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  • Logic: Epistemological Issues
    Cause is the observed constant conjunction of certain events Whenever A then B b Rational a priori interpretation Cause is viewed as a necessary connection between two events wherein an appropriate effect must follow the cause according to the principle of sufficient reason We know a priori that causality is a necessary principle of reality that there can be no uncaused evnents or that causality is a necessary principle of knowledge If A then B c Pragmatic interpretation Cause is viewed as a useful or guiding principle of scientific explanation althought much of science may not need it One version is the recipe theory wherein cause is likened to a recipe for producing or preventing something We produce B by producing A and speak of A as causing B That is we cause iron to glow by heating it and therefore speak of the heating of the iron as the cause of its glow Another version pictures the causal principle as a proposal to uncover uniformities in the world that is a procedural rule which is neither ture nor false because it is not about anything but is merely a fruitful way of looking at or dealing with anything Some considerations of causality 1 Causality is not the same as logical necessity as in Black cats are black 2 Causality in science is not prescriptive as in The law commands obedience 3 Causality as a necessary condition if effect then cause does not mean necessary connection Necessary condition means that in the absence of a particular condition a particular effect never occurs as in In the absence of oxygen we never have fire 4 Causality as a sufficient condition if cause then effect also does not mean necessary connection Sufficient condition means that a particualr condition is always followed by a certain effect as in If rain is falling the ground is wet Cause as necessary or sufficient condition is empiricist theory Cause as necessary connection is traditional rationalist theory 5 Cause is usually taken to mean the whole set of conditions sufficient for the occurance of the event If the cause is singular these sufficient conditions are also necessary conditions If the cause is plural these sufficient condititions are not all necessary conditions 5 Scientific explanation Why is an ambiguous question it may be a request for either a reason or an explanation Reasons are given for holding beliefs as in giving reasons for why one believes the world is round Explanations are given for what occurs as in explaining why earthquakes happen or why carbon monoxide is poisoness These are scientific explanations although explain can be used in other ways as in refering to making an idea clear One may have reasons for believing certain things and these reasons may also be explanations for believing them as in when one wants to believe what is true On the other hand one may give reasons why that is he believes that God exists or that a certain kind of

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/logic/logic8.htm (2013-12-09)
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  • Logic: The Nature of Linguistic Meaning
    job That means he will have to look for a new one implies Theories of linguistic meaning are 1 Referential theory a Language is used to talk about things b the meaning of an expression is that to which it refers or the relation between the expression and its referent c reference is by naming words stand for something or describing 2 Ideational theory a words or expressions have meaning as they are used to refer to the idea that gives rise to them or to which they themselves give rise as in psychological effects in hearers 3 Behavioral theory or stimulous response a words or expressions have meaning as they are used to refer to the situation stimulous in which they are uttered and the respoonses which they elicit b meaning is a function of stimulous and response Bloomfield c Meaning is a function of behavioral disposition d meaning is a function of the conditions under which it is uttered e three factors are involved the symbol i e words and expressions the thought or interpretation and the referent or that refered to We get from words to thingd indirectly by way of thought THOUGHT interpretation SYMBOL REFERENT words things 4 Use theory a meaning is a function of use b words or expressions have meaning as they are used e g to perform any speech act and not only to refer to something that is to name or describe c speech acts consist of 1 uttering sentences locutionary acts 2 what is done by the speaker in uttering the sentence illocutionary acts as for instance announce 3 the effect on the hearer perlocutionary acts as e g encourage d Two sentences have the same meaning if they are used to do the same thing that is if they

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/logic/logic9.htm (2013-12-09)
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  • Logic: The Verifiability Theory of Meaning
    are capable of truth or falsity since properly speaking only they are statements 2 The verifiability criterion of meaningfulness may be modified as the confirmability criterion of meaninfulness Confirmability requires that an assertion be capable of being verified or falsified i e verifiable or falsifiable in principle by the specification of empirical evidence that would count for or against its truth or falsity With respect to the question of the verifiability theory of meaning the opposition rationalism vs empiricism becomes metaphysicians vs verificationists antimetaphysicians i e those who hold knowledge to be in principle both verifiable and nonverifiable rationalists and those who hold that it must be verifiable empiricists 1 Rationalists hold that the verifiability criterion is not itself verifiable and hence by its own definition not meaninful and not true It is a theory of meaning and not the actual nature of meaningfulness Statements are meaningful if intelligible 2 Empiricists hold that it is a procedural rule justified by its utility and not by its truth value as such 3 The use of theory of meaning however holds that verifiability or falsifiability is not the exclusive criterion of meaninfulness Use determines criteria or rules of meaningfulness So far as

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/logic/logic10.htm (2013-12-09)
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  • Logic: Truth
    God is truth Truth then functions as a noun d Truth may be existential referring to one s way of life or ultimate commitment One lives rather than knows the truth Truth then functions as a verb 2 The criteria of truth a correspondence theory That idea or proposition is true which accurately and adequately resembles or represents the reality it is supposed to describe e g It is raining now is true if as a matter of fact rain is now falling This theory is usually that of epistemological realism Aristotle Locke Russell An objection it may be impossible to establish correspondence How can I know that my idea corresponds to its object even if in fact it does Ideas are radically different from objects Austin modifies the theory to hold that the correspondence is in the nature of an appropriate correlation rather than congruity or resemblance The truth of a statement is a matter of the words used being the ones conventionally appointed for situations of the type to which that referred to belongs b Coherence theory That idea or proposition is true which fits in or is consistent with or is necessitated by the totality of truth of which it is a part This theory is usually though not necessarily held by idealists Hegel Bradley Blanshard It is also held by nonidealists like Carnap and Neurath An objections is that this theory assumes a metaphysical unity which may not exist Also as Russell points out coherence may be a test or even a necessary condition of truth but it is not what is meant by truth c pragmatic theory That idea or proposition is true which works or satisfies or is capable of doing so Specifically 1 James We cannot reject any hypothesis if consequences useful to

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/logic/logic11.htm (2013-12-09)
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  • Logic: The Scientific Method
    P implies Q c observation The use of empirical evidence Instead of simply imagining what water does at certain temperatures you go out and see what happens to it d classification The use of definition 2 The method It has become a series of steps varied according to the particular discipline or problem at hand John Dewey in his book HOW WE THINK described it as reflective thinking and enumerated

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/logic/logic12.htm (2013-12-09)
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  • Logic: The Problem of Induction
    future A s will be B s Thus we give evidence from the past as reasons for making claims about the future But will the future resemble the past How can we know this This is the problem of induction Inductive reasoning presupposes the principle of uniformity i e the belief that scientific laws like the universal law of gravity will hold in the future as they have in the past But the principle of uniformity cannot itself be demonstrated without assuming that it is itself true To show that any future even will be like a past even we have to assume uniformity i e that it will be like a past event as e g A causing B Induction cannot be demonstrated i e we cannot KNOW that the future will resemble the past Hume Russell and skepticism generally Opposing views from Will Strawson and others argue that skepticism disqualifies evidence by allowing nothing to count for induction i e by disqualifying evidence as soon as it applies to the case at hand When future futures become present and past futures they are disqualified as evidence for reasoning about other future futures The use of the principles of

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/logic/logic13.htm (2013-12-09)
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  • Logic: The Knowledge Situation
    as skepticism subjectivism objectivism critical or representative realism intuitionism pragmatism phenomenological existentialism and recent analytical theories which are usually varieties of phenomenalism or realism O Ideas Ideas are either 1 always produced caused by God directly and are things epistemological idealism Berkeley 2 always produced caused by God directly to represent things by a preestablished harmony i e we get the right ideas in perfect harmony or correspondence with things as they occur or as we experience them occasionalism Malebranche 3 always produced caused by things themselves causal theory of perception ideas represent things that cause them sensationalism representative realism Galileo Locke 4 Sometimes produced caused by things which they represent Descartes adventitious ideas but are also innate 5 Never produced by anything i e they occur from an inner necessity or predisposition to understand things in a certain way are always innate Leibniz s windowless monads 6 in things themselves i e in re as their form from which the mind intellect abstracts them in getting to know things classical realism Aristotle St Thomas Aquinas 7 Not in things but the universal possibilities of thought i e universal concepts in terms of which anything is what it is ante

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/logic/logic14.htm (2013-12-09)
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