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  • occur The best method of prevention therefore is the enforcement of universal hygienic procedures Although astroviruses are quite resistant to alcohol disinfection methanol has been shown to be effective in reducing astrovirus infectivity Anyone handling or preparing food should be mindful to thoroughly wash their hands prior to handling the food at all times not just during an astrovirus infection This is because astrovirus is shed in the feces a

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/astro/prevention.html (2016-02-13)
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  • infection does not exist A better understanding of the fundamentals of immunity to astroviruses is required before an effective vaccine can be developed Because recent evidence has shown astroviruses to be medically important pathogens a vaccine should be developed to

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/astro/vaccination.html (2016-02-13)
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  • like rotaviruses Many infections are subclinical but 4 8 of infantile gastroenteritis is attributable to astroviruses Epidemics are most likely to occur in the community in day care centers and in kindergartens and nosocomially in pediatric wards Most other children

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/astro/additionalissues.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Sequence Database at the Institute for Animal Health http www iah bbsrc ac uk virus Astroviridae astrovirusdatabase htm 5 Human Astrovirus EM Laval by Dr Hans Ackerman http life anu edu au viruses Images Ackerman Animalvi Astrovir 551 21 htm 6 Astrovirus EM Queens University http www ncbi nlm nih gov ICTVdb Images Queensun vsd23 c htm 7 Human Astrovirus EM Frankfurt http www ncbi nlm nih gov ICTVdb Images

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/astro/usefulweblinks.html (2016-02-13)
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  • B Greenberg Astroviruses in Fields Virology Third Edition editor B N Fields Lippincott Raven Publishers Philadelphia 1996 pgs 811 824 White David O and Frank J Fenner Medical Virology Academic

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/astro/references.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Classification and Taxonomy
    hexons consisting of VP2 and VP3 VP4 underneath surface of the capsid face 7 5 8 5kb 25 30 nm in diameter the smallest RNA virus appears smooth and round under electron microscopy Replication Replication takes place in the cytoplasm The positive sense single stranded RNA functions as mRNA and therefore does not require transcriptase in the virion Following adsorption penetration and uncoating VPg is removed by enzymes and the

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/picorna/classification.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Associated Viruses
    23 B1 B6 Hand Foot and Mouth Disease some colds Less Common paralysis myocarditis pleurodynia Herpangina Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis ocular neonatal carditis encephalitis and hepatitis Echoviruses 1 34 no 10 or 28 chronic meningoencephalitis dermatomyositis maculopapular exanthema rash colds neonatal carditis encephalitis and hepatitis Enteroviruses 68 71 paralysis Hand Foot and Mouth Disease Maculopapular exanthema Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis ocular Rhinoviruses Rhinovirus 1 100 Common Cold respiratory Hepatovirus Hepatitis A infectious

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/picorna/viruses.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Clinical Course
    are more severe The virus enters the blood through the stomach and travels through the blood to the CNS brain and spinal cord high fever meningitis severe neck and back pain 1 of cases cause paralysis The virus attacks the nerves inside the spine which can cause partial or complete paralysis In the most severe cases this can affect the muscles involved in breathing and other important functions which can lead to death Common Cold Rhinoviruses Incubation period 1 3 days Duration 3 days to 2 weeks Symptoms malaise low fever watery nasal discharge rhinorrhea nasal congestion headache sneezing cough sore throat mild severity with no real consequences after recovery mainly an infection of the upper respiratory tract Seasonality year round with peaks in fall and spring Some enteroviruses are associated with summer colds At risk groups Children and infants are much more susceptible to the common cold than adults Hand Foot and Mouth Disease most commonly caused by Coxsackie A16 Incubation period 3 5 days Duration 7 10days Symptoms cold like symptoms and rash ulcer on inside of mouth cheeks tongue gums blisters and bumps on palms of hands and fingers soles of feet and other parts on skin

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/picorna/clinical.html (2016-02-13)
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