archive-edu.com » EDU » S » STANFORD.EDU

Total: 204

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • transmission.html
    some cocksackie viruses can spread by aerosol routes to cause upper respiratory infection polio can also be spread this way by way of the pharynx Rhinovirus respiratory transmission virus particles are shed in nasal secretions coughing and sneezing aerosols direct contact Transmission can also occur by fomites where particles from tissues or hands touch the eyes or nose Hepatitis A fecal oral transmission The virus can survive in water for

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/picorna/transmission.html (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive


  • Management and Therapy
    each year TREATMENT Once infected there really is no cure for poliomyelitis Patients are made as comfortable as possible with bed rest and pain relievers Some may also have trouble breathing and respirators may be used The iron lung was popularized during the 1950 s where patients were put in large iron chamber that acted as mechanical respirators Rhinovirus Although the common cold may seem like one of the most harmless and inconsequential viruses there has yet to be a proven cure Many swear by home remedies like chicken soup hot steam and vitamin C Alternative medicines vitamin C Echinacea Zinc Antioxidants Garlic See the Common Cold Web Page for more information Medications temporarily relieve symptoms OVER THE COUNTER REMEDIES Treatment Type Symptoms Treated Active Ingredient Examples Analgesic antipyretic reduce fever pain killer acetominophen aspirin ibuprophen naproxyn sodium tylenol advil alleve Decongestant relieves congestion pseudoephedrine hydrochloride Sudafed Antitussive cough suppressant dextromethorpahn hydrobromide Robitussin DM Expectorant loosens secretions guaifenesin Robitussin Antihistamine treat sneezing and runny nose more effective for treatment of allergy symptoms brompheniramine maleate Dimetapp Hepatitis A Since Hepatitis A is transmitted by the fecal oral route the virus can probably be controlled by increasing standards of hygeine and sanitation

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/picorna/management.html (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • vaccination
    Known as IPV or inactivated polio vaccine it was about 80 90 effective The second vaccine OPV oral polio vaccine was a live attenuated vaccine know as the Sabin It is trivalent and contains strains of all three serotypes of poliomyelitis Although it produces more effective immunization there have been casses of OPV recipients acquiring poliomyelitis Current CDC vaccination recommendations Two doses of IPV at 2 and 4 months of age followed by two doses of OPV at 12 18 months and 4 6 years The use of IPV is recommended to boost immunization before OPV generally the more effective vaccine is used Rhinovirus There is currently no vaccine for rhinovirus It is especially difficult to develop a vaccine for rhinovirus as there are over 100 serotypes There are also other viruses that are also associated with the common cold like corona virus and some enteroviruses With so many different causes the common cold has been able to baffle scientists in the search for a cure or vaccine Hepatitis A The Hepatitis A vaccine was licensed in 1992 It s an inactivated vaccine that is pretty expensive and is only administered to those at high risk To get fairly effective

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/picorna/vaccination.html (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Web Links
    Other Picorna Virus Pages Pictures of Picorna Virus Hand Foot and Mouth Disease Polio March of Dimes Page Human Rhinovirus Graphic Rhinovirus Home Page Common Cold Web Page CDC Polio Page Other Virus Links of Interest All the Virology on

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/picorna/weblinks.html (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • References
    Picornaviruses html White and Fenner Medical Virology 4th Edition 1994 383 392 Clinical Course of Common Diseases http www modime org pub polio htm White and Fenner Medical Virology 4th Edition 1994 385 386 399 402 Transmission http www charm net epil hd ft mt htm Siegel Robert Humans and Viruses Stanford University Winter 1998 Lecture 13 5 White and Fenner Medical Virology 4th Edition 1994 387 399 403 Management

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/picorna/references.html (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Introduction to Togaviridae
    the single member of the Rubivirinae Rubella Originally recognized as the German Measles in th early nineteenth century the virus was disregarded as a mild infection of little importance In an age where small pox influenza and pneumonia were the leading killers of man it is not hard to believe that a virus with an a mortality rate of 0 05 would be overlooked Rubella outbreaks were common in the spring across the United States with a periodicity of about 3 years 80 of americans were seropositive for rubellaby child bearing age For over a century this highly contagious virus was overlooked until an astute opthamologist took notice of it In 1941 Norman Gregg began to note an unusually high incidence of congenital cataracts After some research he found that the cataracts were closely related to a maternal Rubella infection in the first trimester of pregnancy This was one of the first demonstrations of a virus as a teratogen Some follow up studies later showed that first trimester maternal infections of Rubella were also correlated with more severe birth defects such as deafness and blindness and also with miscarrage Children recognized to have congenital abnormalities due to prenatal infection are termed to have congenital rubella syndrome or CRS Public response to the discoverery of a viral teratogen was marked Parents forced children to attend rubella parties with people known to be infected with rubella modelled after measles parties intended to ensure children were exposed to the disease and developed immunity at an age where the incidence serious sequella are reduced Because rubella has only one serotype lifelong immunity is acquired after the initial immune response Rubella virus was isolated in 1962 and a live attenuated vaccine was immediately produced 1964 marked the last epidemic of Rubella observed in the United

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/toga/intro.html (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Togaviridae- Classification and Taxonomy
    3 mRNA fragment encoding the structiral proteins is made The remaining 3 third of viral RNA is translated into another polyprotein that encodes all of the stuctural proteins Alphavirinae s polyprotein is autolytic for the C protein which is cleaved while the protein is in the cytosol The remaining envelope proteins insert into the endoplasmic reticulum where they are cleaved by host cell signalase Following glycosylation the envelope proteins are released back into the cytosol where they bind to the cellular membrane Rubivirinae goes about cleavage in a slightly different manner by initially cleaving the E1 protein from E2 in the cytosol The E1 and transmembrane proteins are cleaved by host cell signalase in the endoplasmic reticulum The E2 Capsid protein is cleaved by host cell signalase and immediately associates with the membrane for viral assembly The difference in management and manipulation of the NSP polyprotein and gene order in addition to vector trasferability are the major criteria used to separate the alphavirinae from the rubivirinae C capsid E1 E2 E3 Envelope peplomer Small transmembrane protein The nucleocapsid protein spontaneously assembles with inserted envelope proteins to form a tightly bound nucleocapsid envelope complex This complex then selectively packages genomic RNA over the sub genomic mRNA encoding the NSP polyprotein This phenomenon has been observed in in vivo studies but has not been repeated in vitro suggesting that the mechanism of genome uptake is not fully understood The virus acquires its envelope by budding through the cellular membrane Alphavirinae which bud through cytoplasmic membranes are further distinguished from the rubivirinae which bud through intracytoplasmic membranes Image is public domain Infection Cycle The infection cycle of togaviridae begins when the virion is taken up into cellular vessicles by receptor mediated endocytosis A pH drop caused by the merging of the carrier vessicle

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/toga/class.html (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Togaviridae- Human Viruses
    of thousands of people with severe morbidity and mortality Symptoms similar to EEE Everglades virus EVEV A variation of VEEV Antigenic and animal virulence studies show distinct differences between the endemic Florida strain which has never been seen to cause overt disease in equines or humans and the more virulent epizootic strains of VEE found in Central and South America led to the classification of the Florida strain of VEE as a separate Group A arbovirus now known as Everglades virus Arthritic Viruses Chikungunya CHIKV characterized by sudden onset chills and fever and intense arthritic pain The illness usually lasts 3 7 days The word chikungunya is Swahili for that which bends up in reference to the stooped posture of patients afflicted with the severe joint pain associated with this disease Chikungunya virus has been isolated from humans and mosquitoes in eastern southern western and central Africa and in southeastern Asia where it has been responsible for illnesses in hundreds to thousands of individuals O nyong nyong ONNV Transmitted by Anopheles funestus and An gambiae mosquitos Following an incubation period of three to twelve days the patient experiences myalgia and severe arthritis Patients recover after about two weeks O nyong nyong means weakening of the joints in the Acholi dialect The virus was first isolated during an epidemic in Acholi Uganda Several million subsequent cases were reported in Uganda Kenya Tanzania Malawi and Mozambique during 1959 to 1961 Ross River RRV Causes the disease commonly know as epidemic polyarthritis EPA was first isolated in 1963 The disease is most common in eastern Australia though it has been diagnosed throughout Australia Ross River Virus is characterised by arthritic symptoms Barmah Forrest BFV Generally characterised by arthritic symptoms similar to that of Ross River virus Cases of Barmah Forest virus have been

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/toga/humvir.html (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive