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  • Lesson 31
    run the infinitive expresses what the child likes to do When the infinitive is used as a noun it is simply being used as the object of the main verb Examples of this kind of usage abound in the New Testament ASSIGNMENT Translate I John 2 18 29 Conclusion Well dear student if you have done all of the work asked of you you have in hand the necessary tools

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/greek/gk31.htm (2013-12-09)
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  • Hebrew Lesson One
    second form is what is called the final form of the letter The final form is used at the end of a word The other form is used everywhere else in a word There are twenty two letters in the Hebrew alphabet The shin sin is counted as a single letter Hebrew texts are written from right to left the opposite of English Notice also that all these letters are consonents As with many Semitic languages the vowels were not originally indicated by the writing system both Modern Hebrew and Arabic write only the consonents Vowel pronunciation was understood from a knowledge of the language and context As Hebrew ceased to be a spoken language the letters vav and yod came to be used to sometimes represent the o or u and i or e vowels respectively and later the Masoretes scholars in Tiberias between 700 and 1100 AD developed a system of dots and dashes placed above and below the consonents to represent the vowels You will learn this system in Lesson Two Letter Name Letter Pronunciation alef glottal stop bet b b as in boy or v as in have gimel g g as in go dalet d d as in dog he h h as in hate vav w v as in valley zayin z z as in zoo het x ch as in German Bach tet t as in tick yod y y as in yellow kaph k K k as in kitty or ch as in German Bach lamed l l as in look mem m M m as in moon nun n N n as in nanny samek s s as in silly ayin glottal stop pe p P p as in peace or f as in infant tsade c C ts as in

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/hebrew/hb01.htm (2013-12-09)
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  • Hebrew Lesson Two
    as in hole qibbuts su u as in brute shewa s a half vowel like the second and fourth i in indivisible or the a in infant Additionally there are several special combinations of vowels and consonents called diphthongs as follows Vowel Name Vowel Pronunciation holem wOs o as in hole shureq w s u as in brute hiriq yod ysi i as in machine hiriq sere ys e as in they hatef patah sj a half vowel like the second and fourth i in indivisible or the a in infant hatef segol sv a half vowel like the second and fourth i in indivisible or the a in infant hatef qamets s a half vowel like the second and fourth i in indivisible or the a in infant qamets hatuph sf o as in hole Notice that w is pronounced as a single sound o the vav w is no longer treated as a consonent It is just the vowel and nothing else The same goes for w which is just a u and all the combinations of vowels with consonents Usually the qamets represents the vowel a Under certain conditions the same sign represents the vowel o When

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/hebrew/hb02.htm (2013-12-09)
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  • Hebrew Lesson Three
    it is being modified by the word ugly Adverb modifies a verb an adjective or another adverb Example the word slowly in the phrase he works slowly where works is a verb and it is being modified by the word slowly Subject the actor in a sentence Example The dog threw the bone to the boy where dog is the primary actor Direct Object the noun that is being acted upon directly by the subject Example The dog threw the bone to the boy where bone is the direct object that is the thing being acted upon directly Indirect Object the noun that is being acted upon indirectly by the subject Example The dog threw the bone to the boy where boy is the thing being acted upon indirectly A summary to illustrate The hungry dog threw the ugly bone hard to the boy Dog is the subject Threw is the verb Bone is the direct object and boy is the indirect object Hungry and ugly are adjectives Hard is an adverb Dog bone and boy are nouns Threw is the verb Introduction to Gender English is unusual among the world s languages in being mostly gender neutral That is only animate beings are thought of as either masculine or feminine Most English nouns are neuter and our verbal system does not distinguish between masculine or feminine subjects Hebrew on the other hand is not gender neutral at all All nouns in Hebrew are either masculine or feminine and there is no neuter at all Make a note of that Additionally the verbal system distinguishes between the masculine and feminine gender of the subjects in a sentence as we will discover in later lessons For the moment you only need to think about the fact that all nouns animate or

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/hebrew/hb03.htm (2013-12-09)
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  • Hebrew Lesson Four
    f mi blessing hkfrfb prophet ybinF law hrfwOt house tyib a boy dleye tree C name M light rwO Prepositions from Nmi with beings M i without ylib to ry i upon over conserning l a under instead of txata The Adjective in Hebrew First let s make sure you understand what an adjective is Adjectives are words that modify nouns Here are some examples in English good dog bad cow ugly flower disgusting shoe slow rocket empty socket The adjective is the word that appears in italics Notice that the adjective modifies the noun that comes after it giving you some added details about the noun Notice too that in English adjectives precede the nouns they modify Adjectives in Hebrew perform the same task that they do in English but there are some differences of style Number one The adjective comes after the noun it modifies Number two The adjective matches the noun it modifies in gender That is if the noun is masculine then it takes a masculine adjective if the noun is feminine then the adjective must also be feminine Number three The adjective matches the noun it modifies in definiteness That is if the noun takes

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/hebrew/hb04.htm (2013-12-09)
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  • Hebrew Lesson Five
    little hnF aq twOn aq young hrfy ic twOry ic Nouns With Adjectives Masculine black horses MyriwOx Mysiw s small trees Myn i aq Myci the good songs MybiwO ha Myriy i ha the large stars MyliwOdg ha MybikfwOk ha Feminine black mares twOrwOx twOsw s good commandments twObwO twOwc mi the beautiful lampstands twOpyf ha twOrwOnm ha the white cows twOnbfl ha twOrp fha Adjectives and Plurals If you have studied the above lists you will notice that the masculine nouns and adjectives are generally pluralized by adding to the singular form while feminine nouns and adjectives are generally pluralized by dropping the final and replacing it with Notice too that the adjective always follows the noun it modifies and that it always matches the noun it modifies in both number and gender There are some common exceptions to these general observations and you will simply have to memorize these exceptions which are listed below These exceptions are called irregular plurals an example of an irregular plural in English would be children as the plural of child Masculine Translation Singular Plural man y i My inF j word thing rbfdf Myribfd people M a Mymi a head Or My i rf day MwOy MymiyF house tyiba Myti bf son Nb Mynibf father b f twOb f night hlfy la twOlyl Feminine Translation Singular Plural woman h f i My inF daughter tb a twOnbf year hnf f Myni f Dual Form A less common form of the plural is called the dual number It is used most often for members of the body eyes hands feet and ears that come in pairs For now simply understand that it is an alternate form of the standard plural and does not imply anything more or less than plurality To call it

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/hebrew/hb05.htm (2013-12-09)
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  • Hebrew Lesson Six
    rather than any other vowel Personal Pronouns Some technical terminology needs to be explained here Pronouns will be referred to as either first person second person or third person What does that mean 1 First person refers to me or us 2 Second person refers to you 3 Third person refers to he she or they In addition the pronouns can further be specified as being either singular as in I or plural as in we Additionally we can speak of the gender of the pronouns If the gender is unspecified it is said to be common Hense yni j can be described as the First person singular common pronoun abbreviated 1st c s w h is the Third person masculine singular pronoun abbreviated 3rd m s One of the big differences between English and Hebrew in pronouns surrounds the word you In modern English using the word you does not make clear whether one or many people is intended nor does it give any information about the gender of the person or persons involved Hebrew on the other hand is very specific in its usage having four forms of the word you one for masculine singular one for feminine singular one for masculine plural and one for feminine plural The closest modern English comes to a plural you is the southernism you all but this is still not considered normative or standard in English It should also be noted that masculine plural is used for a mixed gender group Even if there are ninety nine women and only one man in the group the masculine plural is used The feminine plural is used only when the group is exclusively female Nominal Sentences Hebrew lacks the equivalent of English is am or are thus to express the equivalent of Moses

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/hebrew/hb06.htm (2013-12-09)
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  • Hebrew Lesson Seven
    it is sometimes called the Pa al form In comparative Semitics comparing Hebrew to other related languages such as Akkadian this base form is referred to as the G stem from German Grund meaning base Hebrew has a total of seven forms or stems that the verb may appear in You will eventually learn to conjugate all seven forms For now we will begin with the Qal Aspect vs Tense Biblical Hebrew does not have past present and future tenses like English modern Hebrew is another story altogether however Instead action is regarded as either complete or incomplete Complete action is referred to as perfect and incomplete action is referred to as imperfect Generally speaking the perfect aspect will be translated into English with the English past tense and the imperfect will be translated into English with the English future tense However this is only an approximation of the situation and so there will be times when altogether different tenses will be better in certain circumstances In Biblical Hebrew Step by Step Mansoor will refer to the perfect as the past tense and the imperfect as the present tense and the participle which we will get to in a moment as the present I do not think this is really appropriate and thus in these online notes I will consistently speak of the imperfect and perfect aspects It is better I think to try to wrap your mind around the somewhat alien way of ancient Hebrew thinking than to accept the imprecision of forcing the ancient forms into modern molds into which they simply do not fit Active Participles of the Qal Singular Masculine Feminine dm wOl hdfm wOl or tdemewOl Plural Masculine Feminine Mydim wOl twOdm wOl Participles correspond to English words that end with ing such as running

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/hebrew/hb07.htm (2013-12-09)
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