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  • L425 Biblical Textual Criticism: The Old Testament
    16 8f f errors of joining and dividing words Amos 6 12 Is 2 20 Besides these errors of sight there are also intentional errors These deliberate alterations were made for grammatical as well as theological reasons Some of the most famous of these deliberate alterations are the Tiqqune Sopherim the alterations of the scribes These changes were made for purely theological reasons and some of them are Gen 18 22 Num 11 15 12 12 I Sam 3 13 2 Sam 16 12 20 1 I Kings 12 16 2 Chr 10 16 Jer 2 11 Ezek 8 17 Hos 4 7 Hab 1 12 Zech 2 12 Mal 1 13 Ps 106 20 Job 7 20 32 3 and Lam 3 20 So what steps are necessary in order to reconstruct the original reading 1 The Hebrew Masoretic Text must be read 2 The versions must be consulted 3 The evidence from the Dead Sea Scrolls must be examined and given preference unless the reading is simply impossible 4 The manuscripts must be weighed not counted If the versions must be consulted in a study of the Old Testament text then we must know what these versions are 1 The Samaritan Pentateuch This is a version of the Old Testament Pentateuch which must be used cautiously It tends to be periphrastic and thus is not necessarily a help in determining the original text 2 The Septuagint This is a translation of the Old Testament in Greek and is worthy of special consideration It represents a text type which is centuries older than the Masoretic text Yet at certain places it also tends to be expansionistic That is it tends to add to the text portions which it hopes will be explanatory as it does in Esther and Daniel

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/l426.htm (2013-12-09)
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  • L425 Biblical Textual Criticism: The New Testament
    course Now the specific rules which pertain to New Testament criticism will be given 1 Only one reading can be original Though this might seem unnecessary to say there are still exegetes who think that text criticism is unimportant Yet when we recall that the author of a text could only write one original then we have to try to find that original using the tools we have at hand 2 Only the reading which best satisfies the external and internal criteria can be original That is only the oldest and best attested reading can be original 3 External criteria are the most important That is the oldest manuscripts are more important than the youngest 4 Internal criteria are less important than external 5 The Greek tradition is more important than the versions 6 Manuscripts should be weighed not counted 7 Certain text families are superior to others For example texts from the Alexandrian family are superior to texts from the Byzantine family 8 The most difficult reading is the more probable reading This because scribes would correct grammar rather than confuse it 9 The text critic must maintain constant familiarity with the text or practice makes perfect Now to illustrate these principles we will examine some New Testament texts where we can practice what we have learned We will look specifically at texts which have been determined to be secondary and thus verses that are in the KJV but which have no support from the earliest and best texts This means that these verses have been added by scribes in order to clarify or explain the text The student must look at his or her Greek New Testament in order to examine the evidence One text will be fully explained and the student will then be enabled to examine

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/l427.htm (2013-12-09)
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  • Essay Questions for L425 - Biblical Textual Criticism: Introduction
    in the form of a five page essay use the assigned text and any other resources to help you and then submit your answers to the Quartz Hill School of Theology for evaluation and grading 1 Explain the necessity for textual criticism answer and debunk those who believe there must have been one perfectly preserved text a so called Textus Receptus 2 Discuss the methods of textual criticism Demonstrate that

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  • Essay for L425 - Biblical Textual Criticism: The Old Testament
    text and any other resources to help you and then submit your essay to the Quartz Hill School of Theology for evaluation and grading 1 Take your Hebrew Text and using Genesis 1 as the basis examine it in conjunction with the Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate and make your own judgments concerning what the original text would have been write out this text in an English translation By doing

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  • Essay for L425 Biblical Textual Criticism: The New Testament
    the form of a ten page essay use the assigned text and any other resources to help you and then submit your essay to the Quartz Hill School of Theology for evaluation and grading 1 Examine the Greek text of Mark 16 and determine for yourself the evidence for retaining verses 9 17 or give the reasons why you would leave these verses out of the text Use all of

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  • B725 Bible Methods: Introduction and Textual Criticism
    must be weighed and not counted there is no majority rule in textual criticism In the following pages we shall examine first Old Testament text criticism and then New Testament text criticism The student is invited to take their Hebrew Bible in hand and as the voice said to Augustine so many years ago Tolle lege Take read Old Testament Textual Criticism The Old Testament was written in Hebrew and some small portion in Aramaic As it was copied over the decades and centuries it was inevitable that differences between the various copies would arise The goal of textual criticism is to remove these errors and restore the original reading The following examples will demonstrate the kinds of errors that have arisen In all of the following examples the student will need to have their Hebrew Bible with them in order to look at the textual notes at the bottom of the page on which the passage is found 1 Errors of sight a confusion of similar letters Is 28 20 Is 9 8 Is 30 33 Isa 42 25 Is 5 29 2 Kings 20 4 Is 33 1 b transposition of letters Is 9 18 Is 32 19 c haplography leaving out a letter or word Is 5 8 Is 8 11 Is 26 3f Is 38 11 d dittography repeating a letter or word Is 30 30 Is 38 20 e Omission by homoioteleuton leaving off words which have similar endings Is 4 5f Is 16 8f f errors of joining and dividing words Amos 6 12 Is 2 20 Besides these errors of sight there are also intentional errors These deliberate alterations were made for grammatical as well as theological reasons Some of the most famous of these deliberate alterations are the Tiqqune Sopherim the alterations of the scribes These changes were made for purely theological reasons and some of them are Gen 18 22 Num 11 15 12 12 I Sam 3 13 2 Sam 16 12 20 1 I Kings 12 16 2 Chr 10 16 Jer 2 11 Ezek 8 17 Hos 4 7 Hab 1 12 Zech 2 12 Mal 1 13 Ps 106 20 Job 7 20 32 3 and Lam 3 20 So what steps are necessary in order to reconstruct the original reading 1 The Hebrew Masoretic Text must be read 2 The versions must be consulted 3 The evidence from the Dead Sea Scrolls must be examined and given preference unless the reading is simply impossible 4 The manuscripts must be weighed not counted The Versions of the Old Testament If the versions must be consulted in a study of the Old Testament text then we must know 1 The Samaritan Pentateuch This is a version of the Old Testament Pentateuch which must be used cautiously It tends to be periphrastic and thus is not necessarily a help in determining the original text 2 The Septuagint This is a translation of the Old Testament in Greek and is worthy of special consideration It represents a text type which is centuries older than the Masoretic text Yet at certain places it also tends to be expansionistic That is it tends to add to the text portions which it hopes will be explanatory as it does in Esther and Daniel as well as in Jeremiah 3 The Aramaic Targums This version of the Old Testament is interesting to consult but not a reliable guide to the original text as it is simply an expansionistic paraphrase of the Hebrew text 4 The Syriac Version Very similar to the Aramaic targum 5 The Old Latin This version is good and very helpful in reconstructing the text 6 The Vulgate Jerome s translation of the Old Testament it is also very useful in reconstructing the text as it existed in the 4th century A D 7 The Dead Sea Scrolls Though these texts are clearly not translations of the Old Testament as they are also in Hebrew and Aramaic these texts represent a type 1000 years older than the Masoretic text Using all of these tools the student examines them together and using his or her best judgment decides which text best represents the original reading Though this may sound quite hazardous those trained in textual criticism are quite capable of making these judgments The present student must recall that this course is simply an Introduction to text criticism among other things and not a full course on text criticism in all its glory New Testament Textual Criticism Our purpose is to introduce the student to the theory and practice of the textual criticism of the New Testament Textual criticism is the science which seeks to establish the text which most closely matches the earliest state of a document In particular New Testament textual criticism strives to establish the original reading for the Greek text of the New Testament In addition text criticism also seeks to understand the history and transmission of the text The essential tools for work in New Testament text criticism are 1 a concordance The text critic and exegete must make frequent use of a good concordance In this way the exegete will be able to see how words are used in other portions of the text and will thus be able to better determine the original text 2 a dictionary or Lexicon The exegete must know the meaning of the word before he or she can determine if it makes sense in its context 3 a grammar The student must know the grammar of the language in which he or she is working in order to determine corrections that scribes may have made for grammatical reasons 4 a synopsis In New Testament studies it is important to make use of a synopsis of the Gospels Scribes sometimes harmonized one Gospel with another and use of a Synopsis can help the student see how and where this has happened 5 commentaries The exegete would do well to examine how

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/b725a.htm (2013-12-09)
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  • Biblical Methods: Literary Criticism
    birth in Matthew and Luke There are 4 accounts of the resurrection in the Gospels These are called by literary students doublettes because they double the story or repeat it 2 Commentary In many Biblical texts there are comments made upon the text and these comments have become incorporated into the text itself Whenever for instance you read in the New Testament that x being interpreted is y you have stumbled across a piece of commentary 3 Stylistic Differences The literary critic seeks to uncover different authorial hands in a document by noticing stylistic and vocabulary differences For example the author of Revelation writes in a completely different style than the author of 1 John Their vocabularies and syntax are utterly different Literary critics call notice to the differences and suggest that they arise because the authors of these documents are different people 4 Chronological Varia In some parts of the Bible one can read such phrases as what were formerly called seers are now This indicates to literary critics that the author wrote seer but when the document was edited the word seer had become obsolete and so the newer word prophet was inserted in its place These literary clues lead many to unravel these strands and discover a whole world of literary activity within the Biblical materials The method of literary criticism is an important tool in Biblical studies simply because it allows us to unravel the threads and see the individual strands which make up the documents of the Bible A further development in Literary studies allows us to get a glimpse of how the Bible was understood by the early Church for the order of the Biblical books has a great deal of influence on how they are read and understood For example in the Hebrew

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  • Biblical Methods: Redaction Criticism
    lifted up that whoever believes in him may have eternal life For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son so that everyone who believes in him may not perish but may have eternal life Indeed God did not send the Son into the world to condemn the world but in order that the world might be saved through him Those who believe in him are not condemned but those who do not believe are condemned already because they have not believed in the name of the only Son of God And this is the judgment that the light has come into the world and people loved darkness rather than light because their deeds were evil For all who do evil hate the light and do not come to the light so that their deeds may not be exposed But those who do what is true come to the light so that it may be clearly seen that their deeds have been done in God The bold print can clearly be seen to interrupt the flow of the narrative and the it frequently offers clarification or explanation This is what redaction critics mean when they talk of edited text The student can find these editorial insertions and clarifications in most passages in the Bible The passage above is offered simply because it is very well known The purpose of these editorial insertions is to make explicit what the editor saw as the underlying theological message The editor thus saw himself as simply making plain what he may have considered to be unclear Redaction criticism is a very subjective method and the student should make sure that there is a clear seam before assigning a passage to the editor A very famous and yet plainly clear example of editorial work is found in the so called long ending of Mark The oldest manuscripts of Mark do not contain Mark 16 9ff see the text criticism module The verses appended by a later editor clearly attmempt to harmonize the ending of Mark with the endings of Matthew and Luke Here the editor wanted to make sure that the Great Commission and the post resurrection appearences were included in Mark He saw their absence as a possible source of confusion so he clarified by adding them in Here is Mark 16 Again the BOLD face type are the editorial insertions while the plain type is the original narrative of the author When the sabbath was over Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James and Salome bought spices so that they might go and anoint him And very early on the first day of the week when the sun had risen they went to the tomb They had been saying to one another Who will roll away the stone for us from the entrance to the tomb When they looked up they saw that the stone which was very large had already been rolled back As they entered the tomb

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/b725c.htm (2013-12-09)
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