ICTV

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/flavi/links.html (2016-02-13)
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  • The Togaviridiae and Flaviviridiae Plenum Press New York 1986 Fields Bernard Virology Lippencott Raven Publishers New York 1996 White David and Fenner Frank Medical Virology Academic Press San Diego 1994 Journals Henchal E A and Putnak J R Clinical Microbiology

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/flavi/ref.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Coronavirus Key Facts
    but spherical in shape 80 160 nanometers with large widely spaced club shaped peplomers is the genome infectious Yes genera coronavirus torovirus associated illnesses Acute Febrile Upper Respiratory Disease coryza or the Common Cold HCV gastroenteritis Torovirus The Main Coronavirus Gene Products protein gene protein function N Nucleocapsid protein E1 Integral membrane matrix protein E2 Club shaped peplomer HE Hemagglutinin esterase in some subgroups RNA dependent RNA polymerase Protein kinase

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/corona/keyfacts.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Coronavirus and the Common Cold
    someone in your household is sick let them use separate items such as handtowels from those who are healthy 4 Keep your feet warm Cold feet cannot cause a viral infection but they can undermine your defenses thereby opening the door to them 3 Keep your nasal passages clear and breathe through your nose Your nose is able to filter out airborne dust and germs 2 Alternative medications Recent studies have shown that alternative medications such as zinc and Echinacea may help prevent the onset of colds 1 Never put your hands in your eyes or to your nose without washing them first Managing the common cold Treating symptoms Although research is being done on possible ways to cure the common cold most colds are self limiting and will go away within a few days While you are sick however there are many things you can do and over the counter remedies you can use to relieve your cold symptoms Standard over the counter remedies Analgesics Antipyretics such acetominophen tylenol aspirin ibuprophen advil and naproxyn sodium naprosyn are useful for reducing the pain and fever associated with the common cold Decongestants such as pseudoephedrine hydrochloride Sudafed decrease nasal secretions and congestion Expectorants such as guaifenesin Robitussin thin respiratory secretions make coughs more productive and decrease overall coughing Antitussives are opiate derivatives such as codeine and dextromethorphan hydrobromide Robitussin DM that are useful in suppressing coughing by depressing the nervous system Antihistimines such as chlorpheniramine maleate Chlor Trimeton brompheniramine maleate Dimetapp Dipheniramine hydrochloride Benadryl and triprolidine hydrochloride Actifed have been used to treat symptoms but their efficacy in treating the common cold has been questioned since their primary mode of action is on the histamine allergic response of the immune system Other treatments Antivirals to Human Rhinovirus have been recently developed for the treatment of the common cold The mechanisms of these drugs include antiviral binding to rhinovirus blocking the protein canyon binding site and using monoclonal antibodies to the antireceptor ICAM 1 Hormonal methods such as Bradykinin inhibitors are also being explored Alternative Medications While traditional medicines have been shown to relieve the symptoms of the common cold there is significant evidence that several alternative treatments can actually prevent the onset or shorten the duration of common cold symptoms Most alternative medicines appear to have no serious side effects especially if regularly marketed products are used Here are some treatments that have been found to be somewhat effective Zinc lozenges have been shown to reduce the duration of the common cold Zinc deficiency has been linked to a variety of immune system abnormalities Echinacea is a daisy like purple wild flower found across the United States It has been shown to stimulate white blood cell activity Garlic has also been shown to have prophylactic activity see prevention section While antioxidants such as vitamin C have been used for treating and preventing colds it is unlikely that taking large doses will have significant effects on the majority of the Western population

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/corona/colds.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Coronavirus Mol Bio Features
    of the viral genome is two polyproteins the larger of which is a result of translational frameshifting These two polyproteins are cleaved and assembled to form an RNA polymerase RNA polymerase is used to transcribe full length strands of RNA as well as a 3 coterminal nested set of subgenomic mRNAs The 5 7 nested genes extend for different lengths from their common 3 ends A 5 leader sequence is

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/corona/molbio.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Coronavirus Fun Stuff
    Stuff Think you know all there is to know about Coronaviruses Click here to test your your knowledge of Coronavirus replication by pretending to be a Coronavirus Back to my

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/corona/funstuff.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Other Coronavirus Pages
    the University of Leicester UK Common cold web sites Beating Colds and Flus This page has a wealth of information on prevention and treatment of the common cold The Common Cold a brochure with the basics Common Cold from a medical point of view The Common Cold Centre a very comprehensive site about issues related to the common cold also has information on clinical trials and how YOU can get

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/corona/links.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Coronavirus page references
    Course Reader 1998 Alternative Common Cold Medications http www cf ac uk uwcc momed cold alt html White and Fenner Medical Virology 4th edition Academic Press San Diego 1994 Fields B Knipe D Howley P eds Fields Virology 3rd edition

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/corona/references.html (2016-02-13)
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