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  • poetry A Viral Limerick Composed by Cat There once was a virus called Rota Liked by babies not one iota But help came you see In the form of ORT Now they grow up to drive Toyotas Below is a cartoon drawn by Arnt J Raae which illustrates the infectious nature of rotavirus as well as its characterisitc electron micrograph appearance of a wheel Used for educational purposes Copyright 1989

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/reo/addinfo.html (2016-02-13)
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  • s Impact of Rotavirus Infection Page Fact Sheet Rotaviruses in a Child Care Setting Reoviridae Home Page at the Institute for Animal Health Reoviridae at the Baylor College of Medicine All the Virology on the WWW brought to you by

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/reo/link.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Virology Third Edition Edited by Fields et al New York Lippincott Raven 1996 Monath Thomas and Guirakhoo Farshad Orbiviruses and Coltiviruses In Fields Virology Third Edition Edited by Fields et al New York Lippincott Raven 1996 Nilbert Max Schiff Leslie and Fields Bernard Reoviruses and Their Replication In Fields Virology Third Edition Edited by Fields et al New York Lippincott Raven 1996 Taylor Kenneth and Fields Bernard Reoviruses In Fields

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/reo/ref.html (2016-02-13)
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  • vaccinia not cow pox The vaccinia virus used as a live vaccine against small pox is a relatively avirulent virus that is similar to cow pox but its origins are not clearly understood Inoculation with vaccinia causes a single pock at the site of injection which dries up and scabs after about ten days leaving a vaccination scar By this time the vaccinated individual has become immune to both vaccinia and small pox Possible complications of vaccinia injection include eczema vaccinatum and postvaccinal encephalitis Although the probability of either of these occuring is extremely small the risk of having these side effects was declared to be greater than the risk of contracting small pox in the United States by 1971 Once the disease had been eradicated most remaining laboratory stocks of the virus were destroyed Since 1983 there have only been two known repositories left in the world at the CDC in Atlanta and at the Moscow Research Institute for Viral Preparations See Eradication of Small Pox for further discussion of the advantages of the vaccine which made eradication possible Introduction Small Pox Classification and Taxonomy Other Human Viruses and Diseases Transmission Immune Response and Host Defenses Vaccination Eradication of Small Pox and Other Viral Diseases Useful Web Links References Eradication of Small Pox By the 1900s vaccination had reduced small pox to a minor threat in the United States and most of Europe The last case of small pox in the U S occured in Texas in 1949 In 1958 the Russian delegate to the World Health Assembly made a formal proposal to eradicate small pox The resolution was passed a year later and one by one countries around the world succeeded in eliminating the disease With surveillance and containment the deadly disease was eventually eradicated The last case of small pox was reported in Bangladesh in 1975 and the last case of variola minor occured in Somalia in 1977 The WHO waited for two more years then declared on October 26 1977 that small pox had become the first disease ever to be eradicated What characteristics of small pox made its eradication possible Short incubation period The small pox virus has an incubation period of 10 14 days before symptoms appear Because it is not infectious in the prodromal stage containment and surveillance were possible Vaccination alone would not have been sufficient to eradicate the disease No animal reservoir Because small pox only infects humans the WHO knew that once the virus had been eliminated from human populations it had been completely eradicated There is no danger of humans being infected again by some animal carrier This is not the case for many other human viruses which have animal insect vectors and or carriers High morbidity and mortality Small pox was described as the most terrible of all the ministers of death by the historian Macaulay It had a high case fatality rate and survivors were left with permanent scars To achieve international cooperation in eradicating a disease

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/pox/history.html (2016-02-13)
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  • adults Lesions which look similar to those caused by herpes simplex virus are spread by direct skin contact in children and by sexual transmission in adults The number of lesions can range from one to hundreds and are usually found on the face scalp arms legs and genitalia The incubation period varies between 14 and 50 days The disease may last for several months but is self limiting It occurs

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/pox/others.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Fc receptors 2 tegument amorphous globular material surrounding capsid 3 capsid icosahedral geometry 100 110 nm with 162 capsomers and T 16 4 core contains ds DNA encircling a cylendrical spool of proteins Replication of herpesviruses takes place in the nucleus More intersting sequential transcription and translation of early alpha beta and gama genes early genes regulate transcription of later genes occurs to produce alpha beta and gama proteins The

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/herpes/introduction1.html (2016-02-13)
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  • infection from one individual to another During the twentieth century HSV research blossomed Histopathologic studies characterized the multinucleated giant cells associated with herpesvirus infection And in 1919 Lowenstein confirmed experimentally the infectious nature of HSV that Shakespeare had only suspected In the 1920 s and 1930 s the natural history of HSV was widely studied and it was found that HSV not only infects the skin but also the central nervous system In the 1930 s host immune responses to HSV were thoroughly examined and the property of HSV known as latency was characterized By the 1940 s and 1950 s research abounded on the many diseases caused by HSV More recent research has focused on antiviral research differences between HSV strains and using HSV vectors for use in vaccines Varicella Zoster Virus VZV also has a long recorded history However historical accounts often fail to distinguish between the poc marks caused by VZV and those caused by small pox It was only in the late eighteenth century that Heberden established a way to clinically differentiate between the two diseases In 1888 it was suggested by von Bokay that chickenpox and herpes zoster were due to the same causal agent It was not until Weller and Stoddard isolated virus both from chickenpox and zoster and compared the viruses that this connection was confirmed chickenpox and herpes zoster were indeed due to the same virus The history of Epstein Barr virus is much more recent As recently as 1964 Epstein and Barr isolated virus particles from lymphoblastoid cell lines from established from explants of Burkitt s lymphoma The virus they isolated was named after them and became known as Epstein Barr virus Since then Epstein Barr virus EBV has been found to be the predominant viral cause of cancer in man

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/herpes/History.html (2016-02-13)
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  • spread in culture destruction of infected cells and capacity to establish latent infection primarily but not exclusively in ganglia Betaherpesvirinae Cytomegalovirus CMV Human herpes virus 6 HSV 6 Human herpes virus 7 HHV 7 restricted host range long reproductive cycle infection progresses slowly in culture and latent in secretory cells lymphoreticular cells kidneys and other tissues Gammaherpesvirinae Epstein Barr virus EBV host range characteristic of the family or order of

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/herpes/classification.html (2016-02-13)
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