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  • Virus cards by virus
    virus by student Return to top of page Humans and Viruses course page Class list Return to Courses page Bob s advising page Bob s Home Page index Comments Last

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/viruscardsbyvirus.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Virus cards by student
    rotavirus Human calicivirus 13 Matt Gonzales lgonz leland HCV Human torovirus parainfluenza 3 14 Yana Greenstein ygreen leland Human corona virus parainfluenza 1 echo 15 Win Thu Han winthan leland HPV35 LCMV Kyasanur Forest Virus 16 Carmen Holmes tryjesus leland HIV1 influenza C CTFV 17 Patty Kwon patito leland B19 YF HAV 18 Ashley Laird alaird leland Ebola Sudan Omsk hemorrhagic fever HAd1 49 19 Meagan Lansdale meagan leland Chikungunya HSV2 VSV 20 Elizabeth Ortega Lau lizlau leland Central European encephalitis virus Ebola Zaire HRV14 21 Jay Lee jaylee leland RSV VZV JC 22 Ali Lewis alician leland HRV 16 EEEV HHV8 23 Karen Libby klibby leland coxsackie B 1 6 sin nombre astro1 24 Irene Linetskaya hereiam leland CJD Russian spring summer encephalitis virus HFV 25 Michael Lipinski lips leland Junin SV40 HRV1 26 Aaron Mansfield aaronm leland HSV1 orf HPV16 27 Witney Gayle McKiernan witneym leland Lassa HPV18 WEEV 28 Matt Mori morim leland Haantan influenza B corona OC43 29 Caroline Perry cjperry leland Monkeypox virus Ross River virus JE 30 Stephanie Robson srobson leland Oropache rubella HDV 31 Chara Rydzak crydzak leland CMV HEV VEEV 32 Elizabeth Salas esalas leland Guanarita Kuru HTLV1 33 Suzanne Schild sschild

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/viruscardsbystud.html (2016-02-13)
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  • in multiple lineages Twenty three isolates were grouped into three major clusters and the cluster which includes recent isolates was subdivided into two branches Thus phylogenetic analysis of the AKA virus N protein gene gives a greater insight into bunyavirus evolution La Crosse Virus Huang C Thompson WH Karabatsos N Grady L Campbell WP Evidence that fatal human infections with La Crosse virus may be associated with a narrow range of genotypes Virus Research 1997 May 48 2 143 8 Abstract La Crosse LAC virus belongs to the California CAL serogroup of the genus Bunyavirus family Bunyaviridae It is considered one of the most important mosquito borne pathogens in North America especially in the upper Mid West where it is associated with encephalitis during the time of year when mosquitoes are active Infections occur most frequently in children and young adults and while most cases are resolved after a period of intense illness a small fraction 1 are fatal At present there have only been three isolates of LAC virus from humans all made from brain tissue postmortem The cases yielding viruses are separated chronologically by 33 years and geographically from Minnesota Wisconsin 1960 1978 to Missouri 1993 The M

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/bunya/genomeresearch.html (2016-02-13)
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  • We conducted a retrospective case analysis of 12 patients with a diagnosis of CCHF infection confirmed by virus isolation who were evaluated at the Special Pathogens Unit National Institute for Virology South Africa The clinicopathologic features of CCHF and the diagnostic role of virus isolation as compared with serology immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were evaluated Additionally the distribution of CCHF virus in human tissues was examined RESULTS The clinical and histopathologic features of CCHF resemble those of other viral hemorrhagic fevers Of the 12 patients with virus isolation confirmed CCHF infection 5 were positive by serology 10 by immunohistochemistry and 5 by in situ hybridization Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization analyses showed that the mononuclear phagocytes endothelial cells and hepatocytes are main targets of infection Association of parenchymal necrosis in liver with viral infection suggests that cell damage may be mediated by a direct viral cytopathic effect CONCLUSIONS The diagnosis of CCHF suspected by history and clinical features can be supported histopathologically However since the pathologic features resemble those of other viral hemorrhagic fevers an unequivocal diagnosis can be made only by laboratory tests The utility of immunohistochemistry as a sensitive and rapid diagnostic modality was established by the high degree of concordance with virus isolation Infection of mononuclear phagocytes endothelial cells and hepatocytes may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of CCHF Simbu Serogroup Blacksell SD Lunt RA White JR Rapid identification of Australian bunyavirus isolates belonging to the Simbu serogroup using indirect ELISA formats Journal of Virological Methods 1997 Jun 66 1 123 33 UI 97364120 Abstract The Bunyavirus genus belonging to the Bunyaviridae family is comprised of a large group of antigenically and geographically disparate arthropod borne viruses of medical and veterinary significance In Australia viruses belonging to the Simbu serogroup of the Bunyavirus genus

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/bunya/clinicalresearch.html (2016-02-13)
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  • marker p58 and a Golgi stack marker protein mannosidase II ManII Virus particles and budding virus were detected in ManII positive Golgi stack membranes and interestingly in both juxtanuclear and peripheral p58 positive elements of the intermediate compartment In cells incubated at 15 degrees C the nucleocapsid and virus envelope proteins were seen to accumulate in the intermediate compartment Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that at 15 degrees C the nucleocapsid is associated with membranes that show a characteristic distribution and tubulo vesicular morphology of the pre Golgi intermediate compartment These membranes contained virus particles in the lumen The results indicate that the first site of formation of Uukuniemi virus particles is the pre Golgi intermediate compartment and that virus budding continues in the Golgi stack The results raise questions about the intracellular transport pathway of the virus particles which are 100 to 120 nm in diameter and are therefore too large to be transported in the 60 nm diameter vesicles postulated to function in the intra Golgi transport The distribution of the virus in the Golgi stack may imply that the cisternae themselves have a role in the vectorial transport of virus particles La Crosse Virus Pekosz A Gonzalez Scarano F The extracellular domain of La Crosse virus G1 forms oligomers and undergoes pH dependent conformational changes Virology 1996 Nov 1 225 1 243 7 UI 97076238 Abstract The La Crosse virus G1 glycoprotein plays a critical role in virus binding to susceptible cells and in the subsequent fusion of viral and cellular membranes A soluble form of the G1 glycoprotein sG1 prepared in a recombinant baculovirus system mimics the cell binding pattern of La Crosse virus and inhibits La Crosse virus infection A Pekosz et al Virology 214 339 348 1995 presumably by competing for a cellular receptor a finding

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/bunya/functionresearch.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Ebola Sudan Outbreaks
    PG who worked alongside YuG and Bz became ill on July 18 and died on July 27 after several short stays in the Nzara hospital 69 of all the EHF cases in Nzara and the introduction to Maridi and Tembura were traced to PG The World Health Organization WHO investigators reported observing direct person to person transmission of EBO S through six generations of EHF cases traced back to PG References WHO Study Team Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan 1976 Bulletin of the World Health Organization 56 2 247 270 1978 1979 Nzara Sudan On 2 August 1979 a 45 year old man was admitted to the Nzara hospital with a fever that had lasted for three days and recent onset of diarrhea and vomiting While at the Nzara hospital he developed gastrointestinal hemorrhaging and died on August 5 The Nzara hospital was poorly stocked and the hospital staff had not taken precautionary isolation measures or practiced barrier nursing techniques The hospital did not learn until several weeks after the patient s death that three of his relatives who had cared for him during his illness had developed hemorrhagic fever and subsequently died in the family compound Later in August

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/filo/ebos.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Ebola Zaire Outbreaks
    period of 9 weeks and an area encompassing Kikwit and three surrounding villages Some of the ill people from this family and secondary and tertiary cases in other families who provided nursing care or who had participated in the ritual burials of GM s family went to Kikwit II Maternity Hospital 10 On April 9 a 36 year old male laboratory technician who worked at Kikwit II Maternity Hospital went to the Kikwit General Hospital Zaire because of fever and bloody diarrhea Suspecting a perforated bowel from typhoid he underwent surgery on April 10 and 11 10 He died four days after the onset of symptoms On April 14 the medical personnel who cared for the laboratory worker in the operating theater or hospital wards became ill with fever headache back joint and muscle aches extreme asthenia clinical definition for physical weakness and in some cases hemorrhagic manifestations Over 70 of the first generation cases were hospital personnel One of the ill people who had provided care for the laboratory technician was transferred to a hospital in Mosango 75 miles west of Kikwit Some of the people who had provided care for this individual developed similar symptoms on approximately April 20 10 days after the first generation cases a second generation of cases occurred among family and friends of the first generation cases Transmission during this outbreak was mainly person to person through contact with bodily fluids and ritual cleansing of bodies before burial usually performed by women To limit the spread of EHF the Zairian government closed all schools in Kikwit The Kinshasa airport remained open during most of the outbreak 5 7 8 The unusual nature of the laboratory technician s death and the medical personnel who cared for him prompted a local ad hoc committee to meet to discuss the nature of these deaths J J Muyembe Tamfun Ministry of Health Zaire who had participated in the follow up of the 1976 outbreak of Ebola Zaire in Zaire for information about that outbreak please see 1976 Zaire above suggested that these illnesses may be caused by a viral hemorrhagic fever On his prompting specimens were obtained for analysis and were sent to the Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp Belgium on May 4th On May 9th the CDC received portions of these samples for confirmational diagnostic analysis The CDC confirmed EBO as the etiologic agent responsible for the disease in all 14 patients the index patient and the medical personnel who subsequently contracted it nosocomially from him 10 Based on the preliminary findings of the Institute for Tropical Medicine on May 6 1995 the Zairian government sought the assistance of the CDC with an outbreak of a viral hemorrhagic fever VHF like illness that was occurring in Kikwit Zaire The population of Zaire in 1995 was approximately 400 000 Kikwit is located approximately 240 miles east of Kinshasa The CDC s and the WHO s investigation of this outbreak was primarily retrospective 6 Four separate hospitals were implicated in the outbreak The first hospital and the center of the outbreak was Kikwit General Hospital the hospital that treated the laboratory technician The second was Kikwit II Hospital The third was the hospital in Mosango where one of the medical personnel who cared for the laboratory technician was transferred The fourth hospital was in Yassa Bonga approximately 250 km from Kikwit 8 Image from Khan et al 10 The last identified case of EHF during this outbreak was a 27 year old housewife from Nzinda Kikwit She was admitted to Kikwit II Maternity Hospital on 24 June 1995 for the management of a septic abortion She was discharged on July 14 and died at home on July 16 10 On August 24 1995 the 1995 outbreak was declared over twice the maximum known incubation period 42 days 21x2 lapsed without any new cases of EHF 1 More than 1400 samples of different fauna were collected for reservoir testing 4 Overall there were 315 cases 244 of which were fatal 77 case fatality rate 166 cases were female and 149 were male 123 female cases were fatal 74 fatal and 121 male cases were fatal 81 fatal The cases of EHF ranged from three days to 71 years with a mean age of 35 years 26 of the EHF cases were less than 17 years old and 13 were over 60 Median age of the survivors was 29 years median age of the fatal cases was 35 years Of the 286 cases where the professional occupations were known 90 32 were health care workers and 61 21 were housewives usually nursed sick or performed the ritual cleansing and burial preparation practices for dead family members Approximately 73 of the first 70 patients in the epidemic were medical personnel and the case fatality rate among them was high 1 6 9 266 of the EHF cases were reported to have lived in Kikwit North and South Zones de Sante the remaining in the Zones de Sante of Bulungu 13 cases Feshi 1 Gungu 4 Idiofa 1 Mosango 23 Mokala 1 and Vanga 6 All of the cases of EHF were in the Kikwit and Kwilu administrative Sub Regions except for 1 case in the Kwango Sub Region Bandundu Region None of the cases were acquired outside of the Bandundu Region 1 References WHO Ebola Update August 24 1995 Sanchez A et al Reemergence of Ebola Virus in Africa Emerging Infectious Diseases 1995 1 3 Clancy Jim Fear among us Deadly Ebola virus lurks in the shadows CNN October 18 1995 Rybicki Ed Ebola comments by C J Peters Source Report on VTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON THE IMPACT OF VIRAL DISEASES ON THE DEVELOPING WORLD South Africa PROMED 21 August 1995 Musong M et al Outbreak of Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Zaire 1995 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Vol 44 No 19 19 May 1995 381 382 Musong M et al Update Outbreak of Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Zaire 1995 Morbidity and

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  • Ebola Cote d'Ivoire Outbreaks
    of human cases during the 1976 Ebola Sudan and Zaire outbreaks Later in November of 1994 several dead chimpanzees from this troop were found with obvious signs of homorrhage but the corpses were too decayed to collect any useful tissue samples for analysis On November 16 1994 one recently dead chimpanzee was found and necropsied by three scientists in the field This chimpanzee tested positive for Ebola using IFA and ELISA tests done by the Pasteur Institute Twelve fatal cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever EHF in chimpanzees occurred during October November of 1994 Four cases were identified from October 24th to 30th Three days later six cases were recovered during a wave that lasted 12 days The last two cases in the third wave of EHF were 10 days after the end of the second episode The chimpanzee corpses were found in a clustered distribution within a 1 5 km radius inside the chimpanzees home range This zone also corresponds to the most frequently used core area of the chimpanzees territory Male and female chimpanzees were affected Chimpanzees with an age of 10 years or more were more susceptible to being attacked by Ebola The three waves in the epidemic curve indicates that the chimpanzees were contaminated by a point source or by intermittent point sources Normal forms of contact amongst the chimpanzees grooming a chimpanzee with EHF touching a corpse with EHF taking care of a sick chimpanzee was not a risk factor Since normal contact was not a risk factor the researchers believe that the epidemic was not spread amongst them by simple contact The researchers found the highest risk factor during September October to be the consumption of meat and they believed the risk increased with the quantity of meat consumed The researchers analysis of their data indicated that the chimpanzees might have been infected from the mammal prey they had eaten during this period of time Western Red Colobus monkeys are their main prey Chimpanzees hunt about once per day and hunt monkeys about once per week On October 19 1994 six days before the first mortality wave a hunting party killed and ate a young Red Colobus The chimpanzees who were among the primary consumers of this monkey were among the victims of the first wave A hunting party killed and ate an adult Red Colobus on Nobember 17th which would correspond to the third wave Two of the chimpanzees who had eaten parts of this Colobus disappeared seven days later The male chimpanzees hunting patterns were not being observed during the time period that would correspond to the second wave The Infected Ethologist A 34 year old female Swiss ethologist one of the three scientists performing the necropsy on the chimpanzee found on November 16 1994 contracted Ebola presumably from the necropsy During the necropsy of the chimpanzee she wore household latex gloves that were in poor condition During the necropsy she noted no wounds or punctures Transmission of Ebola to the ethologist probably

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/filo/eboci.html (2016-02-13)
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