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  • Dr. John Preskill, Caltech, Putting Weirdness to Work: Quantum Information Science
    the acquisition transmission and processing of information that are achievable in principle because Nature is quantum mechanical but that would be impossible in a less weird classical world I will describe the properties of quantum bits qubits the indivisible units of quantum information and explain the essential ways in which qubits differ from classical bits For one thing it is impossible to read or copy the state of a qubit without disturbing it This property is the basis of quantum cryptography wherein the privacy of secret information can be founded on principles of fundamental physics Qubits can be entangled with one another This means that the qubits can exhibit subtle quantum correlations that have no classical analogue roughly speaking when two qubits are entangled their joint state is more definite than the state of either qubit by itself Because of quantum entanglement a vast amount of classical information would be needed to describe completely the quantum state of just a few hundred qubits Therefore a quantum computer operating on just a few hundred qubits could perform tasks that ordinary digital computers could not possibly emulate Constructing practical quantum computers will be tremendously challenging a particularly daunting difficulty is that quantum computers are far more susceptible to making errors than conventional digital computers But newly developed principles of fault tolerant quantum computation may enable a properly designed quantum computer with imperfect components to achieve good reliability John Preskill received the A B degree in physics from Princeton University in 1975 and the Ph D degree in physics from Harvard University in 1980 In 1983 he joined the faculty of the California Institute of Technology where he is now the John D MacArthur Professor of Theoretical Physics Director of the Institute for Quantum Information and Director of the Center for the Physics

    Original URL path: http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/plecture/preskill/ (2015-11-01)
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  • Dr. Arnold Levine, IAS, Genetic Predispositions for Cancers in Humans
    the elucidation of many signal transduction pathways composed of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that often played a critical role in the development of the organism and when mutated gave rise to cancers At the beginning of the 21st century the human genome project provided us with an almost complete list of genes and the genetic polymorphisms in and around these genes that make us different individuals and predispose some to disease processes Using this information we are now beginning to uncover the how single nucleotide polymorphisms in our genome along with somatic mutations or viruses can contribute to the origins of cancer in humans The lecture will demonstrate how combinations of germ line mutations and polymorphisms in the p53 signal transduction pathway a tumor suppressor gene that responds to external stress both increase the frequency and decrease the age of onset of cancers These observations now unify the roles of viruses chemicals genes and aging in the causes of cancers in humans and these conclusions have begun to lead to rational approaches to drug design and the first remissions of cancers without toxicity We can now see the day when such drugs will be tailored to the genetic background of an individual or a tumor and positive responses will be observed at higher frequencies The success of this ration approach in drug design will validate the concepts developed over the past 45 years Arnold J Levine Ph D former president of The Rockefeller University is a leading authority on the molecular basis of cancer and co discoverer of the p53 tumor suppressor protein one of the body s most important defenses against many forms of cancer Dr Levine is currently a visiting professor in the School of Natural Sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton New Jersey

    Original URL path: http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/plecture/levine1/ (2015-11-01)
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  • Dr. Arnold Levine, The Human Genome Project, where do we go from here?
    we have gained new insights into the relatedness of humans and monkies mice flies worms and yeast enriching the new field of comparative genomics The theme that emerges is how similar we all are and just how closely related all humans are to each other Even so the millions of differences between any two human beings are now being identified and the consequences of these differences studied to elucidate the genetic bases of individuality in diseases and other traits The future of this research effort will hold many surprises and new insights Arnold J Levine Ph D former president of The Rockefeller University is a leading authority on the molecular basis of cancer and co discoverer of the p53 tumor suppressor protein one of the body s most important defenses against many forms of cancer Dr Levine is currently a visiting professor in the School of Natural Sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton New Jersey Levine was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1991 and to its Institute of Medicine in 1995 In April 2001 Levine received the first Albany Medical Center Prize in Medicine and Biomedical Research the largest annual prize in science or

    Original URL path: http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/plecture/levine/ (2015-11-01)
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  • Dr. Boris Kayser, Fermilab, Neutrinos Get Under Your Skin
    matter these particles are very hard to pin down and study However dramatic progress has recently been made In this lecture the neutrinos will be introduced Their behavior so different from that of everyday objects will be explained and the recent discoveries will be described The open questions about neutrinos the coming attempts to answer these questions and the role of neutrinos in shaping the universe and making human life possible will all be explained Kayser is an overtly enthusiastic particle physics theorist who has been particularly interested in the physics of neutrinos and the asymmetry between matter and anti matter An author of well over 100 scientific papers he is also co author of a popular slender book on neutrino physics and a frequent enthusiastic speaker on particle physics He earned a B S in physics from Princeton in 1960 He received a Ph D in particle physics from CalTech For nearly three decades Kayser served as Program Director for Theoretical Physics at the National Science Foundation in which capacity he was instrumental in establishing the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics He joined the staff of Fermilab in October 2001 with the title of Fermilab distinguished scientist to spend

    Original URL path: http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/plecture/kayser/ (2015-11-01)
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  • Dr. John Grunsfeld, NASA Astronaut, New Eyes for Space Exploration: Upgrading the Hubble Space Telescope
    109 mission the fourth Hubble servicing mission was the most ambitious repair mission to date Over a series of five space walks astronauts in space suits replaced the solar arrays and power system installed a new sensitive camera and brought an infra red camera back to life Details of the mission will be presented as well as some of the first exciting pictures from the new camera John Mace Grunsfeld received a B S degree in physics from M I T an M S degree and Ph D in physics from the University of Chicago Dr Grunsfeld studies binary pulsars and energetic x ray and gamma ray sources using the NASA Compton Gamma Ray Observatory x ray astronomy satellites radio telescopes and optical telescopes including the NASA Hubble Space Telescope He became an astronaut in 1992 and led a team of scientists tasked with defining and producing the crew displays for command and control of the International Space Center ISS He has logged over 45 days in space including 5 space walks He participated in the second flight of the astro observatory in 1995 He served as flight engineer of a 10 day mission to dock with Russia s Space

    Original URL path: http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/plecture/grunsfeld/ (2015-11-01)
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  • Dr. Frank Wilczek, MIT, The World's Numerical Recipe
    the discovery of asymptotic freedom the development of quantum chromodynamics the invention of axions and the discovery and exploitation of new forms of quantum statistics anyons When only 21 years old and a graduate student at Princeton University he and David Gross defined the properties of gluons which hold atomic nuclei together Frank Wilczek received his B S degree from the University of Chicago and his Ph D from Princeton University He taught at Princeton from 1974 to 1981 During the period 1981 to 1988 he was the first permanent member of the National Science Foundation s Institute for Theoretical Physics In the fall of 2000 he moved from the Institute for Advanced Study where he was the J R Oppenheimer Professor to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he is the Herman Feshbach Professor of Physics He has been Visiting Professor at Harvard 1987 88 and Lorentz Professor at Leiden 1998 He has also been a Sloan Foundation Fellow 1975 77 and a MacArthurFoundation Fellow 1982 87 He has received UNESCO s Dirac Medal and the American Physical Society s Sakurai Prize for his contributions to the development of theoretical physics He is a member of the National Academy

    Original URL path: http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/plecture/wilczek/ (2015-11-01)
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  • Dr. Don Eigler, IBM, Almaden Research Center, Building Things with Atoms: A Report from the Small Frontier
    explore how we might utilize nanometer scale structures in future technologies In this talk I will discuss how we use the scanning tunneling microscope to manipulate atoms and molecules I will give examples of how we exploit atom manipulation to deepen our knowledge of the physics of very small structures And if the atoms are agreeable we will have the opportunity to explore and interact with the land of atoms through a real time web based link to the microscope About the author Don Eigler is a physicist at IBM s Almaden Research Center in San Jose CA His research is concentrated on creating and studying the physical properties of nanometer scale structures In 1989 Don demonstrated for the first time the ability to build structures at the atomic level by spelling out I B M with individual xenon atoms Since then his group s research has been aimed at extending basic knowledge about the physics of atomic scale structures and exploring the potential for atomic scale logic and data storage technologies The group s results include the invention of quantum corrals discovery of the quantum mirage effect and demonstration of a fundamentally new way to transport information through a

    Original URL path: http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/plecture/eigler/ (2015-11-01)
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  • Dr. Geoffrey Marcy, UC Berkeley, You Say You Want a Revolution: Planetary Systems Different from our Own
    different architectures than our Solar System Most of the planets reside in elliptical orbits rather than circular Such planets will suffer wild temperature fluctuations as they travel close to and far from the host star The chemistry and atmospheres on these planets are significantly altered by the orbit and mass of the planet Planets the size of Earth remain undetectable however various pieces of evidence suggest that Earths are common About the Speaker Geoffrey Marcy is Professor of Astronomy at the University of California Berkeley Before moving to Berkeley in 1997 he was a Distinguished University Professor at San Francisco State University Dr Marcy s research is focused on the detection of extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs His team has discovered several dozen extrasolar planets allowing study of their masses radii and orbits Among the planets is the first multiple planet system the first Saturn candidates and the first transiting planet Ongoing work is designed to study the mass distribution of planets and the eccentricity of their orbits The 5 year goal is to find Jupiter analogs around other stars His discovery of extrasolar planets was just recognized by the National Academy of Science by the awarding of the Henry

    Original URL path: http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/plecture/marcy/ (2015-11-01)
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