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  • Flavivirus shares sequence homology with certain plant viruses particularly tobacco mosaic virus Flavivirus s nucleotide sequence is similar to that of the picornavirus Flavivirus virions are spheroidal enveloped and 40 60 nm in diameter The surface projections of the envelope may be small surface appears rough or distinct obvious fringes in negative stains Flavivirus s nucleocapsid is icosahedral and 25 30 nm in diameter The flavivirus genome is composed of

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/flavi/taxon.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Japanese encephalitis encephalitis Murray Valley encephalitis Kunjin Rocio encephalitis Yellow fever fever hemorrhage jaundice Kyasanur Forest disease fever hemorrhage encephalitis Omsk hemorrhagic fever fever hemorrhage Tick borne encephalitis encephalitis Louping ill encephalitis Powassan encephalitis Hepatitis C hepatitis Hepatitis G hepatitis

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/flavi/virusdisease.html (2016-02-13)
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  • in the case of dengue and yellow fever humans are not involved in the primary transmission cycles Humans only get involved when they come into close contact with infected arthropods or drink milk from infected animals In certain areas arboviruses are enzoonotic and disease is endemic but in most areas arthropod transmission and flavivirus infection only reaches epidemic proportions at the end of the wet season or after a sudden

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/flavi/transmission.html (2016-02-13)
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  • dengue can produce a wide range of symptoms in infected individuals Depending on the immune response and host defenses dengue infection may produce inapparent disease an undifferentiated respiratory illness dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever dengue shock syndrome Infection with a particular flavivirus dengue is associated with a particular phenomenon known as immune enhancement In the case of dengue maternally or naturally acquired antibodies against one serotype do not prevent against infection with another serotype In fact previous exposure to one strain may exacerbate disease caused by exposure to a second strain The four distinct dengue serotypes are cross reacting but not cross neutralizing Upon reinfection the body responds to the first strain with which it was infected and mounts a strong immune response Uptake of the virus by macrophage cells increases and severe disease dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock sydrome may result This phenomenom is specific to dengue and is known as immune enhancement Hepatitis C induces persistent infection and high antibody titers in the chronically infected Immune responses are unable to clear HCV from the body since most of the virus is bound in virus antibody complexes Thus the viral genome remains for years in the liver

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/flavi/immun.html (2016-02-13)
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  • Yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis which are more deadly are currently being prevented through routine vaccination in endemic areas Unlike hepatitis most arboviruses cause acute rather than chronic infection Chronic hepatitis C infection can be managed with interferon therapy Alpha interferon must be injected three times a week at dosages of 2 3 million units in order for ATL alanine transferase activity levels to be reduced in chronic hepatitis patients

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/flavi/therapy.html (2016-02-13)
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  • should be utilized and stagnant pools of water drained to reduce the population of mosquitoes in the vicinity of towns Since the development of pesticide resistance it has become even more difficult to kill the mosquitoes Ticks persist throughout the year and live through more than a single breeding cycle of their host Thus they are more difficult to control than mosquitoes Little can be done to reduce the size

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/flavi/prevention.html (2016-02-13)
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  • certificate of vaccination is required every 10 years In South America and Africa the vaccine is slowly being integrated into the normal childhood vaccination schedule Vaccination policy is not uniform in all endemic areas though An experimental live attenuated subcutaneous tetravalent dengue vaccine containing the 16681 PDK 53 DEN 2 strain has been in clinical trials since 1987 The vaccine has been tested in mice but has not been proven

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/flavi/vaccination.html (2016-02-13)
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  • West Nile Culex mosquito birds fever rash arthralgia myalgia Africa tropical Asia Mediterranean Yellow Fever Aedes aegypti mosquito humans monkeys fever hemorrhage jaundice Tropical Africa and the Americas Omsk hemmorrhagic fever Dermacentor tick rodents fever hemorrhage Central Russia Tick borne encephalitis Ixodes tick rodents birds domesticated animals encephalitis Russia Eastern Europe Scandinavia Louping Ill Ixodes tick sheep birds encephalitis British Isles Powassan Ixodes tick small mammals encephalitis Canada US Russia

    Original URL path: http://virus.stanford.edu/flavi/table.html (2016-02-13)
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