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  • research tool for learning about the immune system providing an important model for studies of virus induced immune complex disease the role of the MHC complex persistent infections and immunological tolerance Human infection with LCMV can be asymptomatic but may be associated with three distinct syndromes The initial phase of an influenza like syndrome is characterized by fever myalgia malaise and headache Cough sore throat and chest pain may also occur The second syndrome commonly associated with LCMV but not commonly caused by this virus is aseptic meningitis Although LCM is usually thought of as a viral meningitis deep neurological involvement is manifest in perhaps only 10 of cases In rarer cases severe encephalomyelitis has been diagnosed in persons infected with the virus Colonies of hamsters and immunocompromised mice in the United States have had a particular problem with LCMV infection resulting in failed research protocols and more seriously clinical disease in laboratory personnel Many human disease episodes sometimes involving several hundred cases have been recorded as the popularity of hamsters as pets has increased LCMV is one arenavirus which has been shown to infect the fetus of a pregnant rodent if the mother is viremic In some situations this

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/arena/LCMV.htm (2016-02-13)
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  • endemic areas who may have been exposed but in most cases clinical infections have not been observed Only six of the nineteen arenaviruses are associated with human disease Pathogenesis of arenavirus disease in humans is believed to involve initial replication at the site of infection which is usually due to aerosol deposition in lung VIRUS DISEASE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Meningitis Europe Americas Lassa virus Hemorrhagic fever West Africa

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/arena/humans.htm (2016-02-13)
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  • RNA Viruses such as polio whose genome consisted of message sense or positive sense single stranded RNA were the only ones found to be able to productively transfect permissive cells The other viruses such as influenza were shown to have genomes that contained the complement to mRNA In most cases the missing factor was the absence of the viral polymerase which allowed the complementary RNA to be transcribed into message Several complications with this classification system have arisen 1 In the first place retroviruses were shown to contain a genome with single stranded message sense RNA which was not infectious They required reverse transcriptase in order to carry out their complicated replication cycle 2 An analogous complication is the sense of the reoviruses which contain message sense RNA as part of their double stranded genome Enzymatic separation of the strands using a viral protein may be essential for translation 3 In the third case some negative ssRNAs the ssRNA is not infectious were shown to display ambisense Ambisense is a situation in which both the genome and its complement contain some coding information Remember translation always occurs in the 5 to 3 direction so the two strands are being translated

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/arena/ambisense.htm (2016-02-13)
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  • and Information The CDC s Rabies Web Site Oral Rabies Vaccination Program What You Need to Know About Rabies Rabies Preexposure Vaccination and Traveler Information Rabies Information for Clinicians Consumers

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/rhabdo/related.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Brief Ebola General History
    mortality rate of any of the Ebola viruses 88 infected 318 people Despite the tremendous effort of experienced and dedicated researchers Ebola s natural reservoir was never identified The third strain of Ebola Ebola Reston EBOR was first identified in 1989 when infected monkeys were imported into Reston Virginia from Mindanao in the Philippines Fortunately the few people who were infected with EBOR seroconverted never developed Ebola hemorrhagic fever EHF

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/filo/history.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Human Viruses
    34 killed 22 65 mortality Ebola Zaire 1976 Yambuku Zaire Infected 318 killed 280 88 mortality 1977 Tandala Zaire Infected and killed 1 1994 Minkebe and Makokou Gabon Infected 44 killed 28 63 1995 Kikwit Zaire Infected 317 killed 247 78 1996 Mayibout Gabon Infected 37 killed 21 57 1996 Booue Gabon and transported to Johannesburg South Africa 2 cases 1 fatal Infected 62 killed 41 66 Ebola Cote d

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/filo/humanviruses.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Transmission of Ebola
    Amongst humans Ebola is transmitted by contact with infected bodily fluids and or tissues 2 3 There is evidence of a possible respiratory route of transmission of Ebola in nonhuman primates 3 Even if Ebola is transmitted via the respiratory route to nonhuman primates humans may be resistant to the airborne aerosol transmission of Ebola may not have the right receptors References Martini GA Siegert R eds Marburg Virus Disease

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/filo/transmission.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Ebola Classification and Taxonomy
    polyadenylated mRNA transcribed in the host cell from the virus RNA Takada A et al A system for functional analysis of Ebola virus glycoprotein PNAS 1997 197 14764 14769 Diagram of Ebola Replication in a Host Cell The known morphological differences amongst the Ebola viruses are Ebola Sudan Median unit lengths of EBOS virions range from 974 to 1063 nm 1 Ebola Zaire Median unit lengths of EBOZ virions range

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/filo/class.html (2016-02-13)
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