archive-edu.com » EDU » S » STANFORD.EDU

Total: 204

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".

  • This diagram was taken from Dr Alan Cann s web page at http www tulane edu dmsander WWW 335 Filoviruses html

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/filo/diagebola.html (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive


  • Ebola Reston Outbreaks
    monkeys in Room H were from a separate shipment but from the same supplier Ferlite Farms that had arrived at the Reston Unit on November 8 Were the Room H monkeys contracting the pathogen from the Reston Quarantine Unit or were they infected with the pathogen back in the Philippines The Room F monkeys were euthanized on November 16 The Room H shipment of monkeys arrived on November 8 Both the Room F and Room H cynomolgus monkey shipments came from Ferlite Farms in the Philippines Ferlite Farms was experiencing a hemorrhagic disease outbreak concurrently It is likely that the Room H monkeys were sub clinically harboring EBO on arrival EBO has an incubation period ranging from five to seven days in nonhuman primates personal correspondence Anderson The Room H monkeys arrived at the Reston unit while the Room F monkeys were still alive On November 29 the Center for Disease Control CDC and the Virginia Department of Health met with USAMRIID and a coherent plan of action was formulated to insure the safety of the community and the humane treatment of the Reston primates Because of the threat that Ebola might spread to the remaining animals in the quarantine unit and that it might infect the staff the remaining animals 500 in Room H were euthanized on November 30 1989 On November 28 1989 Ferlite Farms unknowingly sent a shipment of EBO infected cynomolgus monkeys to Philadelphia Six of the 178 people who had contact with the infected monkeys at the Reston Quarantine Unit seroconverted All six of the individuals worked with the primates None of the six who seroconverted developed a filovirus related illness Of them four all of whom were animal handlers at one quarantine facility had serologic evidence of recent infection with Ebola Reston It is likely that one of the four infected himself when he cut his finger while performing a necropsy on an infected monkey The mode of transmission for the other three handlers is not known The remaining two people were seropositive at low titer and had evidence of past infection One of these two people is a worker at a facility that temporarily houses nonhuman primates before delivery to U S quarantine facilities and had had regular contact with quarantined nonhuman primates for three years The second person was an employee at Hazleton s Texas Primate Center CDC researchers conducted an additional study on the prevalence of seropositivity to filoviruses They tested 550 people with varying levels of exposure to monkeys or monkey tissues or body fluids with an indirect immunofluorescence assay test IFAT and confirmed the results using Western blot 42 of the 550 7 6 people tested were positive to at least one of the filoviruses EBO Z EBO S EBO R EBO CI MBG 26 of 266 9 8 import quarantine facility staff members were seropositive 16 of the remaining 284 5 6 persons having contact with monkeys or with monkey tissue or body fluids outside of import quarantine

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/filo/ebor.html (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive


  • first electron micrograph ever taken of Ebola Zaire October 31 1976 by Frederick A Murphy D V M Ph D at the Center for Diesease Control Diagnostic specimen in cell culture at 160 000 x magnification Taken from http www

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/filo/ebola.html (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive


  • human liver cells at 75 000 x magnification Electron Micrograph courtesy of Frederick A Murphy D V M Ph D UC Davis Taken from http www gene com 80 ae

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/filo/marburg.html (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive


  • Electron micrograph of Ebola Reston virus taken at the US Army Medical Research Institute ofInfectious Diseases USAMRIID by Dr Tom Geisbert It was graciously supplied by Dr Art Anderson

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/filo/reston.html (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive


  • is a high endothelial venule HEV that is infected with ebola The viral replication in the fibroblastic cells that control the HEV s structure has almost totally destroyed the HEV Please see Dr Art Anderson s web page for a more detailed explanation for this interpretation This image was prepared by Art Anderson from one of Keith Steele s slides of ebola antigen IHC Dr Art Anderson took this photomicrograph

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/filo/path.html (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Bats as Ebola's Natural Reservoir?
    guano could have transmitted Ebola to humans or to another intermediate vector Bats in Mount Elgon have been implicated in the transmission of Marburg a filovirus closely related to Ebola on two separate occasions However bats and guano collected from Mount Elgon have not tested positive for Ebola 6 Image from Monath 7 Image from Monath 7 Evidence Against Bats as the Vector Bats were not the only organisms found in the Cotton Factory the three men could have contracted EBO S from another source Ebola has never been found in bats captured during outbreaks However the bats that were captured for testing were captured well after the start of the outbreak Bats that could have been infected with Ebola could have died before the investigative team began collecting sample specimens The specific species that was found at the Nzara Cotton Factory Tadarida mops trevori were not captured and tested for the presence of Ebola 3 Ebola Zaire is highly pathogenic in other bats of the Tadarida genus as well as in other species that are common in Africa 4 If bats are the vector they would most likely be an intermediate vector host because of Ebola s high pathogenecity in them Unresolved Issues Numerous bats that were collected during the 1995 EBO Z outbreak in Zaire have not been tested and still remain in freezers at USAMRIID 5 Specimens for reservoir vector analysis were captured significantly after the beginning of the outbreak The vector host could be strain specific a specific organism may only be the vector host for a specific strain of Ebola When organisms are collected for analysis only a few are collected There is a low probability that the specific representative organism is going to have the agent even if the particular species is the vector

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/filo/bats.html (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Are Plants Ebola's Natural Host/Reservoir?
    population in the Tai Forest seem to coincide with the flowering fruiting cycle of a particular species of a plant 3 An agent morphologically similar to a filovirus was found in a leafhopper Psammotettix species from France 4 EBO virus antibodies were found in guinea pigs vegetarians in the Democratic Republic of the Congo formerly Zaire 5 Image from Monath 2 Evidence Against Plants as the Natural Host Reservoir Dr Swanepoel s study of 24 different species of plants failed to identify a species of plant that Ebola replicated in However 13 species of plants died from mechanical injury from being inoculated with the virus 1 Unresolved Issues How homologous to Ebola is the genomic sequence of the filovirus like particle that was detected in a leafhopper in France 4 Were the Ebola antibodies that the guinea pigs in the DRC had protective against Ebola If so guinea pigs and perhaps the flora they eat could be directly involved in the transmission cycle of Ebola References Swanepoel R et al Experimental Inoculation of Plants and Animals with Ebola Virus Emerginging Infectious Diseases 2 4 321 25 October December 1996 Monath Thomas Ecology of Marburg and Ebola Viruses Speculations and Directions

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/filo/plants.html (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive