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  • Togaviridae- Transmission
    the vector eventually making its way to the salivary glands where it can be transmitted to a second animal upon feeding Thus the virus is actually amplified by the vector The vector is usually infected for life and does not display any signs of sickness due to infection Image is public domain Alphaviruses infect man only incidentally All alphaviruses have animal reservoirs in which the viruses normally replicate and are only occasionally spread to man by insect vector Alphaviruses have not been reported to be transmissible between humans through normal contact ie fomites entero gastro respiratory fluid exchange It is concievable though not documented that alphaviruses could be transmitted through donated blood or organs Vector transmission from human to human has not been observed to occur as the viral concentration in the human host is too low to be effectively transferred As a result of the need of a mosquito vector to transmit alphaviruses the incidence of alphavirus peaks in the early summer when mosquito populations are large and temperature is cool enough for virus to replicate within the vector Rubiviruses Rubella the only human Rubivirus is one of the most contagious diseases known to man Endemic to the human

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/toga/trans.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Togaviridae- Immune Response
    is recognized by CD4 lymphocytes which proliferate and release lymphokines to initiate an inflamatory response The lymphocytes secrete another lymokine that stimulate the clonal selection of B cells which differentiate into antibody secreting plasma cells Circulating antibody binds to and neutralizes circulating viruses eliminating the virus from the blood Cell Mediated Infected cells as recognized by the presentation of viral antigens in their cell membranes are recognized by cytotoxic T cells and targetted for destruction Cytotoxic T cells secrete perforin into the infected cell membrane increasing the permeability of the cell which leads to cell death and termination of viral replication NK cells can also lyse infected cells but their specificity is not fully understood The two above pathways are quite adept at handling Togaviruses in adult man Encephalitic alphavirinae have evolved to avoid the immune system through infection of the brain where little immune activity is present Because of the reduced encephalitic immune response the case fatality rates associated with encephalitic alphavirinae is substantial 10 70 Rubivirinae is handled by the adult immune system quite efficiently Rarely does the virus establish any form of major infection exhibiting a mortality rate of 0 05 Once infected the immune system quickly

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/toga/immune.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Togaviridae- Prevention
    is imminent Vaccination Virus population is also limited through vaccination The incidence of alphavirus infection in man does not warrant systematic vaccination of human populations but the incidence of infection in animals especially horses is high enough to call for animal vaccination Because arboviruses ar often harbored and amplified by horses equine vaccinations for EEEV WEEV and VEEV have been developed and are used throughout the united states Humans at high risk including veterinarians zoo keepers and others who are in close proximity with animal reservoirs of alphaviruses are encouraged to be vaccinated against the encephalitic arboviruses Inactivated vaccine is available for EEV WEEV and VEEV A live attenuated vaccine is also available for VEEV Because Chikunga virus has the potential to be transferred to mosquito strains indigenous to the Americas CHIKV vaccines are under development Rubella Vaccination Rubella once thought to be simply one of the mild diseases of man took on great importance to the medical community when in 1941 it was associated with a number of birth defects In 1969 an effective live attenuated vaccine was developed for Rubella and in 1972 it was comined with Measles and Mumps vaccines to become the now famous MMR vaccine

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/toga/prevent.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Togaviridae Links
    date on advances in virology Andromeda Newsfile More than you ll ever need to know about Rubella Rubella Virus Rubella for Clinicians Complete list of diseases caused by togaviruses Immunology Fun with Germans Alphavirinae Arboviruses Sindbis Genes Science on Arboviruses

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/toga/links.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Togaviridae References
    839 46 Translation and Regulation Dominiguez G C Wang and T K Frey Sequence of the genome of Rubella virus evidence for genetic rearrangement during Togavirus evolution 1990 Virology 177 225 238 Ebel T Suomalainen M Intracellular transport of rubella virus structural proteins expressed from cloned cDNA J Gen Virol 73 1073 1086 Choi H K Tong L Minor W Dumas P Boege U Rossmann MG Wengler G Structure of Sindbis virus core protein reveals a chymotryspin like serine proteinase and the organization of the virion Nature 354 37 43 Dominguez GD Wang C Y Frey TK Sequence of the genome RNA of rubella virus evidence for genetic rearrangement during togavirus evolution Virology 177 225 238 Lemm AJ Rumenapt T Strauss EG Strauss JH Rice CM Polypeptide requirements for assembly of functional Sindbis virus replication complexes A model for the temporal regulation of minus and plus strand RNA synthesis EMBO J in press Shirako Y Strauss JH Regulation of Sindbis virus RNA replication Uncleaved P123 and nsP4 function in minus strand RNA synthesis whereas cleaved products from P123 are required for efficient plus strand synthesis J Virol 68 1874 1885 Strauss JH Viral proteinases Sem Virol 1 307 384 Mackenzie J S Poidinger M Lindsay M D Hall R A and Sammels L M Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Mosquito Borne Flaviviruses and Alphaviruses Enzootic in Australia Submitted to Virus Genes People to Talk to Cheng Holland Karolinska Institute Holland Cheng cbt ki se togavirus picornavirus comovirus nodavirus retrovirus Dryga Sergey Washington University in St Louis dryga borcim wustl edu alphaviruses Sin Vee Toga TBE Hahn Chang University of Virginia Health Sciences Center Microbiology csh2s virginia edu Togaviruses Flaviviruses Hobman Tom C University of Alberta thobman anat med ualberta ca rubella Lee Jia Yee Macfarlane Burnet Centre for Medical Research

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/toga/reference.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Togaviridae
    BORDER 0 HEIGHT 36 WIDTH 360 Immunology BORDER 0 HEIGHT 36 WIDTH 360 Links BORDER 0 HEIGHT 36 WIDTH 360 Links BORDER 0 HEIGHT 36 WIDTH 360 Staff BORDER 0 HEIGHT 36 WIDTH 360 Comments Humans and Viruses Human Biology

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/toga/indexjava.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Another member of the flavivirus family is Hepatitis C virus HCV Hepatitis C is a non arthropod borne virus which was placed in this family due to its physical structure properties and replication strategy Hepatitis C was discovered in 1989 after a number of posttransfusion non A non B hepatitis cases were investigated Hepatitis C is as common in developed nations as Hepatitis A or B Although 75 of infections

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/flavi/intro.html (2016-02-13)
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  • spread quickly throughout North and South America and killed thousands during the construction of the Panama canal An American army doctor named Walter Reed solved the mystery of how the fatal yellow jack disease was transmitted Reed demonstrated a filterable agent in the blood of yellow fever patients and discovered arbo transmission Yellow fever was the first human virus to be isolated and classified as a virus Today campaigns to

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/flavi/history.html (2016-02-13)
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