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  • with Renal Syndrome Studies have found that immune complexes are formed and that there are abnormalities in the complement response In mice the immune response accelerates near the time of death if the infection is overwhelming Sin Nombre Virus Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome There appears to be compartmentalization of a selective immune response in the lungs of HPS patients in combination with high levels of viral antigens in the pulmonary vasculature

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/bunya/immune.html (2016-02-13)
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  • reflects this limitation Sin Nombre Virus Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Treatment for this disease is mostly supportive The CDC recommends that all patients be treated with antibiotics until HPS is proven First considerations should be to the correction of electrolyte pulmonary and hemodynamic abnormalities For a more complete description click here Two drugs have been proposed for the treatment of this disease Bradycor is a bradykinin antagonist Virizole or ribavirin is

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/bunya/management.html (2016-02-13)
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  • households However there is a need for a vaccine because of the difficulty of controlling rodents in an agrarian setting Special precautions should be taken by laboratory personnel who handle rats Vaccine Inactivated vaccine derived from suckling mouse brain was licensed for use in Korea in 1990 Other research has shown that immunization with glycoproteins can elicit a neutralizing response Sin Nombre Virus Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Possible prevention measures include

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/bunya/prevention.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Recent Research on Bunyavirus Genome Akabane Virus La Crosse Virus Clinical Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Simbu Serogroup Virus Particle Function Uukuniemi Virus La Crosse Virus Return to Home Page

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/bunya/research.html (2016-02-13)
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  • the Deadly Hantavirus A Study In Teamwork by Karen Young Krueger One Year Later the Hantavirus Investigation Continues This is a very extensive bibliography on viral hemorrhagic fever National Library of Medicine Current Bibliographies in Medicine Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Medical Microbiology by Samuel Baron This is a textbook with a chapter on Bunyavirus The Big Picture Book of Viruses Bunyaviruses Taxonomic Structure of Bunyavirus Family Pictures of Bunyavirus 1 2

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/bunya/links.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Reference Page
    O White Medical Virology 4th ed San Diego Academic Press 1994 509 521 Bernard N Fields Fields Virology 3rd ed Philadelphia Lippincott Raven Publishers 1996 1473 1494 Center for Disease Control Web Page www cdc gov G Scott Warner MD

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/bunya/refpage.html (2016-02-13)
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  • enveloped including those of arenaviridae Arenavirus enveloped particles vary in diameter from 60 to more than 300 nm with an average size of about 92 nm The arenaviridae family takes its name from the Latin word for sand arenosus due to the sandy appearance of riboprotein structures within the virion These ribosome like structures are acquired from the host during the budding process but their function is not yet understood EPIDEMIOLOGY Arenaviruses readily infect mammals They can cause chronic infections in rodents indigenous to Europe Africa and the Americas Rodents are often the laboratory host chosen for isolation of these viruses and in fact EVERY KNOWN RESERVOIR OF AN ARENAVIRUS IS A RODENT LCMV has been reportedly isolated from mosquitos but there is no indication that an arthropod host may be relevant to the life cycle of arenaviruses in nature Asymptomatically infected rodents can move from their own habitat to invade human habitation When humans come into contact with excreted virus severe infection can result Even nonhuman primates may suffer serious or fatal consequences of infection with arenaviruses which are known human pathogens The epidemiology of arenavirus diseases depends on patterns of infection in reservoir hosts and on the factors

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/arena/properties.htm (2016-02-13)
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  • to be through aerosol transmission or contact with Mastomys excretions and blood resulting from capture and killing for consumption Of all of the diseases caused by arenaviruses Lassa fever has the greatest health impact Severe Lassa virus infections occur in adults of both sexes as well as children The annual number of cases of Lassa fever is estimated at 20 000 40 000 with several thousand fatalities Overall mortality among hospital cases is approximately 20 usually following cardiovascular collapse In areas where ribavirin see link Vaccination and careful medical management are unavailable to ameliorate the health impact untreated Lassa fever can be fatal to 60 of its victims Lassa virus also causes unusually high fetal mortality with studies showing that fetal loss can be 92 if the mother is infected early in pregnancy and 75 in the last trimester The pregnant woman also has an increased risk of death from Lassa fever Infection with Lassa virus leads to the gradual onset on fever and malaise after an incubation period of about 10 days As the course of the disease progresses severe prostration and systemic illness with changes in vascular permeability and vasoregulation can occur Bleeding is seen in less than

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/arena/lassa.htm (2016-02-13)
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