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  • Why Social Preferences Matter - the Impact of Non-Selfish Motives on Competition, Cooperation, and Incentives | Becker-Friedman Institute Research Respository
    in Why Social Preferences Matter the Impact of Non Selfish Motives on Competition Cooperation and Incentives A substantial number of people exhibit social preferences which means they are not solely motivated by material self interest but also care positively or negatively for the material payoffs of relevant reference agents We show empirically that economists fail to understand fundamental economic questions when they disregard social preferences in particular that without taking

    Original URL path: http://econresearch.uchicago.edu/content/why-social-preferences-matter-impact-non-selfish-motives-competition-cooperation-and (2015-06-03)
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  • Psychological Foundations of Incentives | Becker-Friedman Institute Research Respository
    Incentives During the last two decades economists have made much progress in understanding incentives contracts and organizations Yet they constrained their attention to a very narrow and empirically questionable view of human motivation The purpose of this paper is to show that this narrow view of human motivation may severely limit understanding the determinants and effects of incentives Economists may fail to understand the levels and the changes in behaviour

    Original URL path: http://econresearch.uchicago.edu/content/psychological-foundations-incentives (2015-06-03)
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  • Learning-by-doing versus on-the-job training: using variation induced by the EITC to distinguish between models of skill formation | Becker-Friedman Institute Research Respository
    Username Password Request new password Log in Learning by doing versus on the job training using variation induced by the EITC to distinguish between models of skill formation Recent calls for wage subsidies have emphasized their value for attaching low skill persons to the workplace attracting them away from lives of idleness or crime Phelps 1997 Heckman Lochner Smith and Taber 1997 and Lochner 1998 Previous empirical research on wage

    Original URL path: http://econresearch.uchicago.edu/content/learning-doing-versus-job-training-using-variation-induced-eitc-distinguish-between-models (2015-06-03)
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  • Evaluating Preschool Programs When Length of Exposure to the Program Varies: A Nonparametric Approach | Becker-Friedman Institute Research Respository
    again after changing the URL in your browser s location bar to begin with https instead of http Please contact site admin for help if this error continues User login CNetID or Username Password Request new password Log in Evaluating Preschool Programs When Length of Exposure to the Program Varies A Nonparametric Approach Nonexperimental data are used to evaluate impacts of a Bolivian preschool program on cognitive psychosocial and anthropometric outcomes Impacts are shown to be highly dependent on age and exposure duration To minimize the effect of distributional assumptions program impacts are estimated as nonparametric functions of age and duration A generalized matching estimator is developed and used to control for nonrandom selectivity into the program and into exposure durations Comparisons with three groups children in the feeder area not in the program children in the program for 1 month and children living in similar areas without the program indicate that estimates are robust for significant positive effects of the program on cognitive and psychosocial outcomes with 7 months exposure although the age patterns of effects differ slightly by comparison group Authors Jere Behrman University of Pennsylvania Yingmei Cheng Petra Todd University of Pennsylvania Publication Date February 2004 BFI

    Original URL path: http://econresearch.uchicago.edu/content/evaluating-preschool-programs-when-length-exposure-program-varies-nonparametric-approach (2015-06-03)
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  • An educational intervention improves developmental progress of young children in a Romanian orphanage | Becker-Friedman Institute Research Respository
    in a Romanian orphanage From 1991 to 1994 a group of Romanian and American colleagues undertook an experimental and humanitarian effort to try to improve the quality of life mental health and developmental progress of young children in a Romanian orphanage In the context of institutional care we experimentally introduced stable adult child relationships small group size and a protocol of enriched caregiving and educational activities These procedures were adapted from an intervention in childcare centers in the United States that had been proven effective in reducing intellectual decline in at risk children Developmental scores for orphanage children were derived from the Denver II a revision of the Denver Developmental Screening Test Frankenburg Dodds 1990 which was translated into Romanian and administered as a pre and post test to the experimental subjects and comparison groups in the same institution Mixed models combining both within and between subject heterogeneous variance covariance structures were utilized to analyze the impacts of time intervention control group assignment child sex child age and interaction of Group Time on the developmental scores For the developmental outcome variables the effects of group assignment experimental vs comparison were highly significant There also was a Group Time interaction effect

    Original URL path: http://econresearch.uchicago.edu/content/educational-intervention-improves-developmental-progress-young-children-romanian-orphanage (2015-06-03)
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  • Family Background, Service Providers, and Early Childhood Development in the Philippines: Proxies and Interactions | Becker-Friedman Institute Research Respository
    Development in the Philippines Proxies and Interactions We examine the importance of family background for early childhood development ECD using data collected in 2001 from 3 556 children ages 0 36 months in three regions of the Philippines We focus on four main research questions 1 are associations of family background with ECD in part proxying for health and ECD related programs 2 are associations of family background with ECD biased due to omission of unobserved community characteristics that may be related to placement of health and ECD related services 3 are there important interactions between family background and health and ECD related programs in their effect on ECD and 4 are there important interactions among the components of family background Physical assets and human assets have a number of important positive associations with ECD These include the positive relations between physical assets and the anthropometrics and hemoglobin levels of children as well as lower occurrence of worms Each parent s schooling and height also have notable positive effects on these outcomes and the motor and language skills of children The failure to account for community characteristics is related to often substantial bias in the estimated effect of family background

    Original URL path: http://econresearch.uchicago.edu/content/family-background-service-providers-and-early-childhood-development-philippines-proxies-and (2015-06-03)
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  • Personality Development | Becker-Friedman Institute Research Respository
    a secure protocol such as HTTPS You can switch to HTTPS by trying to view this page again after changing the URL in your browser s location bar to begin with https instead of http Please contact site admin for help if this error continues User login CNetID or Username Password Request new password Log in Personality Development This chapter focuses on individual differences in personality because differences among individuals are the most remarkable feature of human nature After all in both genetic and cultural evolution selection pressures operate on differences among people Not surprisingly individual differences pervade all aspects of life and they demand scientific inquiry What are the most salient personality differences between people What gives rise to these differences Do personality differences shape important life outcomes How might personality influence the emergence of psychopathology Answers to these questions are crucial for those who wish to describe explain and predict the nature of individual lives across time Authors Avshalom Caspi Duke University Rebecca Shiner Colgate University Publication Date March 2006 BFI Initiative Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Keywords differences between individuals HCEO Working Groups Identity and Personality IP Publication Type Chapter Publication Status Published External Working Paper Pages

    Original URL path: http://econresearch.uchicago.edu/content/personality-development (2015-06-03)
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  • The Evolution of Inequality, Heterogeneity and Uncertainty in Labor Earnings in the U.S. Economy | Becker-Friedman Institute Research Respository
    if this error continues User login CNetID or Username Password Request new password Log in The Evolution of Inequality Heterogeneity and Uncertainty in Labor Earnings in the U S Economy A large empirical literature documents a rise in wage inequality in the American economy It is silent on whether the increase in inequality is due to greater heterogeneity in the components of earnings that are predictable by agents or whether it is due to greater uncertainty faced by agents Applying the methodology of Cunha Heckman and Navarro 2005 to data on agents making schooling decisions in different economic environments we join choice data with earnings data to estimate the fraction of future earnings that is forecastable and how this fraction has changed over time We find that both predictable and unpredictable components of earnings have increased in recent years The increase in uncertainty is substantially greater for unskilled workers For less skilled workers roughly 60 of the increase in wage variability is due to uncertainty For more skilled workers only 8 of the increase in wage variability is due to uncertainty Roughly 26 of the increase in the variance of returns to schooling is due to increased uncertainty Using conventional

    Original URL path: http://econresearch.uchicago.edu/content/evolution-inequality-heterogeneity-and-uncertainty-labor-earnings-us-economy (2015-06-03)
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