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  • Baruch Blumberg
    the project US and Europe where the prevalence and severity of HBV is much less proved to be insurmountable barriers Question 3 Why do you think the efforts to eradicate HIV are much greater than those for HBV Answer Blumberg showed his frustration with the response to this question since he believes that more should be done to help the 350 million people still infected with HBV worldwide especially since the mutation rate for HBV is much less than for HIV making it a much easier target for therapy and vaccination hepatitis B has killed more people worldwide than AIDS and continues to be one of the top killers and HBV is much more infectious than HIV even though it is transmitted through the same routes Blumberg postulates that the reason for the AIDS hysteria is because when HIV was first encountered in the early 80 s it was immediately associated with a probability of death if infected near 100 Hepatitis B however is manifested often in its acute form that has a roughly 90 recovery rate the other 10 reach a state of chronic hepatitis from the acute infection and this can result in death often known as Fulminant hepatitis Additionally the symptoms and diseases of chronic hepatitis such as liver cancer usually develop many years after infection and initially they were not associated with hepatitis B infection There is also very little public awareness about the hepatitis B virus due to the lack of funding for education which is a small fraction of the funding for AIDS Question 4 Do you think that the prevention of Hepatitis B related Hepatocellular carcinoma is a strong enough incentive for universal vaccination or eradication Answer Dr Blumberg relayed that the association between liver cancer and hepatitis is without a doubt increasing eradication efforts in China where the Chinese Medical Association understands the direct link between the two in their country Blumberg believes that if publicity were to get across that the hepatitis B vaccine was in fact the only known cancer vaccine that eyes and ears would open to eradication efforts He stated that the incidence of Hepatocellular carcinoma due to hepatitis B was second only to the incidence of lung cancer due to cigarette smoking Question 5 What are the current treatments that are widely used for Hepatitis B infection Answer Blumberg indicated his hopes for a new anti viral that may prevent the spread of HBV infection from cell to cell The drug inhibits the terminal glycosylation at one of the three glyosylation sites on the M protein on the hepatitis B surface antigen This in turn inhibits the folding of the protein and the change in tertiary structure disturbs the assembly of the virus Thus the virus is still allowed to replicate but can not be exported from the hepatocyte The drug was tested in woodchucks afflicted with woodchuck hepatitis virus that has 70 homology with the hepatitis B virus and it was observed that there was a

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/hepadna/Blumberg.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Links
    EDU 80 dmsander WWW 335 Hepatitis html http cpmcnet columbia edu dept gi hepint html http www Tulane EDU dmsander Big Virology BVDNAhepadna html http www bocklabs wisc edu Welcome html http www uct ac za depts mmi stannard hepb

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  • The 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Responses
    skin JAMA 10 3 1918 Others used salicin which reduced pain discomfort and fever and claimed to reduce the infectivity of the patient Another popular remedy was cinnamon in powder or oil form with milk to reduce temperature BMJ 10 19 1918 Finally salt of quinine was suggested as a treatment Most physicians agreed that the patient should be kept in bed BMJ 7 13 1918 With that was the advice of plenty of fluids and nourishment The application of cold to the head with warm packs or warm drinks was also advised Warm baths were used as a hydrotherapeutic method in hospitals but were discarded for lack of success JAMA 10 3 1918 These treatments like the suggested prophylactic measures of the public health officials seemed to originate in the common social practices and not in the growing field of scientific medicine It seems that as science was entering the medical field it served only for explanatory diagnostic and preventative measures such as vaccines and technical tests This science had little use once a person was ill However a few proposed treatment did incorporate scientific ideas of germ theory and the immune system O Malley and Hartman suggested to treat influenza patients with the serum of convalescent patients They utilize the theorized antibodies to boost the immune system of sick patients Other treatments were digitalis the administration of isotonic glucose and sodium bicarbonate intravenously which was done in military camps JAMA 1 4 1919 Ross and Hund too utilized ideas about the immune system and properties of the blood to neutralize toxins and circulate white blood cells They believed that the best treatment for influenza should aim to neutralize or render the intoxicant inert and prevent the blood destruction wit its destructive leukopenia and lessened coagulability JAMA 3 1 1919 They tried to create a therapeutic immune serum to fight infection These therapies built on current scientific ideas and represented the highest biomedical technological treatment like the antitoxin to diphtheria The Etiology of Influenza in 1918 During the 1890 influenza epidemic Pfeiffer found what he determined to be the microbial agent to cause influenza In the sputum and respiratory tract of influenza patients in 1892 he isolated the bacteria Bacillus influenzae which was accepted as the true virus though it was not found in localized outbreaks BMJ 11 2 1918 However in studies of the 1907 8 epidemic in the US Lord had found the bacillus in only 3 of 20 cases He also found the bacillus in 30 of cultures of sputum from TB patients Rosenthal further refuted the finding when he found the bacillus in 1 of 6 healthy people in 1900 JAMA 1 18 1919 The bacillus was also found to be present in all cases of whooping cough and many cases of measles chronic bronchitis and scarlet fever JAMA 10 5 1918 The influenza pandemic provided scientists the opportunity to confirm or refute this contested microbe as the cause of influenza The sputum studies from

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  • The 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Response
    agreed in their report saying that patients with influenza should to be kept in isolation Because of the strain on facilities only severe cases were to be hospitalized while mild influenza patients were to remain at home The APHA also supported institutional quarantines to protect people from the outside world in establishments like asylums and colleges JAMA 12 21 1918 The use of institutional quarantines was applied to the many military training camps set up in the United States to prepare soldiers for war These camps with masses of men from throughout the country were prime targets of huge influenza epidemics The men were kept in strict isolation once ill and entire camps was often quarantined JAMA 4 12 1919 These measures were easily implemented in these camps where men were already committed to their country and the authority of the government Preventative Measures The Committee of the American Public Health Association APHA issued a report outlining appropriate ways to prevent the spread and reduce the severity of the epidemic They noted first that the disease was extremely communicable and spread solely by discharges from the nose and throats of infected persons They sought to prevent infection by breaking the channels of communication such as droplet infection by sputum control They believed that infection occurred by the contamination of the hands and common eating and drinking utensils Thus they called for legislation to prevent the use of common cups and to regulate coughing and sneezing They wanted to initiate education programs and publicity on respiratory hygiene about the dangers of coughing sneezing and the careless disposal of nasal discharges They aimed to teach people the value of hand washing before eating and the advantages of general hygiene JAMA 12 21 1918 Public Health Departments issued Flu Posters to educate the community and reduce the spread of infection The members also noted that the response should vary according to the type of community and the living conditions Measures were to be adapted to rural or metropolitan areas with a centralized coordination to enforce compulsory reporting and canvassing for cases Public Health agencies applied the principles of contagion to methods of hygiene and a regard for ventilation in their suggestions for reducing the spread of the illness and preventing disease They held that well ventilated airy rooms promoted well being BMJ 11 16 1918 Preventative measures built upon the same ideas of transmission and the germ theory of disease These ideas were practiced in the hospitals as special influenza wards for influenza patients were created and the number of beds per ward was decreased to reduce the transmission of the disease Those with complications such as pneumonia were separated from the rest to prevent the others from progressing to this more fatal state BMJ 11 2 1918 Sheets were hung between the beds to mimic isolation in limited closed quarters to provide a cubicle for each patient No patient was allowed to leave their bed until they were fever free for 48

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  • Statistics from the Influenza Pandemic
    of the virulent influenza virus hit Kansas in 1918 leading to the profound effect on mortality This graph illustrates the severity of the epidemic US Census Bureau Areas of the US where the flu first erupted in the fall of 1918 The port areas saw the earliest cases of influenza which was brought over by boat The major cities and transportation centers were next on the path The disease disseminated

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/uda/flustat.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Bibliography of Influenza Pandemic
    of San Diego History San Diego Historical Society 1995 http edweb sdsu edu sdhs stranger flu htm Crosby Alfred America s Forgotten Pandemic The Influenza of 1918 Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1989 p 1 69 Deseret News On the Eve of Peace in WWI Influenza Cast Shadow of Death http www desnews com cen hst 01260133 htm Grist N R A Letter from Camp Devens 1918 British Medical Journal December 22 29 1979 Henig Robin Marantz Flu Pandemic Once and Future Menace New York Times Magazine November 19 1992 Hoehling A A The Great Epidemic Boston Little Brown and Company 1961 Hoagg Jesse The Influenza Virus Unveiled The Experience 1997 http www the experience com issue2 flu htm Hughes Sally Smith The Virus A History of the Concept New York Heinemann Educational Books Ltd 1977 Knox Richard Deadly 1918 Flu Virus Could Reappear Report Says The Boston Globe March 21 1997 Boston Globe Web Site Journal of the American Medical Assoication October 5 1918 p 1136 1137 October 12 1918 p 1220 December 7 1918 p 1928 9 1935 December 14 1918 p 2015 December 21 1918 p 2068 73 December 28 1918 p 2154 2174 5 January 4 1919

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  • Antiviral agents by agent
    agent by student Return to top of page Humans and Viruses course page Class list Return to Courses page Bob s advising page Bob s Home Page index Comments Last

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  • Antiviral agents by student
    Efaviren 8 Natalia Carlson nataliac leland Ribavirin 9 Charles Chang cccchang Stanford edu Nevirapine 10 Erica Chung erica007 leland Zidovudine plus lamivudine 11 Jenny Dorth jdorth leland Trifluridine 12 Lisa Fleisher lfleish leland Ampligen 13 Matt Gonzales lgonz leland Famciclovir 14 Yana Greenstein ygreen leland Fomivirsen 15 Win Thu Han winthan leland Foscarnet 16 Carmen Holmes tryjesus leland Ribavirin plus interferon 17 Patty Kwon patito leland Amprenavir 18 Ashley Laird alaird leland Podofilox 19 Meagan Lansdale meagan leland Lovirdine 20 Elizabeth Ortega Lau lizlau leland Adefovir 21 Jay Lee jaylee leland Capsaicin 22 Ali Lewis alician leland Ritonavir 23 Karen Libby klibby leland Zanamivir 24 Irene Linetskaya hereiam leland Valacyclovir 25 Michael Lipinski lips leland Pleconaril 26 Aaron Mansfield aaronm leland Podophyllin 27 Witney Gayle McKiernan witneym leland Vidarabine 28 Matt Mori morim leland Acyclovir 29 Caroline Perry cjperry leland Delavirdine 30 Stephanie Robson srobson leland Penciclovir 31 Chara Rydzak crydzak leland Lamivudine 32 Elizabeth Salas esalas leland AZdU CS 87 33 Suzanne Schild sschild leland Indinavir 34 Michelle Scott michscot leland Didanosine 35 Ramin Shadman shadman leland Cidofovir 36 Sophie Terp sterp leland Enviroxime 37 Jose Trejo jtrejo leland Ganciclovir 38 Melissa Valadez msv leland Amantidine 39 Jonathan Volk

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