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  • prevvac.html
    specific information on Vaccination Medicare nows pays for the vaccine Other methods of prevention include chemoprophalaxis using the antiviral agents of rimantadine and amantadine However vaccination is usually more effective so this method should only be suggested if it is too late to receive a vaccination Of course maintaining a healthy immune system by getting plenty of rest eating well and exercising will help you prevent influenza infection In terms

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/orthomyxo/prevvac.html (2016-02-13)
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  • more.html
    and no visible proof that the vaccination program actually avoided an epidemic public health officials were criticized rather than rewarded for their quick response Hemmaglutination Orthomyxoviruses sometimes make red blood cells stick together Original Antigenic Sin This phrase describes the phenomenon that greatest amount of anitbodies that are stimulated by an influenza infection are antibodies specific to the strain of influenza of your first infection Antigenic Shift is the genetic

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/orthomyxo/more.html (2016-02-13)
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  • ref.html
    Fields Virology 3rd Edition Lippincott Raven Publishers 1996 Murphy Brian R and Webster Robert G Orthomyxoviruses Fields Virology 3rd Edition Lippincott Raven Publishers 1996 Siegel Robert Course Reader for Humans and Viruses White David O and Fenner Frank J Medical

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/orthomyxo/ref.html (2016-02-13)
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  • the Hantaviruses associated with rodents have become the focus of attention In 1993 the Sin Nombre virus associated with the Four Corner s disease was identified in the southwestern region of the United States Due to their different mode of transmission and the resulting low level of exposure to even indigenous people hantaviruses are cause disease in people who become exposed to the virus at high enough concentrations Rift Valley Fever Rift Valley fever had been known for many years as a disease of ruminants in East or South Aftrica It would break out about once a decade killing lambs and calves and causing abortion in ewes and cows At these times a dengue like illness was observed in animal handlers In 1977 an major animal outbreak occured in the delta and valley of the Nile This was the first time many humans were affected Ina 1978 outbreak over 200 000 Egyptians fell ill and over 600 died The next spurt of virus activity was observed in eastern Africa and in western Africa which left hundreds of humans dead in Mauritania and Senegal There is currently an outbreak of Rift Valley Fever in Kenya and Somalia California Encephalitis Virus California Encephalitis Virus was isolated in 1943 by Reeves and Hammond in Kern County California Since then related strains of viruses causing encephalitis have been isolated For instance in 1960 La Crosse virus was isolated from a fatal case of encephalitis in La Crosse Wisconsin Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses Bunyamwera virus was first isolated in central Africa from mosquitos These viruses have not caused epidemics or epizootics Hantaan Virus Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome In 1951 there was an epidemic of hemorrhagic fever among United Nations soldiers in Korea This was later called HFRS Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Similar diseases were

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/bunya/history.html (2016-02-13)
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  • proteins are used to define the Bunyavirus genera and antigenic data are used to separate the viruses within each genus The Bunyavirus Genus Named after the Bunyamwera virus Bunyamwera locality in Uganda Almost all of the over 150 viruses in this family are transmitted by mosquitos but have a wide variety of vertebrate hosts Within this genus the California Serogroup Viruses are those that most commonly affect humans Causing a febrile type illnesses that can range from encephalitis to flu like syndromes La Crosse virus Tahyna virus and snowshoe hare viruses have been most extensively studied The Hantavirus Genus The hantaviruses named after the Hantaan virus are enzootic viruses of wild rodents that cause persistent infections in their natural hosts Associated with hemorrhagic fevers and spread through the inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from fecal material the viruses of this group have been increasingly the subject of accelerated research Viruses such as the Hantaan the Sin Nombre Virus the Four Corner s Virus Prospect Hill Puumala and Seoul viruses are found in this genus The Nairovirus Genus The Nairoviruses are tick borne viruses which are subdivided into several serogroups Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus is the most medically significant member

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/bunya/classificationtaxonomy.html (2016-02-13)
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  • retinitis hemorrhagic fever Sandfly fever Phlebovirus Mediterranean S America Sandfly Gerbil forest rodents Fever conjunctivitis myalgia La Crosse Bunyavirus W United States Mosquito Chipmunk squirrel Encephalitis Oropouche Bunyavirus Brazil Mosquito midge sloths monkeys Fever arthralgia myalgia Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever Nairovirus Asia E Europe Africa Tick Sheep cattle goats Hemorrhagic fever Hantaan Hantavirus Asia Europe none Rodents Hemorrhagic fever nephropathy Puumala Hantavirus Scandinavia none rodents humans Nephropathy Belgrade Hantavirus Balkans

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/bunya/humanviruses.html (2016-02-13)
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  • about 3 Epidemiology California encephalitis is ironically concentrated geographically in the Midwest Over 90 of all cases in the US are reported from Minnesota Wisconsin Iowa Illinois Indiana and Ohio during the months of July August and September Individuals under the age of 20 are at greatest risk of exposure The principle vector Aedes triseriatus is a woodland mosquito which needs tree holes for reproduction The mosquito feeds primarily on small woodland mammals which maintains the virus during the winter months Serological studies suggest that nearly 20 of Midwesterner are seropositive to this virus by age 60 and that for every 1 reported case of La Crosse infection in children under age 16 there are more than 1000 unreported cases Oropouche Fever Oropouche virus a Bunyavirus genus member is responsible for repeated epidemics in northern Brazil and northern South America Clinical Features The disease is associated with fever headache myalgia arthralgia and prostration but no mortality Epidemiology T he virus is maintained throughout its cycle with sloths monkeys jungle mosquitoes humans and midges The primary vector is a midge Culicoides paraennsis Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Recognized for many years in central Asia and eastern Europe Crimean hemorrhagic fever is a sever zoonotic disease which affects people coming into contact with livestock or ticks The range of the CCHF virus is now known to extend from central Asia to India Pakistan Afghanistan Iran Iraq Persian Gulf countries the Middle East eastern Europe and to most of Saharan and sub Saharan Africa Clinical Features After an incubation period of approximately 3 to 6 days the abrupt onset of acute febrile illness occurs The first symptoms are similar to severe influenza and include fever headache severe back and abdominal pain The hemorrhagic fever manifestations occur after several days of illnesses and include petechial rash ecchymoses and bruises hematemmesis and melenna Cases typically present with some form of hepatitis The mortality rate is 10 50 in different outbreaks with deaths typically occurring during the second week of illness Epidemiology The genus Hyalomma of ixodid ticks is the most important vector of the CCHF virus The ticks work in a cycle involving transovarial transtadial transmission of the virus Vertebrates including birds and small animals provide excellent amplifier hosts of both the virus and the tick The virus can be transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals even subclinically infected animals and from person to person CCHF is an increasing problem in the world with more cases being reported every year and an increasing percentage of animals begin found seropositive Control Tick control measure need to be emphasized and utilized to prevent CCHF This includes spraying camp sites and clothing and danger areas with acaricides or repellent Strict isolation of patients with CCHF and a focus on barrier nursing would help to prevent nosocomial spread Presently the vaccine is a dangerous mouse brain derived version Future development of a vaccine would help to prevent human infection Sin Nombre Virus Four Corner s Disease The

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/bunya/humandiseasesassociatedc.html (2016-02-13)
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  • important process for overwintering For example the virus in an infected female arthropod infects the eggs so that the larvae nymphs and adults of the following generations are infected and capable of transmitting the virus to vertebrate hosts Humans become infected when bitten by the arthropod typically a mosquito or tick In the genus Hantavirus the viruses are transmitted by urine saliva and fecal material Humans become infected when they

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/bunya/transmission.html (2016-02-13)
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