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  • on to learn more about these dangerous pathogens Properties of Arenaviridae Classification and Taxonomy THE FAMILY ARENAVIRIDAE COMPRISES A SINGLE GENUS ARENAVIRUS IN WHICH TWO SEROTYPES ARE RECOGNIZED Location of isolation listed in parentheses 1 LCMV LASV complex Old World arenaviruses Ippy virus Central African Republic Lassa virus Lassa Nigeria Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus LCMV Missouri Mobala virus Central African Republic Mopeia virus Mozambique SPH 114202 virus 2 Tacaribe complex New

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/arena/arenaviridae.html (2016-02-13)
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  • wildlife rabies in the United States Europe and Canada has become an increasing concern for humans in these geographic regions Transmission The most common transmission of rabies is via the bite of a rabid animal which usually results in the deposition of rabies infected saliva into the striated muscle Transmission of the virus can also occur after a superficial abrasion of the skin and in some environments such as bat caves where the amount of virus may be high it can be transmitted via aerosol Human to human transmission via saliva has been reported but has not been substantiated The only form of human to human transmission has been iatrogenically via corneal transplantation from donors of undiagnosed rabies The virus initially replicates in the muscle cells or cells of the subepithelial tissue Then when its concentration is sufficient to infect the motor and sensory nerves in the muscle or skin it binds the the acetylcholine receptors or other receptors entering the nerve endings The virus is then delivered to the central nervous system via axons in the spinal cord The infected individual may experience two forms of the virus depending on the location of neuronal infection Furious Rabies is exhibited when the virus replicates in the limbic system while Dumb Rabies is experienced when the virus replicates in the neocortex Clinical Features Furious Rabies generally manifests as headache fever irritability restlessness and anxiety Muscle pains salivation and vomitting may follow A few days following exposure the patient may experience a stage of excitement or muscle spasms initiated from the ingestion of of saliva or water As a result these individuals have a tendency to drool and begin to fear water hydrophobia This excited phase continues for a few days until the patient lapses into a coma and dies Dumb Rabies manifests itself in the opposite manner as Furious Rabies Instead of demonstrating excitement the patient experiences depression and paralysis followed by a coma Death eventually results from respiratory arrest This form of the virus is often difficult to diagnose from a clinical perspective Prevention The measures used by different geographic regions varies and is determined by whether the area is free of the disease if the country is industrialized or developing and the incidence of bat rabies in the area Rabies free countries are maintained by enforcing strict quarantine regulations of dogs and cats for 6 months In developing countries where rabies is a serious problem large doses of human vaccines are administered In addition stray domestic animals are strictly monitored dogs and cats are immunized to break the chain of viral transmission and public education programs are promoted In industrialized countries the control of rabies in wildlife is generally based on the animal population The immunization of wildlife species has shown to decrease the prevalence of rabies in Switzerland and Germany The administration of more wildlife vaccinations will be determined by the population density of the target species research analyzing the efficacy of orally ingested wildlife vaccines as well

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/rhabdo/rhabdoviridae.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Ebola
    nature scientific research conducted on Ebola must be conducted in a Biosafety Level 4 laboratory AIDS HIV is a Biosafetly Level 2 virus The constraint on scientific research that its nature has dictated has resulted in many significant gaps in what is known about it and even larger gaps in what has been published about it Its highly pathogenic nature has also resulted in a notable amount of misinformation that

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/filo/filo.html (2016-02-13)
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  • and therapy Prevention and vaccination A few fun things Useful web links References Comments You can also link to my home page which is just getting started Web page created by Cat Loerke Humans and Viruses Human Biology 115A Winter

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/reo/reoviridae.html (2016-02-13)
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  • borna
    s Wrong with Fluffy Human like Neuropsychiatric Pathology in Animals Infected with Borna Disease Virus by Mason Tobak Comments Return to top of page Bob s Virus page Bob s

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/borna/borna.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Poxviridae
    wide range of hosts and are divided into two subfamilies Chordopoxvirinae and Entomopoxviridae All human pox viruses are in the Chordopoxovirinae subfamily and most of them belong to either the Orthopoxvirus variola vaccinia cow pox or the Parapoxvirus Orf virus genus The chicken pox virus does not belong this family It is a herpesvirus genome double stranded DNA monopartite linear noninfectious encodes over 100 genes including DNA dependent RNA transcripase morphology complex ovoid or brick shaped nucleocapsid envelope orthopox are enveloped parapox are not replication takes place in cytoplasm host range host range varies by specific virus zoonoses is common but small pox only infects humans oncogenicity may cause benign tumors Introduction Small Pox Classification and Taxonomy Other Human Viruses and Diseases Transmission Immune Response and Host Defenses Vaccination Eradication of Small Pox and Other Viral Diseases Useful Web Links References Transmission Pox viruses are most commonly spread by direct contact In the case of small pox the virus is found in lesions in the upper respiratory tract which can be transmitted to others in droplet secretions and in skin lesions Although the virus is considered to be highly contagious this route of transmission makes its spread relatively slow Introduction Small Pox Classification and Taxonomy Other Human Viruses and Diseases Transmission Immune Response and Host Defenses Vaccination Eradication of Small Pox and Other Viral Diseases Useful Web Links References Immune Response and Host Defenses Infection by a pox virus results in cell mediated immunity People who are infected with small pox are generally immune to the disease for the rest of their lives Introduction Small Pox Classification and Taxonomy Other Human Viruses and Diseases Transmission Immune Response and Host Defenses Vaccination Eradication of Small Pox and Other Viral Diseases Useful Web Links References Useful Web Links Still interested in finding

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/pox/pox.html (2016-02-13)
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  • 115A Winter 1998 Robert Siegel instructor Herpesvirus Page Introduction Historical notes Classification and Taxonomy Human Viruses associated with this family Human Diseases associated with this family Transmission Management and therapy Prevention Vaccination Latency Useful web links References Comments Created February

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/herpes/herpesvirusfamily.html (2016-02-13)
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  • cells Transmission Ingestion Fecal Oral Route Respiration through respiratory droplets Contact Hand to eye transfer Venereal Clinical Course and Diagnosis Incubation Period 5 to 8 days Adenovirus usually causes a localized infection but generalized infection can occur in immuno compromised patients Some adenovirus subtypes cause cellular cytopathic effect rounded swollen cells and basophilic intranuclear inclusions Adenovirus is responsible for five percent of acute respiratory childhood illness and ten percent of infantile gasteroenteritis Meningoencephalatis is a complication of respiratory adenovirus infection Deaths may occur from adenovirus especially from infection by human adenovirus type 7 Diagnosis occurs through enzyme immunoassay immunofluorescence techniques and virus isolation in cell cultures Treatment and Therapy Antivirals have generally been ineffective against adenovirus infection Intravenous ribavirin is a potential treatment Adenovirus infection results in long lasting immunity against the specific serotype Maternal antibody is protective Prevention Chlorination of swimming pools drinking water wastewater High hygiene standards in opthamology practice Hand washing Measures to prevent nosocomial transmission Vaccination The vaccine against adenovirus is live oral and attenuated in the intestine Mucosal and intestinal immunity result Vaccines are administered to the military but not available for general use because of concern about the live vaccine s oncogenic potential and the level of attenuation achieved in children A Successful Vector for Vaccination and Gene Therapy Adenoviruses have immense potential as vectors for vaccination and for gene therapy because adenoviruses can be genetically altered in vitro to 1 code for specific proteins 2 not produce infectious pathogenic viral offspring Vaccination A DNA segment that codes for an antigen that stimulates an immune response in humans can be inserted into the genome of adenovirus and then inserted into a host Hepatitis B HIV herpes simplex rabies and respiratory synctial virus regions can be inserted into adenovirus DNA Gene Therapy A DNA segment

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/adeno/adeno.html (2016-02-13)
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