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  • CMB Introduction
    ADS InSpire Introduction Basic Principles Expansion Cosmic Light History Inflation Mapping Anisotropy Sound Waves Music Curvature Summary Small Angle Anisotropy Key Concepts Small angle anisotropies come from ripples that are smaller than the horizon when the microwave photons started traveling to us Small scale ripples have already participated in the process of structure formation and carry important information as to its nature COBE then has told us what the large

    Original URL path: http://background.uchicago.edu/~whu/beginners/small.html (2015-06-26)
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  • CMB Introduction
    Chicago Astronomy Department KICP Thunch astro ph CO ADS InSpire Introduction Basic Principles Expansion Cosmic Light History Inflation Mapping Anisotropy Sound Waves Music Curvature Summary Seeing Sound Key Concepts Sound waves small scale ripples in the microwave background temperature reflect sound waves in the early universe Spectrum the sound spectrum carries information about the origin of fluctuations and the fate of the universe What we see on small scales is

    Original URL path: http://background.uchicago.edu/~whu/beginners/sound.html (2015-06-26)
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  • CMB Introduction
    Prehistory nbsp Legacy Material 96 nbsp PhD Thesis 95 Baryon Acoustic Oscillations Cosmic Shear Clusters Transfer Function WMAP Likelihood Reionization PPF for CAMB Halo Mass Conversion Cluster Abundance Cosmology 321 Current Topics 282 Galaxies and Universe 242 Radiative Processes 305 Research Preparation 307 GR Perturbation Theory 408 Advanced CMB 448 University of Chicago Astronomy Department KICP Thunch astro ph CO ADS InSpire Introduction Basic Principles Expansion Cosmic Light History Inflation Mapping Anisotropy Sound Waves Music Curvature Summary Music of Inflation Key Concepts Fundamental mode of sound waves is related to the size in the microwave background context the horizon Overtones based on the fundamental mode form a pattern of sound that identifies its origin in the cosmological context the ultimate source of perturbations from inflation We think that fluctuations may have originated from a period of rapid expansion called inflation Whether or not this actually happened can be heard in the microwave background The fundamental tone of a musical system is related to its physical size here the horizon size at last scattering There is also a pattern of overtones at integer multiples of the fundamental frequency In music the pattern of overtones helps us distinguish one instrument from another

    Original URL path: http://background.uchicago.edu/~whu/beginners/music.html (2015-06-26)
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  • CMB Introduction
    the universe has a large curvature it is massive enough to recollapse ending the universe in a big crunch We ve now seen how the microwave background can probe the origins of structure in the universe The microwave background can also help us learn about its fate Einstein told us that matter curves space The more matter the more space is curved What does this mean We ll we re all familiar with one example of curvature the curvature of the surface of the earth Say my friend and I were in our tropical paradise near the equator Paradise is boring he says let s go north We start out 100 feet apart and walk due north Euclid told us that so long as we walk in perfectly straight lines we should never meet yet we all know that my friend and I will meet at the north pole In my ignorance I might say that there is a strange attractive force between my friend and I and label that gravity But in truth what happened was the surface of the earth curved beneath us as we walked Einstein came to the revelation that the familiar force we call gravity is no more than the curvature of space time This curvature is created by matter itself We do not yet know if our universe is spatially curved in a global sense Just like the Columbus we need someone to navigate a large fraction of the globe to decide its curvature The distances are so large that we ourselves can t do that but microwave background photons can In practice the curvature is measured by the size of the spots in the microwave background maps The larger the curvature the smaller the physical scale of the spots We can see this

    Original URL path: http://background.uchicago.edu/~whu/beginners/curvature.html (2015-06-26)
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  • CMB Introduction
    origin evolution fate of material universe Wrinkles in the energy of primordial light Birth of galaxies Basic Principles Big Bang the universe began hot and dense and thereafter expanded and cooled Gravitational Instability Stars galaxies clusteres of galaxies Structure formed from the gravitational pull of small density wrinkles in the early universe Cosmological Expansion Recession of the galaxies distant objects appear to be moving away from us Cosmic Microwave Background we are bathed in primordial light Properties of the Cosmic Light 3 degrees above absolute zero 270 degrees celcius mm cm wavelength 400 photons per cubic centimeter 10 trillion photons per second per squared centimeter A Brief History Looking at distant objects we look backwards in time Galaxies formed when the universe was a few billion years old Microwave background radiation was emitted when the universe was about 300 000 years old Before 300 000 years the universe was a nearly smooth particle soup Gravitational Instability Wrinkles represent hills and valleys Matter falls into and accumulates in valleys Dense objects such as galaxies form in the valleys Cosmic Inflation Inflation stretches fluctuations at the elementary particle into galaxy large wrinkles Cosmological horizon the distance beyond which we cannot look An important concept in structure formation Temperature Sky Maps Temperature anisotropies small variations in the temperature of the microwave background from one direction on the sky to the other Temperature map representation of the 3 dimensional sky in a 2 dimensional plane COBE a satellite which detected the large features in the microwave background sky in 1992 Small Angle Anisotropies Small angle anisotropies come from ripples that are smaller than the horizon when the microwave photons started traveling to us structure formation Small scale ripples have already participated in the process of structure formation and carry important information as to its

    Original URL path: http://background.uchicago.edu/~whu/beginners/summary.html (2015-06-26)
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  • CMB Introduction
    Shear Clusters Transfer Function WMAP Likelihood Reionization PPF for CAMB Halo Mass Conversion Cluster Abundance Cosmology 321 Current Topics 282 Galaxies and Universe 242 Radiative Processes 305 Research Preparation 307 GR Perturbation Theory 408 Advanced CMB 448 University of Chicago Astronomy Department KICP Thunch astro ph CO ADS InSpire Introduction Temperature Maps Earth Monopole Dipole COBE Power Precision Features Thermal History Expansion Plasma Glue Pressure Thermal Acoustic Oscillations Gravity Plane

    Original URL path: http://background.uchicago.edu/~whu/intermediate/map.html (2015-06-26)
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  • CMB Introduction
    408 Advanced CMB 448 University of Chicago Astronomy Department KICP Thunch astro ph CO ADS InSpire Introduction Temperature Maps Earth Monopole Dipole COBE Power Precision Features Thermal History Expansion Plasma Glue Pressure Thermal Acoustic Oscillations Gravity Plane Waves Harmonics Extrema Angular Peaks Spatial Angular Oscillation Freeze Frame Streaming Soundscape First Peak Data Curvature Flatness Dark Energy Summary Second Peak Data Inertia Baryonmeter Power Dark Baryons Summary Higher Peaks Driving Force

    Original URL path: http://background.uchicago.edu/~whu/intermediate/map1.html (2015-06-26)
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  • CMB Introduction
    Universe 242 Radiative Processes 305 Research Preparation 307 GR Perturbation Theory 408 Advanced CMB 448 University of Chicago Astronomy Department KICP Thunch astro ph CO ADS InSpire Introduction Temperature Maps Earth Monopole Dipole COBE Power Precision Features Thermal History Expansion Plasma Glue Pressure Thermal Acoustic Oscillations Gravity Plane Waves Harmonics Extrema Angular Peaks Spatial Angular Oscillation Freeze Frame Streaming Soundscape First Peak Data Curvature Flatness Dark Energy Summary Second Peak

    Original URL path: http://background.uchicago.edu/~whu/intermediate/map2.html (2015-06-26)
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