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  • acronym for r espiratory e nteric o rphan A little more than a decade later orbiviruses joined the reovirus family Orbiviruses are an arthropod borne genera which were classified with the reoviruses on the basis of a distinctive shared genome double stranded segmented RNA Rotaviruses joined the family for the same reason in the late 1970s Rotavirus had first been isolated from infant diarrhea by Stanley Dorman and Ponsford in

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/reo/hist.html (2016-02-13)
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  • reoclass.html
    other RNA virus This genome is linear and segmented The number of segments seen in a virus depends on the genera the particular virus is found in Orthoreovirus and Orbivirus 10 segments total of 24 kilobase pairs Rotavirus 11 segments total of 18 kilobase pairs Coltivirus 12 segments total of 27 kilobase pairs Replication occurs in the cytoplasm which is not unusal for an RNA virus However what is unusual in terms of the reovirus family is that replication occurs within a mostly intact virion particle In most other viral families the virion disassembles and uncoats completely before it replicates The mRNA transcripts produced by reoviruses are full length capped at the 5 end and non polyadenylated Virion The reoviral capsid is also unique among the human viral families The virion particle is naked non enveloped and spherical in appearance The capsid shape is icosahedral However what distinguishes the reovirus virion is its three capsid layers two concentric icosahedral capsids at the center of which is an icosahedral inner core The triangulation number of the icosahdral capsid is T 13 with a left slanted skew on both the outer and inner capsids The orthoreoviruses and coltiviruses are approx 80 nm

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/reo/reoclass.html (2016-02-13)
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  • virus.html
    Orthoreoviruses Worldwide None known possible zoonotic Possible respiratory illness mild Orthoreovirus Colorado Tick Fever virus Rocky Mountains North America Wood tick Dermacentor andersoni Febrile illness encephalitis hemorrhagic fever Coltivirus Sunday canyon virus North America Tick Febrile illness Coltivirus Eyach Europe TIcks Possibly encephalitis Coltivirus Banna virus China Not known Febrile illness encephalitis Coltivirus Orungo Africa Mosquitoes Febrile illness Orbivirus Lebombo Africa Mosquitoes Febrile illness Orbivirus Changuinola Panama Phlebotomines Febrile illness

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/reo/virus.html (2016-02-13)
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  • disease.html
    in the world Rotaviruses present an issue of international importance as death can be easily prevented by the administration of electrolytes and water this treatment must be disseminated through the developing world The background is made up of the electron micrograph image of a rotavirus illustrating its characteristic wheel like apperancel To view the entire micrograph image click here for a great image courtesy Professor Stewart McNulty Orthoreoviruses It is not conclusively known to cause clinically significant disease in humans though they are known to infect a variety of mammalian species It is thought that the orthoreoviruses might be responsible for mild upper respiratory syndromes but that has not been proven It is believed that the orthoreoviruses cause subclinical infection in the majority of people as most people are seen to have antibodies to all three of the serotypes identified Virus is shed in the feces Coltiviruses Colorado Tick Fever virus Geographically this virus is found in the Rocky Mountains of the United States and Canada It is an arbovirus and its vector is the wood tick Dermacentor andersoni After an incubation period of about four days the disease is characterized by a sudden onset including fever retroorbital pain myalgia in the legs and back and leukopenia The fever has been dubbed saddle back due to a remission of 1 to 3 days after which more fever and more severe symptoms follow The disease is severe enough to send 20 of infected patients to the hospital and also to indicate the remote possibility of death Convalescence may be prolonged and hemorraghic fevor and or encephalitis are seen in about 5 of the patients mostly children Sunday canyon virus A virus seen in North America Sunday canyon virus is thought to be tick borne not conclusive and causes febrile illness in

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/reo/disease.html (2016-02-13)
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  • trans.html
    Fever virus Arboviral arthropod vector wood tick also zoonotic great basin pocket mouse Sunday canyon virus Arboviral arthropod vector possibly tick Eyach Arboviral arthropod vector tick Banna virus Vector unknown Kemerovo viruses Arboviral arthropod vector tick Changuinola virus Arboviral arthropod

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/reo/trans.html (2016-02-13)
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  • immune.html
    to all reoviruses The complete role of the immune response in reovirus infection is not yet fully understood However prelimary research has shown that this T cell response does play a crucial role in suppression reoviral infection It has also been postulated that the host s level of immune competence plays a part in determining susceptibility Experiments have shown that both CD4 and CD8 cells are involved in the immune response It is now believed that reovirus infection causes the upregulation of class I and class II MHC expression However it is unclear what this upregulation actually does in terms of an immune response Antibody protection recognizes proteins in both capsids further supporting the assertion that the immune system recognizes multiple viral epitopes Cytokines also take part in the immune response and reoviruses might also give rise to interferon production The amount of interferon that is produced correlates with the amount of virus that infected cells give rise to It is also possible for reovirus infection to result in immunosuppression in the patient A patient who endures rotavirus infection is likely to develop some immunity and subsequent infections will be less severe Maternal IgG antibodies can be transmitted across the

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/reo/immune.html (2016-02-13)
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  • therapy.html
    or treatment of colorado tick fever However as it does not cross the blood brain barrier this drug will not be useful in managing any encephalitis caused by these viruses An experimental vaccine for colorado tick fever also exists Human rotavirus on the other hand has a very effective theraphy which drastically reduces the danger of death from dehydration Known as oral rehydration therapy ORT this treatment is inexpensive It consists only of electrolytes and water usually made up of glucose NaCl baking soda and KCl Rotavirus causes dehydration by attacking the tip cells of the intenstinal villi As these cells are destroyed absorptive surface area is lost and fluid leaves the body in high volume in the form of diarrhea Oral rehydration therapy uses electrolytes as co transporters to increase fluid uptake as the water flows down its concentration gradient and follows the electrolytes into the villi There also exists super ORT which also includes proteins This prevents the increase in diarrhea that usually accompanies the administration of ORT and which causes many mothers to believe that the therapy is not working ORT presents the possiblity of radically decreasing world mortality from rotavirus infection It can be produced and

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/reo/therapy.html (2016-02-13)
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  • vaccine.html
    emphasis on hygiene frequent hand washing disinfection of household areas and the proper disposal of sewage diapers etc The sanitation levels worldwide need to be improved as part of a prevention plan for rotavirus Vaccine A great deal of work has been done to develop a rotavirus vaccine The vaccine that is closest to becoming liscenced is a live attenuated vaccine that is administered orally It is created from rhesus monkey rotavirus and is genetically manipulated to lose virulence and is called the rhesus rotavirus tetravalent vaccine RRV TV It has been shown to be roughly 80 effective in most populations but there is evidence that in the developing world where the vaccine is most needed RRV TV is much less effective to the tune of only 50 60 Another problem with the vaccine is timing It must be given at the right age when the chid is still a newborn but not too close to birth when cross reacting antibodies with the mother are possible The vaccine also must be administered before the child gets the disease which in most cases is very young In terms of cost effectiveness a vaccine initiative might lose out to an oral rehydration

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/reo/vaccine.html (2016-02-13)
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