archive-edu.com » EDU » T » THEOLOGY.EDU

Total: 471

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • Quartz Hill School of Theology
    Semitic Historical Arguments A The Khazars The anti Semites are desperate to prove that Jews really are not Jews at all that they are in fact some other group of people who are in essence only pretending to be Jews they want to prove that most if not all the Jews on the planet are actually Khazars Here is a quote describing the anti Semitic point of view The Jews of today are not the Israelites of the Old Testament but instead are Khazars Edomites Babylonians and Canaanites and most definitely not the descendants of Jacob Israel A close study of the Scriptures will show that in no way can the Jews or anyone else for that matter prove themselves to be pure blooded relatives of Abraham The majority of people we know as Jews today do not possess a single drop of Abrahamic blood in their veins and are not even remotely Semitic From mostly Jewish sources we have seen where the majority of Jews today come from Eastern Europe where they descended from a Turco Mongolian people from Russia known as Khazars who were converted to Judaism in the 8th Century AD Response An underlying presupposition of the anti Semitic argument for trying to identify the Jewish people as Khazars grows out of the odd thought that people who convert to Judaism are somehow not real Jews That is akin to saying that my children whom I have adopted are not my children that somehow they are not real Yet Ezra 8 17 tells us that converts to Judaism are Jews In every province and in every city wherever the edict of the king went there was joy and gladness among the Jews with feasting and celebrating And many people of other nationalities became Jews because fear of the Jews had seized them Are these people not Jewish then because they are converts Then I must not be a Christian since I am a convert in fact there must not be any Christians at all since every Christian is a convert This is a silly argument from the very outset It is certainly the case that the Khazars converted to Judaism It should be pointed out however that their conversion was the consequence of their exposure to Jewish people who lived with them They did not become Jewish just by waking up one morning and deciding that circumcision was the thing to do today From a very early time the Khazars were a diverse and generally tolerant people An order listing people being called up for military duty from the early days of the Khazar kingdom indicates that there were people with all sorts of hairstyles living quarters and lifestyles in the country But it would be a mistake to interpret the Islamic sources by arguing that the Khazars were not Jews Rather the inhabitants of Khazaria were of diverse origins Iranians Turks Slavs Greeks Goths and others and we cannot expect them to have always followed the faith of the ruling Khazar tribe because the Khazar king never forced the religion of Judaism upon them It seems that after the fall of their kingdom the Khazars adopted the Cyrillic script in place of Hebrew and began to speak East Slavic sometimes called Canaanic because Benjamin of Tudela called Kievan Rus the Land of Canaan These Slavic speaking Jews are documented to have lived in Kievan Rus during the 11th 13th centuries However Yiddish speaking Jewish immigrants from the west especially Germany Bohemia and other areas of Central Europe soon began to flood into Eastern Europe and it is believed that these newer immigrants eventually outnumbered the Khazars Thus Eastern European Jews predominantly have ancestors who came from Central Europe rather than from the Khazar kingdom The two groups eastern and western Jews intermarried over the centuries This idea is not new In a footnote in Chapter 2 of History of the Jews in Russia and Poland Volume 1 English translation 1916 the Ashkenazic historian Simon Dubnow writes It is quite possible that there was an admixture of settlers from the Khazar kingdom from the Crimea and from the Orient in general who were afterwards merged with the western element page 39 The Ashkenazi Jews are also the direct descendants of the Israelites Genetic tests seem to indicate some ancestry from the regions known today as Turkey Armenia Georgia and Iraq Mediterranean Fever for example is found among some Ashkenazi Jews as well as Armenians and Anatolian Turks It is now asserted that many Ashkenazi men who belong to the priestly caste Kohenim possess a Kohen marker on the Y chromosome A genetics study released in May 2000 led by Michael Hammer contends that the results show that Ashkenazi Jews are more closely related to Yemenite Jews Iraqi Jews Sephardic Jews Kurdish Jews and Arabs than they are to European Christian populations and that hardly any intermarriage or conversion has occurred to affect the Jewish groups over the centuries Additional more comprehensive genetic testing may help us to understand the extent of any Khazar contribution to the Ashkenazi gene pool For now it is clear that the Israelite traces among the East European Jews came from three sources first Sephardic Jews fleeing Spain and Portugal and resettling in Lithuania and Poland second Roman Jews and third Khazarian Jews who merged with Israelites just as the Schechter Letter states they became one people The Khazars and the Israelites mixed with each other Are all Jews around the world descended from the Khazars Certainly not But it is rational to conclude that some of them are just as there are African and European elements in the Jewish population Jewish people have been scattered all over the world wherever they were forced to wander they made converts they intermarried they lived their lives but they maintained themselves as Jewish Converts to Judaism are not less Jewish for the fact that they converted David s great grandmother was Ruth she was from Moab Did that make David not Jewish B Conspiracy Theories Another favorite of the anti Semites is to bring in negative comments on the Kabala and mix in some conspiracy theories So as an example consider the following Cabbala Kaballah Quabalah and Qabal are all reference of what is commonly referred to as Jewish Gnostic Mysticism Jews believe that the Hebrew Moseretic Version of the Torah was written by God Tetragrammaton himself prior to the creation They believe that when Moses went to the top of Mt Sinai God gave Him the written Torah as well as oral instructions for Cabbalism The primary written document concerning Cabbalism is the Zohar which is contained in the Jewish Talmud Kaballah texts are only written in their original Hebrew so non Jews hopefully cannot read them And how about these as examples of the evidences of conspiracy that the anti Semites love to disseminate The Jewish people as a whole will become its own Messiah It will attain world dominion by the dissolution of other races by the abolition of frontiers the annihilation of monarchy and by the establishment of a world republic in which the Jews will everywhere exercise the privilege of citizenship In this New World Order the children of Israel will furnish all the leaders without encountering opposition The Governments of the different peoples forming the world republic will fall without difficulty into the hands of the Jews It will then be possible for the Jewish rulers to abolish private property and everywhere to make use of the resources of the state Thus will the promise of the Talmud be fulfilled in which is said that when the Messianic time is come the Jews will have all the property of the whole world in their hands Baruch Levy Letter to Karl Marx La Revue de Paris p 574 June 1 1928 The great ideal of Judaism is that the whole world shall be imbued with Jewish teachings and that in a Universal Brotherhood of nations a greater Judaism in fact all the Separate races and religions shall disappear The Jewish World Feb 9 1883 Response I suppose there might be some Jewish people who believe that the Masoretic text was written by God himself prior to the creation but that is hardly the norm After all most scholars know that the Masoretes were Jewish scholars who lived in Babylonia and Palestine who strove to reproduce as far as possible the original text of the Hebrew Old Testament Their intention was not to interpret the meaning of the Scriptures but merely to transmit to future generations the authentic word of God To that end they gathered whatever manuscripts and oral traditions they could find Between the sixth and tenth centuries AD these scholars living in Tiberius on the coast of the Sea of Galilee also invented the current vowel points that have been added to the Hebrew text prior to this time all copies of the Bible were written only with consonants To insure that non native speakers of the language would be able to get the pronunciation right the Masoretes developed a remarkable system of dots and dashes that represent the vowel sounds These are placed above and below the letters of the consonantal text They used dots and dashes rather than creating new letters of the alphabet because they viewed the consonantal text as sacred and did not feel comfortable changing it in any way What is interesting about the comments on the Kabala or for that matter the quotes used to substantiate the idea that some huge Jewish conspiracy has designs on ruling the world is the implication that all Jews think the same way and believe the same things Nothing could be further from the truth It doesn t even begin to make sense It would be like imagining that all Christians think the same way on all issues There is an old saying about Baptists that where you have two Baptists you have three opinions The same thing can be applied to Jewish people or for that matter any group of human beings We could pull up quotes from white Anglo Saxon Americans who say the exact same things that the anti Semites imagine is true of all Jews We can find any number of people from any particular group you d care to pick who could be found saying things that other Americans or other people would find reprehensible I m sure we could take some statements by Christians in the context of the value and need for evangelizing and convince others that Christians are part of a worldwide conspiracy seeking a political take over of the world No group of people is homogenous III Anti Semites and British Israelism The romance of the ten northern tribes of Israel apparently lost from the pages of history has caught the fancy of numerous speculators The same school of thought which imagined that the wandering Israelites turned into the Afgans the Nestorians the Japanese or the Indians of North America has given rise to the British Israelite theory Anti Semites propose that the Anglo Saxons are the physical descendants of the Israelites and that Great Britain with her daughter America has inherited all the covenant blessings given to Abraham A great conglomeration of Biblical passages ancient texts linguistic arguments and legends are offered as proof However British Israelism is like a mirage from a distance it appears solid but when it is approached and examined it disappears like a vapor What is offered in support of British Israelism On the basis of 2 Kings 17 18 its proponents insist that when the Northern Kingdom was destroyed in 721 B C ALL the people of the ten tribes were taken to Assyria Only Judah that is the Jews were left in Palestine Later Judah was exiled too When after seventy years she returned to rebuild the temple ONLY the tribes of Judah Benjamin and Levi came back Additional proof for the disappearance of the Northern tribes is supposedly found in 2 Esdras 13 and in Josephus Antiquities What became of Israel According to a British Israel writer named Worth Smith the ten tribes remained captive in Assyria less than one hundred years Becoming too numerous for their captors to control they moved out of bondage about 661 B C and headed north toward southeastern Europe Originally calling themselves the Sons of Isaac they ultimately became known as the Saxons and later invaded England One of the major proponents of British Israelism in recent years was Herbert W Armstrong the leader of the then cultic Worldwide Church of God He claimed that there are many verses in the Bible which support Worth Smith s contention that Israel would move north to occupy a new promised land According to him Amos 9 8 9 indicates Israel will be sifted among the nations Hosea 3 4 predicts that Israel will abide many days without a king and 2 Samuel 7 10 and 1 Chronicles 17 9 foretell that Israel will dwell in a permanent place of her own Taking off from these four passages Armstrong argues Notice carefully how all these prophecies fit together After being removed from the Holy Land after being sifted among all nations abiding many days without a king losing their identity they are to be planted in a far away strange land now to become their own And they are to move no more Using an amalgamation of verses Armstrong then tries to prove that the faraway strange land is England and that our white English speaking peoples today Britain and America are actually and truly the Birthright tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh of the lost House of Israel Proof is supposedly offered by Genesis 17 4 which indicates Abraham was to be the father of many nations obviously Britain and America and by Genesis 28 14 which records his seed was to spread in all directions British Israelites go on to declare that the promises to Abraham were twofold First there were the kingly and spiritual promises consisting of the promised royal line and the promised Messiah These are called the scepter promises they went to Judah Genesis 49 10 These promises which culminated in Christ are acquired by grace Second there were the material and national promises consisting of wealth prosperity and power which are called the birthright promises Birthright has to do with RACE not grace according to Armstrong it is acquired simply by being born The right of the firstborn was never given to Judah the Jews it was given to Joseph 1 Chronicles 5 2 therefore according to the British Israelite position Judah was to receive none of the material promises Joseph who became Britain and America received them all Other Biblical promises and blessings Verses are presented which are intended to show the obvious parallels between Israel s promises and the blessings now upon the Anglo Saxon peoples Based on Genesis 22 17 British Israelites see that the descendants of Abraham clearly must possess the gate of their enemies What is a gate Armstrong explains that it is a narrow passage of entrance or exit When speaking nationally a gate would be such a pass as the Panama Canal the Suez Canal or the Strait of Gibraltar To British Israelites Genesis 28 13 14 indicates Israel will spread worldwide Genesis 26 1 5 promises Israel all these countries Micah 4 7 predicts Israel will become a powerful nation Isaiah 24 15 foretells Israel will be an island or coast people and Hosea 2 6 states that Israel will be blind to their origins Therefore to what could all these Scriptures refer but Britain and America Extra Biblical materials are used by British Israelites to help shore up the contention that Britain is Israel Linguistic evidence is offered according to British Israel adherents the word British is derived from the Hebrew words Brit covenant and ish man Thus the word British means covenant man In a similar way the word Saxon is shown to have a hidden significance Armstrong writes The name Isaac is the English form of the Hebrew word more exactly transliterated Yishaq How easy for the unstable semi vowel y to drop leaving Shaq or Saac Is it only coincidence that Saxon sounds the same as Saac s sons sons of Isaac Tea Tephi Another interesting substantiation of British Israelism is the legendary Tea Tephi of Ireland who is supposed to be the daughter of the last king of Judah Jeremiah was responsible for getting her to Ireland where she ultimately became the ancestor of the British Royal family The coronation stone of England the legendary Stone of Scone is purported to be the stone Jacob used as his pillow It was supposedly brought to Ireland by Jeremiah and is equated with the Lia Faif of Irish myth Edward Hine explains that Tephi herself who became the Queen was crowned upon it so were all the monarchs to Fergus the First of Scotland who had the stone taken there and so were all the monarchs from Fergus to James the First and from James the First to Victoria Appeal is made to tradition That the ten tribes were distinct and maintained their identity after the Assyrian captivity is an old idea It goes back to at least the second century B C the date of composition given to an apocryphal book called Tobit The story in this book centers around Tobit a member of the tribe of Naphtali who in the days of Shalmaneser king of the Assyrians was taken into captivity from Thisbe The action of the drama takes place primarily in Nineveh In the pseudepigraphal 2 Baruch a composite work produced in the latter half of the first century A D the author claims to be Baruch the secretary of Jeremiah cf Jer 36 4 In 2 Baruch 78 1 the author begins a letter to the nine and a half tribes which were across the river Euphrates In the apocryphal work 2 Esdras composed toward the end of the first century A D there is mention of the ten tribes in 13 39 45 These are the ten tribes which were led away from their own land into captivity in the days of King Hoshea whom Shalmaneser the king of the Assyrians led captive he took them across the river and they were taken into another land But they formed this plan that they would go to a more distant region where mankind had never lived to Azareth According to A Cohen it was generally believed by the rabbis of the Talmud that the ten tribes would come back and be united with the rest of Israel usually through the work of the Messiah There were a few rabbis though for example Tosifta in Sanhedrin XIII 12 who stated that The ten tribes will have no share in the World to Come According to Jacob Meyers writing in the Anchor Bible 2 Esdras 13 45 evidenced the attitude of the Jewish people at the time of its composition that the ten tribes were in a remote place since for many years there had been no contact with them The Mishna in Sanhedrin 10 3 also expressed this idea Rabbi Louis Isaac Rabinowitz mentions the interesting old legend also in the Talmud and in Ginzberg s series the Legends of the Jews Vol 4 of why the ten tribes were unable to rejoin their fellow Israelites they were exiled beyond the river Sambatyon During the six days of the week the water was rough and impassable On the Sabbath the water was quiet but the laws of the Sabbath made it impossible for Israel to cross then Josephus first century A D also mentions the ten tribes in his Antiquities Wherefore there are but two tribes in Asia and Europe subject to the Romans while the ten tribes are beyond the Euphrates till now and are an immense multitude and not to be estimated by numbers XI V 2 Jerome writing in the fifth century A D believed the ten tribes were still in the land of their captivity Why England It is clear therefore that the belief in ten lost tribes has a long tradition behind it Since the Middle Ages many works have been written locating the lost tribes among various peoples But where exactly did the theory that the lost tribes are in England originate Anton Damns writes that British Israelism can be traced back to a Protestant apologist Dr Abadie of Amsterdam who in 1723 is quoted as stating Unless the ten tribes have flown into the air or have been plunged into the center of the earth they must be sought for in the north and west and in the British Isles Founders of the movement Generally though the British Israel theory itself is traced back to Richard Brothers born in 1757 Brothers was a lieutenant in the British navy for awhile but quit the service in 1789 Because he refused to accept his half pay on account of religious scruples he found he was forever short of money ultimately he was forced to labor in a workhouse In 1790 Brothers says he received his first call from God On May 12 1792 he sent letters to the King of England the ministers of state and the Speaker of the House of Commons In these letters he warned them that on May 17 he would declare the imminent fulfillment of Daniel 7 Sometime later Brothers proclaimed that the king would die and that the crown would be given to him the nephew of the Almighty and prince of the Hebrews appointed to lead them to the land of Canaan Soon after predicting the king s death he was committed to Newgate where he claimed to have received poor treatment He did not remain there long and the experience did not seem to hurt his career He wrote fifteen books most arguing for an Israelite ancestry for the English including A Correct Account of the Invasion and Conquest of This Island by the Saxons Because he made a series of political predictions some of which came true he was able to attract numerous followers These he talked into selling their property so they could accompany him to his New Jerusalem which he planned to build on both sides of the Jordan River beginning in 1795 Though his followers included mainly the poor and ignorant he did attract a few educated and respectable people such as Nathanial Brassey Halhed the orientalist a member of Parliament from Lymington and Sharp an engraver Things did not continue to go well for Brothers for by order of the government he was finally committed to Bedlam as a dangerous lunatic Released in 1806 he lived for nearly two more decades but when he died in 1824 his New Jerusalem was still unbuilt In 1840 following the path blazed by Brothers John Wilson of England published Lectures on Our Israehtish Origin Apparently fairly popular the book went through several editions the fifth being issued in 1876 Five years before Wilson s fifth edition appeared Edward Hine published his Identity of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel With the Anglo Celto Saxons in which he expounded the basic tenets of British Israelism Hine s book was very successful selling more than 250 000 copies Like Brothers he occasionally got carried away with his own importance While he was editor of a magazine called The Banner of Israel a peculiar statement appeared on its pages the reference in Isaiah 60 which indicates a deliverer would come out of Zion to bring the glory of the Lord to Israel was applied to Hine himself a rather strange exegesis of the Scripture to say the least Its modern proponents Today there are many groups and individuals who have promoted British Israelism British Israelism is not a sect nor is it a cult in the normal sense of the term The movement is interdenominational and normally does not try to persuade its members to abandon other beliefs The movement is loosely organized being divided into widely scattered groups therefore there is generally little control over the members According to John Wilson British Israelism is an appendage to orthodoxy existing on the periphery of what is normally believed Not too surprisingly therefore British Israelites will often remain members of orthodox churches Yet one of its most persistent dangers is the ease with which British Israelism justifies and fosters racial pride prejudice and hate One of the best known proponents of British Israelism was Herbert W Armstrong and his Worldwide Church of God Armstrong s presentation was different from that of most teachers of the doctrine as he was the head of a cult and British Israelism was simply one part of his mixed up theology Therefore some other peculiar doctrines were added to the standard British Israel message Armstrong s teachings were propagated through the Plain Truth magazine and on The World Tomorrow broadcast His book The United States and British Commonwealth in Prophecy contained the major elements of British Israelism as preached by Armstrong Since the mid 1990s the World Wide Church of God has repudiated British Israel teaching Bertrand Comparet a British Israelite who lives in San Diego has a radio program and has written some literature on the subject of British Israelism Destiny Publishers is a firm that specializes in printing literature dealing with British Israelism The head of the firm Howard Rand has written some literature on the subject Anti Semites in general have adopted this concept and propagate it on the Internet and other publications Response British Israelites make a number of claims and offer a substantial amount of proof for them The foundation of their belief is found in their insistence that Israel was removed from the land in 721 B C that only the tribe of Judah the Jews was left However we find that the Biblical record precludes any possibility of the other tribes being lost Thus a close examination will reveal their beliefs to be without basis A Scripture often used by British Israelites to support their claim that all Israel was taken captive is 2 Kings 17 18 Therefore the Lord was very angry with Israel and removed them out of his sight there was none left but the tribe of Judah only At first glance this plain statement of Scripture might indeed seem to indicate that no one was left except the tribe of Judah However it must be remembered that Levi and Benjamin were also left behind as clearly indicated by such passages as 2 Chronicles 34 30 32 Even some British Israelites admit to this fact Therefore 2 Kings 17 18 must be interpreted as referring to Judah as a kingdom and to the end of the Northern Kingdom as a separate entity Remember that under Solomon s son Reheboam the nation of Israel split into two political units divided north and south with the Southern Kingdom continuing to be ruled by descendants of David while the Northern Kingdom was ruled by several unrelated dynasties The Southern Kingdom came to be called Judah because that was the largest tribe in the south while the Northern Kingdom retained the name Israel This split only lasted about two hundred years until the destruction of the Northern Kingdom by the Assyrians Scripture refutations The end of the Northern Kingdom did not mean an end to the ten tribes as a brief review of Israel s history will show In the ninth year of Hoshea s reign the people of Israel were exiled to Assyria 2 Kings 17 6 This corresponds to the sixth year of the reign of Judah s King Hezekiah 18 9 11 Hezekiah was then followed by Manasseh 20 21 21 18 Amon 21 19 23 and Josiah 21 24 Beginning in the twelfth year of Josiah s reign the Bible records the following And he Josiah burned the bones of the priests upon their altars and cleansed Judah and Jerusalem And so did he in the cities of Manasseh and Ephraim and Simeon even unto Naphtali with their mattocks in their ruins round about Now in the eighteenth year of his reign he sent Shaphan Maaseiah and Joah They delivered the money that was brought into the house of God which the Levites that kept the doors had gathered of the hand of Manasseh and Ephraim and of all the remnant of Israel and of all Judah and Benjamin and they returned to Jerusalem 2 Chronicles 34 5 9 It is very clear from this passage that Judah was not alone Here more than ninety years after the fall of the Northern Kingdom the Levites were able to collect money from Manasseh Ephraim and the remnant of Israel King Josiah was determined to keep the Passover as it should be kept In 35 18 we are told that Neither did all the kings of Israel keep such a Passover as Josiah kept and the priests and the Levites and all Judah and Israel that were present and the inhabitants of Jerusalem Obviously then Judah was not alone in keeping the Passover either People from the Northern Kingdom kept it as well Historical records from the time also indicate a large number of the ten tribes remained in the land In Ancient Near Eastern texts Sargon s record of the conquest of Samaria makes it clear that most of the Israelite people were not taken to Assyria I besieged and conquered Samaria Sa me ri na led away as booty 27 290 inhabitants of it I formed from among them a contingent of fifty chariots and made remaining inhabitants assume their social positions Archaeological evidence indicates that the remnant mentioned in 2 Chronicles 34 9 was not a small group According to recent archaeological findings as the Northern Kingdom fell thousands of refugees fled south to Judah in order to escape the Assyrians From the death of Solomon until the end of the eighth century B C the city of Jerusalem grew very little But suddenly around the end of the eighth century the population exploded expanding three or four times its original size growing from 7 500 to about 24 000 The evidence for an influx of refugees is not confined to Jerusalem Numerous settlements in the Judean hills around Jerusalem in the Negev in the Judean desert and along the Dead Sea were heavily settled for the first time in the eighth century B C Therefore the lost tribes are found where the Assyrians left them in the land of Palestine But what about 2 Esdras 13 and Josephus Antiquities which are both cited by British Israelites as proof of their theory So far as 2 Esdras is concerned its reliability is open to considerable doubt A composite work in three parts composed at different times from the 1st century to mid 2nd century A D the book is known only from translations Both the Semitic original and almost all the Greek texts are lost There are also historical inaccuracies in the text For example 3 1 records that In the thirtieth year after the destruction of our city I Salathiel who am called Ezra was in Babylon The problem with this verse is that thirty years after the destruction of Jerusalem in 585 B C Ezra had not yet been born and would not appear on the scene for another hundred years when he led a group back in 458 B C So the historical accuracy of anything in the book is open to serious question Even if the statement in 2 Esdras 13 so often quoted by British Israelites that the ten tribes formed this plan that they would leave the multitude of nations and go to a more distant region is accepted it offers little if any real support After the movements of the ten tribes to a distant land are described we read in 13 46 Then they dwelt there until the last times and now when they are about to come again the Most High will stop the channels of the river again so that they may be able to pass over This verse seems to indicate that the tribes were about to come back supposedly in the time of Ezra this conflicts with British Israelism which sees the ten tribes as remaining in a distant land Josephus also proves to be of little help to their cause for the ten tribes mentioned in his Antiquities are certainly not lost as a reading of the entire passage and especially the following lines makes clear So when Esdras had delivered these things to the priests he gave to God as the appointed sacrifices of the whole burnt offerings twelve bulls on account of the common preservation of the people Josephus speaks of the common preservation of the people and twelve bulls one for each of the twelve tribes is sacrificed Again there is no indication that the ten tribes were lost Thus British Israelism is seen to lack a foundation What then will happen to the edifice built upon this non existent foundation when we examine it closely Abraham father of many nations According to British Israel teaching Israel moved north after her exile in Assyria The verses used as proof upon examination are seen to be wrenched from their context and it is a wonder that those of the British Israel persuasion can find any support in them Abraham according to Genesis 17 4 was to be the father of many nations British Israelites think they see Britain and America here forgetting that Abraham had several sons Not only was there Isaac but there was also Ishmael Zimran Jokshan Medan Midian Ishbak and Shuah And these many sons with their sons were to become the progenitors of many nations However those many nations do not include Britain or the United States Biblical proofs examined Many Scripture verses are given by British Israelites to support their contention that Great Britain is Israel Basing the argument on passages which promise certain blessings to Israel they claim Britain has been blessed in the same way so Britain must be Israel However the verses upon examination are found to be Millennial promises to be fulfilled when Messiah reigns not in this Christian dispensation British Israelism divides scepter promises from birthright promises with the scepter promises of the Throne of David and Messiah reserved to Judah while the birthright promises of material blessings are reserved to Joseph However a quick look at Deuteronomy 27 30 is enough to dispel this myth Not only is all of Israel promised material blessings 28 1 14 but all twelve tribes are also promised cursings 28 15 68 not just Judah as some in British Israelism try to claim Furthermore there will be no restoration of blessings until Israel returns to the promised land which is the land of Palestine alone 30 1 5 cf Genesis 15 18 21 17 7 8 Ezekiel 37 Even if the people of Britain and America were the Israelites they could not have the blessing of God until they were back in the land of Canaan Unsupported studies of word origins British Israelites look for some extra Biblical proofs of their beliefs attempting to make use of philology the study of languages Saxon is said to mean Saq s sons Isaac s sons However according to the Oxford English Dictionary Saxon is from the old English Saexan the old High German Sahsun and the Greek Saxones the name may be derived from Saho the name of the weapon used by the Saxons One thing is certain Saxon is not related to the Hebrew Yits haq which sounds nothing like Sax In Hebrew the word for son is

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/response.htm (2013-12-09)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Quartz Hill School of Theology
    context if one imagines that this passage is justification for hating the Jewish people There s the little matter of what Paul argues in Romans 11 to consider after all which may alter one s understanding just a hair of what he might mean here in 1 Thessalonians You might notice as you read through the New Testament that Paul uses Jew and Israelite indiscriminately For example in Romans 11 1 Paul writes I ask then Did God reject his people By no means I am an Israelite myself a descendant of Abraham from the tribe of Benjamin What is really interesting is what he then says in Acts 22 3 I am a Jew born in Tarsus of Cilicia but brought up in this city Under Gamaliel I was thoroughly trained in the law of our fathers and was just as zealous for God as any of you are today If you notice Paul uses that Greek word Ioudaios you know the one that your friend wants to translate in his idiosyncratic way Paul claims to be one just as in Romans 11 1 he claimed to be a Benjamite So let s see Paul is not descended from the Tribe of Judah And he very clearly is not an inhabitant of Judea either So what can we make of this Maybe that your friend is mistaken and that the word Jew is a general term for Israelite Notice also Acts 2 where we are told that a bunch of Jews have gathered together for Pentecost and that they are from all over the place and what does Peter do In Acts 2 22 he addresses them all as Men of Israel Oh and then in 2 23 he says that these men of Israel together with wicked men that is the Romans who actually carried out the execution itself put Jesus to death Think back to that passage in 1 Thessalonians 2 14 15 only Judeans did this But here it says it was men of Israel Of course I suppose since the anti Semites wish to refer to Jews as Christ killers that we should just ignore the fact that the Romans are the ones who actually killed him and we should also ignore the fact that according to Luke 23 34 Jesus prayed and asked his Father forgive them for they know not what they do He must have been delirious right Jesus really wants us to hate them and never forgive them right That s what he really meant huh Ah and then we should mention something from the Old Testament just in passing as we think about the use of the word Jew If we look at Esther 2 5 it reads this way Now there was in the citadel of Susa a Jew of the tribe of Benjamin named Mordecai son of Jair the son of Shimei the son of Kish I suppose the author was just confused and didn t really mean to tell us that Modecai of the tribe of Benjamin was a Jew since that wouldn t be accurate huh And simply changing the word from Jew to Judahite doesn t change reality I m afraid any more than calling his tail a leg suddenly gives a horse five legs It is simply an attempt to justify hatred of the Jewish people by attempting to obscure the fact that the people who are called Jews are the same people that gave us the Bible and Jesus If one can argue that they really aren t descended from Abraham if they really aren t Jewish at all if the Anglo Saxons are the actual descendents of Israel then hatred of the Jews doesn t violate Genesis 12 1 3 and other scriptures And you need to face up to what this is all about hatred of a specific group of people because they are that group of people You are not successfully sugar coating this This is racism pure and simple If you chose to hate the Jews then again understand very clearly that you are violating the central point and theme of the Bible loving God and loving your neighbor as yourself And again if you claim to love God whom you haven t seen but hate your neighbor whom you have how can the love of God really be in you It tires me to see the inconsistency in the argument your friend makes He says Never receive anything as truth from anyone who does not accept Jesus as the Christ and And when commentators and translators disregard these verses by taking the word of liars such as the ones who claim descent from the tribes of Israel yet reject Christ and are indeed His most virulent adversaries we must reject the places in their commentaries and translations where they have believed these liars And then he happily quotes the Jewish Almanac to bolster his position that the Jews aren t Israelites Strictly speaking it is incorrect to call an ancient Israelite a Jew or to call a contemporary Jew an Israelite or Hebrew Jewish Almanac 1980 So we ll ignore what the Jewish people say when it is inconvenient but when they happen to say something we like then we ll take it as true And when it comes to scholarship don t make me laugh If your friend knew how to translate he wouldn t argue for translating the same word the same way in all situations Does your friend know any languages other than English Has he even paid attention to English enough to notice that the same word can have entirely different meanings in different contexts Do you suppose there is a one to one correspondence between languages and that translation is merely a matter of replacement If that were the case machine translations would actually make sense I must say that your friend s use of Strong s concordance as the basis for his

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/response2.htm (2013-12-09)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Frequently Asked Questions
    of mine with whom I discuss ancient history of the Middle East His wife saw the discussion regarding the archaeological excavations of Ugarit and he passed it along to me I must say that I am surprised and impressed by the display of intelligent and loving hearts and minds I have seen on your website When I saw that Quartz Hill Community Church is a member of the Southern Baptist Convention I must say that I was amazed I m afraid I have let bigotry creep into my own heart as I allowed the negativity preached by a few members of this organization color my view of the entire Convention I thought that the SBC was a group of hate mongers and I was terribly wrong After visiting such hateful websites as www godhatesfags com reading your Current Diatribe was a refreshing difference It was refreshing because it was a message rooted in love instead of hate and fear Your thoughts your research and your views have touched me in a very positive way and for that I am extremely thankful With love in your heart there is nothing that you cannot overcome and your organization is a living testament

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/letters.htm (2013-12-09)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Old Diatribes
    of Quartz Hill School of Theology Which letters get posted will be entirely up to us and our decisions are final Letters may be edited for conciseness and to correct minor errors of spelling or grammar 1 The Theological Heresy of Modern Liberal and Conservative Political Activism 2 Lies People Like to Believe 3 The Good Old Days Yeah Right 4 God Loves Gay People 5 The Status of Women

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/diatribes/olddiatribe.htm (2013-12-09)
    Open archived version from archive


  • that are designed for narrow characters are generally unshifted whereas the corresponding diacriticals for wide characters are shifted the standalone dieresis following TLG is the exception Standalone vowels e g before an uppercase letter at the beginning of a word may be simulated by typing a non breaking space 7 followed by the narrow breathing mark accent combination A few differences may exist among keyboards for some shifted keys e g is shift or shift 2 so people with different keyboards will have to make the proper adjustments character description key to push alpha uppercase A shift a beta uppercase B shift b gamma uppercase G shift g delta uppercase D shift d epsilon uppercase E shift e zeta uppercase Z shift z eta uppercase H shift h vau digamma uppercase V shift v theta uppercase Q shift q iota uppercase I shift i kappa uppercase K shift k lambda uppercase L shift l mu uppercase M shift m nu uppercase N shift n xi uppercase C shift c omicron uppercase O shift o pi uppercase P shift p qoppa uppercase J shift j rho uppercase R shift r sigma uppercase S shift s tau uppercase T shift t upsilon uppercase U shift u phi uppercase F shift f chi uppercase X shift x psi uppercase Y shift y omega uppercase W shift w sampi uppercase grave accent alpha lowercase a beta lowercase b gamma lowercase g delta lowercase d epsilon lowercase e vau digamma lowercase v zeta lowercase z eta lowercase h theta lowercase q iota lowercase i iota subscript virgule shift kappa lowercase k lambda lowercase l mu lowercase m nu lowercase n xi lowercase c omicron lowercase o pi lowercase p rho lowercase r sigma initial medial lowercase s sigma final lowercase j tau lowercase t upsilon

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/software/spionic.rea (2013-12-09)
    Open archived version from archive


  • the distinction between upper and lower case in key to push all shifted keys are so indicated Also note that vowels that are designed for wide characters most letters are all unshifted whereas the corresponding vowels for narrow characters gimel waw zayin yod nun are shifted Vowels that go with the final kaf and nun are mostly mapped to numbers A few differences may exist among keyboards for some shifted keys e g is shift or shift 2 so people with different keyboards will have to make the proper adjustments character description key to push alef shift 0 bet b gimel g dalet d he h waw w zayin z het x tet shift yod y kaf initial medial k kaf final K shift k lamed l mem initial medial m mem final M shift m nun initial medial n nun final N shift n samek s ayin shift 9 pe initial medial p pe final P shift p tsade initial medial c tsade final C shift c qof q resh r sin shin without dot taw t patah wide char a patah narrow char A shift a also furtive patah patah final kaf 0 zero qamets wide char f qamets narrow char F shift f qamets final kaf 1 one hireq wide char i hireq narrow char I shift i hireq final kaf 2 segol wide char e segol narrow char E segol final kaf 3 sere wide char single quote sere narrow char double quote shift sere final kaf 4 holem wide char o holem narrow char O shift o also Mas abbrev number mark holem final kaf 5 qibbuts wide char u qibbuts narrow char U shift u qibbuts final kaf 6 shewa wide char semi colon shewa narrow char colon shift shewa final kaf 7 hatef

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/software/sptiberi.rea (2013-12-09)
    Open archived version from archive


  • that are not present in Greek In addition to the standard Sahidic characters three forms of the Bohairic Achmimic chai corresponding to the variant forms of the glyph are included The composite character ti and the supralinear stroke are also included A few differences may exist among keyboards for some shifted keys e g is shift or shift 2 so people with different keyboards will have to make the proper

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/software/spachmim.rea (2013-12-09)
    Open archived version from archive


  • joined on the right is a special case Although spacing between joined letters should be adequate for most purposes a special joiner character is included for increasing the space between two joined letters A few differences may exist among keyboards for some shifted keys e g is shift or shift 2 so people with different keyboards will have to make the proper adjustments character description key to push alaph shift 0 beth unjoined joined on right b beth joined on left joined on both B shift b gamal unjoined joined on right g gamal joined on left joined on both G shift g dalath d he h waw w zayn z heth unjoined joined on right x heth joined on left joined on both X shift x teth unjoined joined on right teth joined on left joined on both shift yudh unjoined joined on right y yudh joined on left joined on both Y shift y kaph unjoined joined on right k kaph joined on left joined on both K shift k lamadh unjoined joined on right l lamadh joined on left joined on both L shift l mim unjoined joined on right m mim joined on left joined on both M shift m nun unjoined n nun joined on left joined on both N shift n nun joined on right o semkath unjoined joined on right s semkath joined on left joined on both S shift s e unjoined joined on right 9 e joined on left joined on both shift 9 pe unjoined joined on right p pe joined on left joined on both P shift p tsadhe c qoph unjoined joined on right q qoph joined on left joined on both Q shift q rish r shin unjoined joined on right 4 shin joined on left joined

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/software/spedessa.rea (2013-12-09)
    Open archived version from archive



  •