archive-edu.com » EDU » T » THEOLOGY.EDU

Total: 197

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • 2009 Finance Report
    The Deacon Fund is usually donated to every communion service and is used to help people in need At the 2008 budget meeting we voted to set up the Holding Fund It is designed to hold funds needed to pay irregular large bills such as the property tax Currently we are behind in our bills so the Holding Fund has no money Periodically youth at the church raise money and this money is stored in the Youth Fund The DSL and Temporary Funds should normally show zero balances The DSL Fund has a negative balance because Quartz Hill School of Theology is responsible for our DSL fees and is behind in reimbursing QHCC The Temporary Fund covers money taken in for things not budgeted such as Souper Bowl or the Lottie Moon offering Date QHCC Account General Gen Hold Parsonage Deacon Holding Youth DSL Temporary 12 31 2008 5 532 2 082 2 461 710 0 514 235 0 7 614 1 31 2009 4 209 794 794 2 461 710 0 389 115 0 2 28 2009 4 542 1 152 1 152 2 461 710 0 304 55 0 3 31 2009 5 280 1 919 1 919 2 461 796 0 249 115 0 4 30 2009 7 169 3 508 2 008 2 461 796 1 500 249 175 360 5 31 2009 8 320 3 198 1 698 2 461 880 1 500 249 0 1 562 6 30 2009 6 211 2 583 1 083 2 461 880 1 500 307 0 10 7 31 2009 6 496 2 868 1 368 2 461 880 1 500 307 0 10 8 31 2009 6 234 2 606 1 106 2 461 880 1 500 307 0 10 9 30 2009 5 467 1 757 257 2 461 949 1 500 320 0 10 10 31 2009 3 385 153 153 2 461 777 0 320 0 10 11 30 2009 10 505 6 867 1 867 2 461 777 5 000 320 0 110 12 31 2009 7 550 5 480 1 180 936 835 4 300 320 0 10 Here is the chart showing the General Fund balances income and expenses throughout the year Budget This table shows the how income and spending compare with the budget throughout the year The left hand column shows the budget categories and sub categories Next to it the Budget Column shows the monlthy budgeted amounts for each category The next columns show the income and spending for each month The Total YTD Column shows the total income and spending for the year to date The Budget YTD Column shows the amount budgeted for the year to date The Difference Column shows the difference between actual income and spending and the budget for the year to date The Annual Budget Column shows the yearly budget amounts Category Description Budget Jan 09 Feb 09 Mar 09 Apr 09 May 09 Jun 09 Jul 09 Aug 09 Sep 09

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/QHCC/Finance/FY2009.php (2013-12-10)
    Open archived version from archive


  • 2008 Finance Report
    money is stored in the Youth Fund The DSL and Temporary Funds should normally show zero balances The DSL Fund has a negative balance because Quartz Hill School of Theology is responsible for our DSL fees and is behind in reimbursing QHCC The Temporary Fund covers money taken in for things not budgeted such as Souper Bowl or the Lottie Moon offering Date QHCC Account General Parsonage Deacon Holding Youth DSL Temporary 12 31 2007 3 256 451 2 861 704 0 75 835 0 1 31 2008 4 007 1 140 2 861 704 0 75 775 2 2 28 2008 2 994 364 2 861 374 0 110 715 0 3 31 2008 2 978 261 2 861 437 0 74 655 0 4 30 2008 2 916 160 2 861 437 0 74 615 0 5 31 2008 2 391 432 2 861 468 0 30 535 0 6 30 2008 3 927 577 3 161 505 0 30 345 0 7 31 2008 4 254 722 3 161 629 0 147 405 0 8 31 2008 5 129 1 557 3 161 629 0 247 465 0 9 30 2008 4 726 974 3 161 629 0 257 295 0 10 31 2008 3 471 454 2 461 655 0 257 355 0 11 30 2008 6 264 2 717 2 461 710 0 552 175 0 12 31 2008 5 532 2 082 2 461 710 0 514 235 0 Here is the chart showing the General Fund balances income and expenses throughout the year Budget This table shows the how income and spending compare with the budget throughout the year The left hand column shows the budget categories and sub categories Next to it the Budget Column shows the monlthy budgeted amounts for each category The next columns show the income and spending for each month The Total YTD Column shows the total income and spending for the year to date The Budget YTD Column shows the amount budgeted for the year to date The Difference Column shows the difference between actual income and spending and the budget for the year to date The Annual Budget Column shows the yearly budget amounts Category Description Budget Jan 08 Feb 08 Mar 08 Apr 08 May 08 Jun 08 Jul 08 Aug 08 Sep 08 Oct 08 Nov 08 Dec 08 Total YTD Budget YTD Difference Actual Budget General income 7 299 7 364 5 688 8 019 5 809 5 677 6 560 5 273 7 133 5 981 6 488 8 882 5 489 78 363 87 584 9 221 87 584 Building Hazard Insurance 171 512 410 520 20 505 1 967 2 048 81 2 048 Maintenance 80 160 160 960 800 960 Mortgage 1 138 1 137 1137 1 137 1 137 1 137 1 137 500 650 1 250 9 222 13 656 4 434 13 656 Property Tax 50 205 327 532 600 68 600 Supplies 8 0 100

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/QHCC/Finance/FY2008.php (2013-12-10)
    Open archived version from archive

  • 2007 Finance Report
    February shows a balance above 925 The DSL and Temporary Funds should normally show zero balances The DSL Fund has a negative balance because Quartz Hill School of Theology is responsible for our DSL fees and is behind in reimbursing QHCC The Temporary Fund covers money taken in for things not budgeted such as youth fund raisers or the Lottie Moon offering The 75 balance are funds the youth raised but have not used yet Date QHCC Account General Parsonage Deacon Restore Pastor Retirement DSL Temporary 12 31 2006 8 686 3 401 4 226 136 742 925 885 139 1 31 2007 7 868 2 838 4 226 165 742 925 945 85 2 28 2007 6 616 1 339 4 226 165 742 1 225 1 005 77 3 31 2007 6 672 1 300 4 031 165 742 925 415 77 4 30 2007 6 815 2 150 4 031 292 742 0 475 75 5 31 2007 13 043 5 861 4 031 369 742 0 535 2 575 6 30 2007 15 960 5 128 4 031 369 742 0 595 6 285 7 31 2007 12 741 1 656 4 031 447 742 0 655 6 520 8 31 2007 11 130 205 2 861 447 742 0 715 7 590 9 30 2007 14 007 939 2 861 520 0 0 775 10 462 10 31 2007 3 601 934 2 861 566 0 0 835 75 11 30 2007 3 537 839 2 861 657 0 0 895 75 12 31 2007 3 256 451 2 861 704 0 0 835 75 Here is the chart showing the General Fund balances income and expenses throughout the year Budget This table shows the how income and spending compare with the budget throughout the year The left hand column shows the budget categories and sub categories Next to it the Budget Column shows the monlthy budgeted amounts for each category The next columns show the income and spending for each month The Total YTD Column shows the total income and spending for the year to date The Budget YTD Column shows the amount budgeted for the year to date The Difference Column shows the difference between actual income and spending and the budget for the year to date The Annual Budget Column shows the yearly budget amounts Category Description Budget Jan 07 Feb 07 Mar 07 Apr 07 May 07 Jun 07 Jul 07 Aug 07 Sep 07 Oct 07 Nov 07 Dec 07 Total YTD Budget YTD Difference Annual Budget General income 7 500 7 161 5 396 7 769 7 419 12 358 5 266 4 755 4 925 8 000 7 226 5 890 7 236 83 401 90 000 6 599 90 000 Building Hazard Insurance 167 0 0 512 512 1 024 2 000 976 2 000 Maintenance 80 0 0 260 260 960 700 960 Mortgage 1 160 2 275 1137 1 137 1 137 1 137 1

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/QHCC/Finance/FY2007.php (2013-12-10)
    Open archived version from archive

  • 2006 Finance Report
    28 2006 21 549 13 329 7 203 389 742 1 150 870 395 3 31 2006 19 497 11 303 7 203 426 742 1 150 932 395 4 30 2006 21 753 13 152 7 203 426 742 1 225 995 0 5 31 2006 22 059 13 720 7 203 226 742 1 225 1 058 0 6 30 2006 23 392 15 216 7 203 126 742 1 225 1 121 0 7 31 2006 15 865 7 729 7 203 126 742 1 000 1 184 248 8 31 2006 13 484 5 782 7 203 76 742 925 1 246 0 9 30 2006 11 496 3 854 7 203 76 742 925 1 306 0 10 31 2006 8 061 478 7 203 76 742 925 1 366 0 11 30 2006 9 892 1 709 7 203 136 742 925 825 0 12 31 2006 8 686 3 401 4 226 136 742 925 885 139 Here is the chart showing the General Fund balances income and expenses throughout the year Budget This table shows the how income and spending compare with the budget throughout the year The left hand column shows the budget categories and sub categories Next to it the Budget Column shows the monlthy budgeted amounts for each category The next columns show the income and spending for each month The Total YTD Column shows the total income and spending for the year to date The Budget YTD Column shows the amount budgeted for the year to date The Difference Column shows the difference between actual income and spending and the budget for the year to date The Annual Budget Column shows the yearly budget amounts It may seem odd to see some negative spending but it can be explained The large negative for February Property Tax was a refund due to us having to overpay our first installment because we failed to file our church status on time The negative Workers apos Comp in April was also due to a refund and the negative Maintenace in May was an insurance payment for water damage we paid for the repair in April Category Description Budget Jan 06 Feb 06 Mar 06 Apr 06 May 06 Jun 06 Jul 06 Aug 06 Sep 06 Oct 06 Nov 06 Dec 06 Total YTD Budget YTD Difference Annual Budget General income 7 500 9 327 5 891 7 536 2 790 5 969 4 457 5 891 6 625 6 783 5 892 6 625 6 783 74 569 90 000 15 431 90 000 Building Hazard Insurance 167 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 997 0 0 0 0 0 1 997 2 000 3 2 000 Maintenance 80 0 0 0 820 747 0 0 2 040 0 0 0 0 2 113 960 1 153 960 Mortgage 1 160 1 137 1 137 1 137 1 137 1 137 1 137 1 137 1 137 1 137 1

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/QHCC/Finance/FY2006.php (2013-12-10)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Remata Help
    see the numbers jump For example if card 6 and 7 have zero difficulty you will see the display change from Card 8 37 to Card 5 37 Pushing the left arrow when you are on the first card will show the last card Push the right arrow to display the next card When you push the right arrow you will also see the card number change For example Card 8 37 will change to Card 9 37 If some cards have difficulty zero they will be skipped In that case you will see the numbers jump For example if card 9 has zero difficulty you will see the display change from Card 8 37 to Card 10 37 Pushing the right arrow when you are on the last card will show the first card Push the check button when you get the answer correct Pushing the check button will decrease the difficulty by one For example if a card has difficulty 2 and you push the check the next time you see the card it will have difficulty 1 Pushing the check button also moves to the next card Push the red x button when you get the answer wrong When you push the x button it will increase the difficulty by one For example if a card has difficulty 2 and you push the x the next time you see the card it will have difficulty 3 Pushing the x button also moves to the next card Menu The menu allows you to do other things Get cards gets new cards into memory It is described above Show card list shows all the cards in memory in a list It is good for a quick review or checking what cards are loaded Help shows this help page About

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/Remata/Android/Help/RemataHelp.html (2013-12-10)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Notes on Genesis
    mutation from his forbearers hence the story in Genesis 2 describing his difficulty in finding a suitable mate necessitating divine intervention to fashion a mate for him in this case a female clone notice that by being created from the rib of Adam she was necessarily constructed from his genetic material Frankly the text of Genesis itself makes the traditional creationist perspective less credible than they would have us believe Not only are the days not placed in a chronological arrangement but the search for a mate and the naming of the animals is also evidence that the sixth day at least was almost certainly not a twenty four hour period since it would be difficult if not impossible for a single man however gifted to identify and name all the species on the planet in so limited an amount of time Consider that there are at least one million species of animals using the underestimate Whitcomb and Morris give in their book The Genesis Flood p 68 Allowing no time for sleep Adam would have had to name eleven and a half animals every second with 86 400 seconds in 24 hours And this doesn t leave him time to realize there is no mate fit for him or for God to put him to sleep and form Eve Jesus said he would return quickly or soon see Rev 22 12 20 yet if the world is really only 6000 years old to have waited for nearly 2000 years hardly seems soon However if the world is actually 4 6 billion years old and the universe 15 20 billion then 2000 years is hardly any time at all cf the analogy made between a day and the history of the universe where all of recorded human history takes up only the last few seconds The genealogies of Genesis are not likely to be complete and therefore do not function as a chronology The genealogies of Genesis 5 and 11 10 26 are both lists of ten names and both end with the final individual having three significant sons The artificial and selective nature of these genealogies thereby becomes apparent Matthew divides the genealogy of Jesus into three sections each with fourteen names His reason for doing this is that the Hebrew name David is written with three letters whose numerical value is fourteen To get the structure he desires Matthew left out several names which can be demonstrated by comparing his genealogy with those given in the Old Testament for instance Matthew 1 8 and 1 Chronicles 3 10 12 Therefore it seems reasonable to suspect that the author of Genesis does a similar thing with his genealogies in order to get his ten plus three pattern 1 Chronicles 16 14 17 which parallels Psalm 105 7 10 also cf Deuteronomy 7 9 states the following He is Yahweh our God his judgments are in all the earth He remembers his covenant forever the word he commanded for a

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/biblesurvey/genesis.htm (2013-12-10)
    Open archived version from archive

  • The Thematic Arrangement of Biblical Texts
    confusion results Verse five recounts how the people repented and wore sack cloth If verses 6 9 follow chronologically then why does the king order his people to do what they ve already done However if the thematic arrangement is recognized the problems evaporate and the narrative is perfectly clear and consistent Look at the pattern A The Ninevites believed God 3 5a B They declared a fast 3 5b C They put on sackcloth from the greatest to the least 3 5c C King puts on sackcloth 3 6 B Proclamation that no one is to eat or drink 3 7 C Man and beast covered with sackcloth 3 8a A Let them call urgently on God and repent 3 8b 9 C Ecclesiastes 2 1 26 1 I thought in my heart Come now I will test you with pleasure to find out what is good But that also proved to be meaningless 2 Laughter I said is foolish And what does pleasure accomplish 3 I tried cheering myself with wine and embracing folly my mind still guiding me with wisdom I wanted to see what was worthwhile for men to do under heaven during the few days of their lives 4 I undertook great projects I built houses for myself and planted vineyards 5 I made gardens and parks and planted all kinds of fruit trees in them 6 I made reservoirs to water groves of flourishing trees 7 I bought male and female slaves and had other slaves who were born in my house I also owned more herds and flocks than anyone in Jerusalem before me 8 I amassed silver and gold for myself and the treasure of kings and provinces I acquired men and women singers and a harem as well the delights of the heart of man 9 I became greater by far than anyone in Jerusalem before me In all this my wisdom stayed with me 10 I denied myself nothing my eyes desired I refused my heart no pleasure My heart took delight in all my work and this was the reward for all my labor 11 Yet when I surveyed all that my hands had done and what I had toiled to achieve everything was meaningless a chasing after the wind nothing was gained under the sun 12 Then I turned my thoughts to consider wisdom and also madness and folly What more can the king s successor do than what has already been done 13 I saw that wisdom is better than folly just as light is better than darkness 14 The wise man has eyes in his head while the fool walks in the darkness but I came to realize that the same fate overtakes them both 15 Then I thought in my heart The fate of the fool will overtake me also What then do I gain by being wise I said in my heart This too is meaningless 16 For the wise man like the fool will not be long remembered in days to come both will be forgotten Like the fool the wise man too must die 17 So I hated life because the work that is done under the sun was grievous to me All of it is meaningless a chasing after the wind 18 I hated all the things I had toiled for under the sun because I must leave them to the one who comes after me 19 And who knows whether he will be a wise man or a fool Yet he will have control over all the work into which I have poured my effort and skill under the sun This too is meaningless 20 So my heart began to despair over all my toilsome labor under the sun 21 For a man may do his work with wisdom knowledge and skill and then he must leave all he owns to someone who has not worked for it This too is meaningless and a great misfortune 22 What does a man get for all the toil and anxious striving with which he labors under the sun 23 All his days his work is pain and grief even at night his mind does not rest This too is meaningless 24 A man can do nothing better than to eat and drink and find satisfaction in his work This too I see is from the hand of God 25 for without him who can eat or find enjoyment 26 To the man who pleases him God gives wisdom knowledge and happiness but to the sinner he gives the task of gathering and storing up wealth to hand it over to the one who pleases God This too is meaningless a chasing after the wind Ecclesiastes 2 1 26 displays the following basic pattern a pattern that by now may be starting to become familiar A I thought in my heart Come now I will test you with pleasure to find out what is good 2 1a B But that also proved to be meaningless 2 1b A Testing with pleasure to discover what s good 2 2 10 B Everything is meaningless 2 11 26 In the first verse the two halves of what the author of the book of Ecclesiastes seeks to discuss are expressed In the verses that follow he does exactly what he has indicated first discussing what is good repetitiously as is the nature of Hebrew poetry and then turning to the second half at verse 11 and repetitiously describing how meaningless it is This is standard Hebrew pattern and not at all odd unless one were to insist on a western outlook in narrative or poetic techniques D Proverbs 1 10 19 10 My son if sinners entice you do not give in to them 11 If they say Come along with us let s lie in wait for someone s blood let s waylay some harmless soul 12 let s swallow them alive like the grave

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/biblesurvey/theme.htm (2013-12-10)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Notes on the King James Translation
    and only though that is considerably better than the KJV s mistranslation 4 Some KJV only people try to say that the NIV translates Hebrews 2 10 and Hebrews 12 2 with the word pioneer instead of the word author Oddly the NIV does not use the word pioneer It uses the word author The KJV onlyites have misrepresented the NIV and then criticized it for a nonexistent problem This is either sloppy work on their part or outright deception 5 The old pronouns do not lend dignity to the text The old pronouns are just that old In 1611 everyone used thee and thou educated and uneducated professor or fisherman There is nothing special or dignified about the language used in the Hebrew Aramaic and Greek texts In fact the NT was written in what is called koine Greek that is common Greek the Greek that ordinary people used in contrast to the literary or classical Greek of the philosphers poets and dramatists And if we want to talk about dignity perhaps we should contrast the KJV s translation of 2 Kings 18 27 and 2 Kings 9 8 with that of the NIV KJV 2 Kings 18 27 But Rabshakeh said unto them Hath my master sent me to thy master and to thee to speak these words hath he not sent me to the men which sit on the wall that they may eat their own dung and drink their own piss with you 2 Kings 9 8 For the whole house of Ahab shall perish and I will cut off from Ahab him that pisseth against the wall and him that is shut up and left in Israel NIV 2 Kings 18 27 But the commander replied Was it only to your master and you that my master sent me to say these things and not to the men sitting on the wall who like you will have to eat their own filth and drink their own urine 2 Kings 9 8 The whole house of Ahab will perish I will cut off from Ahab every last male in Israel slave or free IV History of the Text The King James Translation of 1611 is based on the so called Textus Receptus This Textus Receptus is essentially the same as the Majority Text and the Byzantine text type Abundant evidence exists and is constantly growing to show that critical opinion and methods were known at least from the very early days of the formation of the NT Canon The era of printing obviously marks a new epoch Among available manuscripts choice must be made and a standard set and in view of the material at hand it is remarkable how ably the work was done It began in Spain under Cardinal Ximenes of Toledo who printed at Alcala Complutum in 1514 the NT volume of his great Polyglot though it was not actually issued until 1522 Meanwhile Erasmus a Dutch scholar under patronage of Froben the printer of Basel had been preparing a Greek NT and it was published early in 1516 It was the first published printed with movable type Greek New Testament At the urging of a publisher who wanted to do be first he prepared it very hastily as he himself admitted He had only about half a dozen Greek manuscripts none of them earlier than the tenth century AD In 1522 Erasmus published his third edition His 4th edition in 1537 contains his definitive text The next important step was taken by Robert Estienne Stephanus whose 3rd edition Regia a folio published in Paris in 1550 was a distinct advance and though based directly upon the work of Ximenes and Erasmus had marginal readings from 15 new manuscripts one of which was Codex Bezae Theodore Beza himself worked with Stephanus son Henri and brought out nine editions of the NT but no great critical advance was made in them The same may be said of the seven Elzevir editions brought out at Leyden and Amsterdam between 1624 and 1678 the second that of 1633 in the preface of which occurs the phrase Textum ergo habes nune ab omnibus receptum became the continental standard as the 1550 edition of Stephanus had for England The 1550 edition of Stephanus was the so called Textus Receptus used by the translators of the KJV The most notorious case of an added reading in the TR and in this case there is no doubt about its having been added is found at 1 John 5 7 It is the strongest statement in the KJV on the Trinity but it has no basis in the Greek text It is found in the KJV of course because it is in the Textus Receptus How did it get there Erasmus did not have it in his first edition of the Greek New Testament 1516 or his second edition 1519 It is thought that under Roman Catholic pressure because the passage was in the Latin Vulgate Erasmus put it in his third edition 1522 Martin Luther wisely did not include it in his German New Testament of that same year It seems that Roman Catholics produced Codex Montfortianus inserting this passage from the Latin It is a sixteenth century manuscript in Dublin The facts are that these added words are not quoted by any Greek Fathers of the early church and are absent from all the early versions They were not in the text of the original Latin Vulgate made by Jerome but were inserted later There can be no doubt today that the words are not a part of the original text of 1 John V KJV Problems 1 Manuscript errors resulting in contradictions Compare the following passages 2 Kings 24 8 with 2 Chronicles 36 9 Ezra 2 5 with Nehemiah 7 10 Ezra 2 69 with Nehemiah 7 70 72 1 Kings 7 16 with 2 Kings 25 17 2 Samuel 8 13 with 1 Chronicles 18 12 1 Samuel 18 25 27 with 2 Samuel 3 14 2 Samuel 8 4 with 1 Chronicles 18 41 Kings 6 2 with 2 Chronicles 3 4 1 Kings 9 23 with 2 Chronicles 8 10 2 Samuel 23 8 with 1 Chronicles 11 11 1 Kings 4 26 with 2 Chronicles 9 25 These are all examples of errors created by scribes when they were copying For some there are manuscripts that reconcile the problems for others we still don t know what the correct numbers are yet the KJV retains all these errors 2 Translation errors The King James has made some major errors in translation The following are just a few examples Compare the KJV reading with that of the NIV Isaiah 45 7 KJV I form the light and create darkness I make peace and create evil I the LORD do all these things NIV I form the light and create darkness I bring prosperity and create disaster I the LORD do all these things Amos 3 6 KJV Shall a trumpet be blown in the city and the people not be afraid shall there be evil in a city and the LORD hath not done it NIV When a trumpet sounds in a city do not the people tremble When disaster comes to a city has not the LORD caused it Luke 13 24 and 2 Timothy 2 24 Two distinct Greek words are both rendered strive The term in Luke has the sense to strive to achieve while the word in 2 Timothy has the sense of to quarrel KJV Strive to enter in at the strait gate for many I say unto you will seek to enter in and shall not be able KJV And the servant of the Lord must not strive but be gentle unto all men apt to teach patient NIV Make every effort to enter through the narrow door because many I tell you will try to enter and will not be able to NIV And the Lord s servant must not quarrel instead he must be kind to everyone able to teach not resentful Daniel 11 9 KJV So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom and shall return into his own land Hebrew my translation cf NIV And he the king of the north will come into the kingdom of the king of the south and will return to his land 1 Thessalonians 5 22 KJV Abstain from all appearance of evil NIV Avoid every kind of evil VI The Nature of Translation A How translation occurs It is important to realize and most people who have not learned a second language wouldn t know that there is no such thing as a one to one correspondence between languages You cannot have a word for word translation that is at all readable because the word order is different the nature of the grammar is different and even the sense of a word may cover a wider or smaller range than the corresponding English word For instance the word house in Hebrew can mean immediate family or a royal dynasty besides the equivalent English idea of a building where a person dwells Therefore to have an accurate English translation you cannot simply translate the Hebrew word with house you need to translate it according to which of the possible meanings is intended Idioms likewise do not translate across directly for instance the English phrase I m sick and tired of apple pie if translated literally could give a reader in another language the false impression that the individual in question is sleepy and ready to throw up Consider the following literal translation of the first verse of the Bible which maintains the Hebrew word order and phrasing and ask yourself if it is easily comprehensible In beginning he created God definite direct object the heavens and definite direct object the earth But even this is not entirely accurate in a word for word sense because biblical Hebrew does not strictly have past tense however there is no other way to indicate perfect aspect completed action And in front of the single words they are only one word in Hebrew the heavens and the earth is a Hebrew word that indicates that what follows is a definite direct object a word as you can see that is hardly translatable into English at all Having said all this one might imagine that this first verse is a complicated sentence Not at all It is remarkably simple It only becomes difficult if we expect translation to be literal It isn t All translation by its very nature is paraphrastic and interpretive The way translation happens is as follows The translator learns a foreign language and learns it well Learning Hebrew or Greek is just like learning French or Spanish in high school There is nothing mysterious or special about the ancient languages Then the translator reads the foreign text and understands it Having understood it he or she then puts it into the best English possible There is no mystery associated with the translation of the Bible nor are there any significant disagreements between translations However by the nature of what translation is the work of individuals with their own separate styles the wording of say Today s English Version is not going to be identical to the King James Version or the New International Version This is not because anyone is trying to twist something or make it say what it doesn t but only because each translator is going to word the translation as he thinks best But the MEANING will generally be the same And of course between the King James and the more modern translations there is also the gap caused by the change in the English language itself we don t speak like the people in Shakespeare s time did but their way of speaking is no grander or any more eloquent than ours King James English was the way any farmer or fisherman of 1611 would have talked just as Today s English Version or the New International Version is close to the way an average person speaks today For all the snobbishness of attitude on the part of some regarding Shakespeare today in his own day he was considered somewhat vulgar and not a little risque Shakespeare was like an ordinary television drama or sitcom is for us today VII Textual Criticism KJV only people will expend considerable time and energy on finding places in the text of modern translations that leave out selected passages Usually the response will be that see this proves that the NIV or whatever modern translation of the Bible is being castegated doesn t believe in this doctrine or is weak on this doctrine Such comments are a bit offensive since there are usually plenty of other passages in the newer translations that such critics conveniently ignore which speak on the same subject So why do the modern translations leave things out Those who critisize the modern translations will be quick to quote Revelation 22 19 And if any man shall take away from the words of this prophesy God shall take away his part out of the book of life and out of the holy city and fromt he things which are written in this book KJV However one rarely if ever hears them quote the preceding verse verse 18 If any man shall add unto these things God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book KJV Yet adding in is precisely what the KJV is guilty of and those things that the newer translations leave out are those things that the KJV unjustly added in It is necessary therefore to give a little discussion on the nature of textual criticism in general so that the reasons for the specific ommissions can be stated One change since the time of the King James translation of course is the improvement in the texts that are available to today s translators They are older and that much closer to the original moreover the methods of textual criticism the science of comparing the different and sometimes inconsistent manuscripts and determining which one is the closest to the original reading have advanced considerably since the 1600 s The history of the biblical texts shows clearly that all of them stand far removed from the originals both by time and by the process of transmission They contain not only scribal errors but even some actual transformations of the text both deliberate and accidental By means of textual criticism we attempt to find all the alterations that have occurred and then recover the earliest possible form of the text 1 Methods Textual criticism proceeds in three steps a All the variant readings of the text are collected and arranged Of course this is the very reason textual criticism is necessary at all If we had only a single copy there would be no questions but since we have several which all say different things we have a problem Which text accurately records the original statements We are in the position of a man with two watches never quite sure what time it is b The variants must then be examined c The most likely reading is then determined The simple fact that the Masoretic text of the Old Testament the standard text essentially the Textus Receptus of the OT occasionally differs with the quotations of the Old Testament in the New indicates need for textual criticism Because the New Testament is inspired it is wise to go with the Holy Spirit s decisions regarding which reading is the correct one As an example look at Hebrews 10 5 7 in the KJV Wherefore when he cometh into the world he saith Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not but a body hast thou prepared me In burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin thou hast had no pleasure Then said I Lo I come in the volume of the book it is written of me to do thy will O God Now look at Psalm 40 6 8 which this passage in Hebrews was quoting Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire mine ears hast thou opened burnt offering and sin offering hast thou not required Then said I Lo I come in the volume of the book it is written of me I delight to do thy will O my God yea thy law is within my heart Notice the differences The New Testament follows the reading of the Greek translation the Septuagint which was made about 250 BC It should be remembered that the Masoretic Text produced between 600 and 1000 AD was done by Jewish scholars who were not without their biases An obvious bias would be an anti Christian one It should not surprise us that the Masoretes would prefer readings that differed from the New Testament or were in any way a comfort to Christians In addition the demonstrable conflicts between the synoptic sections of the OT Samuel Kings and Chronicles for instance see the list above also demonstrates the need for textual criticism and indicates the unreliability of this so called Textus Receptus of the Old Testament the Masoretic Text 2 The most important Hebrew manuscripts for Old Testament textual criticism are a The St Petersburg or Leningrad Codex 1008 A D It is the largest and only complete manuscript of the entire Old Testament b The Aleppo Codex 930 A D It used to be a complete copy of the Old Testament but was partially destroyed in a synagogue fire in 1948 c The British Museum Codex 950 A D It is an incomplete copy of the Pentateuch d The Cairo Codex 895 A D A copy of the Former and Latter Prophets Joshua Judges 1 and 2 Samuel 1 and 2 Kings Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel and the twelve minor prophets

    Original URL path: http://theology.edu/biblesurvey/tr.htm (2013-12-10)
    Open archived version from archive



  •