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  • Joel Rothman | Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology | UC Santa Barbara
    the Faculty of 1000 and on the editorial board of the journal Apoptosis Research Regulation of development and differentiation regulation of programmed cell death and cell division mechanisms of tumorigenesis When a fertilized egg is transformed into a complex multicellular animal how do cells learn when to divide differentiate or die at the proper time and location We are investigating the mechanisms that regulate these processes during embryonic development in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans the only animal for which the lineage of every cell has been elucidated and the first for which the entire genomic sequence is known By a combination of molecular genetic and cell biological approaches RNA mediated interference RNAi which allows one to knock out a gene in one day and affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometric protein identification we are identifying and characterizing the factors that regulate a number of developmental processes We are investigating how cells in the early embryo are instructed to adopt the appropriate identities and how differentiation of the three germ layers endoderm mesoderm and ectoderm is molecularly controlled We have identified a set of regulatory molecules including a network of transcription factors that activate the entire pathway for endoderm and mesoderm development These factors are regulated by the Wnt signaling pathway and a MAP kinase phosphorylation cascade and we are examining how these signal transduction processes modulate the expression and function of these regulators To understand the processes underlying tumorigenesis and cancer in humans we are investigating the mechanisms that regulate programmed cell death PCD and cell division PCD is a genetically controlled process that eliminates extraneous or potentially harmful cells during development of most animals Its improper regulation can lead to numerous pathologies including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases We are characterizing molecules that control PCD and cell division including some that are homologues of human tumor suppressor proteins and oncogene products Since molecules that regulate PCD are conserved between humans and nematodes our studies should reveal components that act in these processes in all animals Selected Publications Downes J C Birsoy B and Rothman J H Handedness of a motor program in C elegans is independent of left right body asymmetry PLoS One In press 2012 Djabrayan N Dudley N R Sommermann E M and Rothman J H Essential role for Notch signaling in restricting developmental plasticity Genes Dev 26 2386 2391 2012 Pradeep M Joshi Misty R Riddle Nareg J V Djabrayan Joel H Rothman 2010 Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for stem cell biology Developmental Dynamics 239 5 1539 1554 Witze E Field E D Hunt D F and Rothman J H 2009 C elegans pur alpha an activator of end 1 synergizes with the Wnt pathway to specify endoderm Dev Biol 327 12 23 Maduro M F and Rothman J H 2009 Specification of the endoderm Wormbook M Chalfie and The C elegans Research Community eds Chen L McCloskey T Joshi P M and Rothman J H ced 4 and proto oncogene tfg 1 antagonistically regulate cell

    Original URL path: https://www.eemb.ucsb.edu/people/faculty/rothman (2016-02-17)
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  • Steve Rothstein | Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology | UC Santa Barbara
    individual variation in cowbird vocalizations I also have some involvement in conservation programs dealing with endangered species that are threatened by cowbird parasitism Recent publications that are indicative of my interests are cited in the list below I prefer that my graduate students choose thesis projects that are somewhat related to my own research interests since it is in such areas that I can provide the greatest help Although I like to see my students develop their projects mostly on their own I try to give them frequent and extensive feedback This is done via weekly lab meetings during which all members of my group discuss their research or recently published papers and via frequent one on one discussion Selected Publications in press John Faaborg Douglas H Johnson Nils Warnock Keith Bildstein Keith Hobson Frank Thompson III Angela Anders Sidney Gauthreaux Patricia Heglund Richard T Holmes Steven Latta Katie Dugger Douglas Levey T Scott Sillett Stephen I Rothstein Erica Nol Peter Marra and Tom Sherry New World Migratory Birds Recent Advances in Science and Conservation Ecological Applications in press 2007 Peer B D S I Rothstein K S Delaney and R C Fleischer Defence behaviour against brood parasitism is deeply rooted in mainland and island scrub jays Anim Behav 73 55 63 2005 Peer B D S I Rothstein and J W Rivers First record of Bronzed Cowbird parasitism on the Great tailed Grackle Wilson Bulletin 117 194 196 2005 Peer B D S I Rothstein M J Kuehn and R C Fleischer Host defenses against cowbird parasitism implications for cowbird management Ornithological Monographs No 57 84 97 2005 Rothstein S I and B D Peer Conservation solutions for threatened and endangered cowbird hosts sorting fact and fiction Ornithological Monographs No 57 98 114 2005 Anderson K E S I

    Original URL path: https://www.eemb.ucsb.edu/people/faculty/rothstein (2016-02-17)
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  • Josh Schimel | Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology | UC Santa Barbara
    grasses that invaded California starting over 100 years ago How much of their success is through changing soil conditions We are working with Dr Jim Reichman Eric Seabloom and Oliver Chadwick on this work The other thrust is understanding how stress drying rewetting and resource availability through the soil profile regulate microbial diversity community composition and community function This project is basic microbial ecology and includes work using molecular tools to understand the dynamics of specific microbial populations Grants Funding Microbial and hydrological control of the N flush at the summer winter seasonal transition Kearney Foundation of Soil Science 2007 157 446 2 years PI Dry Season Biogeochemistry of California ecosystems NSF 2007 512 948 3 Years PI Resource and Stress Interactions in Regulating Microbial Communities in a California Grassland Soil NSF 2005 400 000 3 Years Co PI Microbes and Ecosystems Working group at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis 2004 1 year PI The implications of exoenzyme activity on C flow and microbial carbon and nitrogen limitation in soil Kearney Foundation 2004 111 000 3 years PI The bugs of winter microbial control of soil biogeochemistry during the Arctic cold season NSF 2004 505 833 3 years PI CRB The role of seed limitation resource competition and community complementarity in invasions and restoration 2002 364 197 Coupling of carbon and water cycles in a cold dry ecosystem Integrative physical chemical and biology processes and their controls on CO2 exchange 2002 1 7 Million Land Water Interactions at the Catchment Scale Linking Biogeochemistry and Hydrology NSF 2002 1 6 Million total Soil organic matter does not break itself down the implications of exoenzyme activity on C flow and microbial carbon and nitrogen limitation in soil Kearny Foundation 2001 70 000 Microbial and hydrological controls of nitrogen losses from alpine and chaparral ecosystems during seasonal transitions NSF 2001 795 000 3 years Co PI Santa Barbara Coastal LTER NSF 1999 4 200 000 total 6 years Co I Amino acids in the N economy of Arctic tundra communities Mellon Foundation 1999 298 000 3 years PI Linking Resource and stress gradients to microbial community composition and function through the soil profile of a California annual grassland at the Sedgwick Reserve NSF Microbial Observatories Program 1999 664 000 4 years PI Winter C flux in Arctic ecosystems under changing climate effects of soil carbon and active layer dynamics NSF ARCSS LAII 1998 1 345 000 5 years PI Selected Publications Wallenstein M McMahon S and J Schimel 2007 Bacterial and fungal community structure in Arctic tundra tussock and shrub soils FEMS Microbiology Ecology 59 2 428 435 Schimel J P T C Balser and M Wallenstein 2007 Microbial stress response physiology and its implications for ecosystem function Ecology In press Numata I Chadwick O A Roberts D A Schimel J P Sampaio F F Leonidas F C and Soares J V 2007 Temporal nutrient variation in soil and vegetation of 1 post forest pastures as a function of soil

    Original URL path: https://www.eemb.ucsb.edu/people/faculty/schimel (2016-02-17)
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  • Russell Schmitt | Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology | UC Santa Barbara
    reef environment Our research involving surfperches on temperate reefs illustrates how fluctuations in local resources obscure straightforward stock recruitment relationships because per capita production of young can vary with food supply or other critical resource Food supply on a reef was an excellent predictor of the number of surfperches born as this is the commodity that adults transform into young Local dynamics were well predicted by annual fluctuations in the food supply across reefs revealing the underlying production recruitment relationship We also have estimated the demographic and population consequences of interspecific competition for food between surfperches as well as explored the nature of the interaction Consumer Resource Interactions Invertebrate Grazers as a Model System My work in this area has examined both predator prey interactions particularly predator mediated apparent competition as well as exploitation competition In addition to damselfishes and surfperches a model system that I have focused on in this context consists of a pair of grazers marine gastropods in the genus Tegula that share the same predators and a common food resource microalgae My past work revealed that differences in foraging behaviors between the consumers result in predictable patterns of density dependent effects on growth within and between the gastropods The complementary foraging behaviors exhibited by the Tegula appear commonly in pairs of marine microherbivores that compete for food but also coexist This motivated collaboration with Drs Will Wilson Roger Nisbet and Craig Osenberg that resulted in a model parameterized by empirical data I collected that showed such complementary foraging behaviors can be a sufficient mechanism of coexistence for species that compete exploitatively The model subsequently has been generalized by others and the result was found to be robust Population and Community Responses to Environmental Forcing I have been collaborating with Drs Sally Holbrook and Andrew Brooks to determine how populations of reef organisms have responded to changes in potentially important environmental conditions in Southern California During the past 3 decades ocean surface temperatures have warmed substantially in the Southern California Bight and we have found changes in the composition of reef fish communities that are consistent with expectations of such warming In particular the relative abundances of cold water affinity species have declined and the representation of warm affinity species has increased However abundances of 90 of all species of reef fishes have declined an average of about 70 during the past decade These changes mirror those observed in macrozooplankton in the California Current and suggest there has been a widespread decline in environmental productivity that has affected both nearshore pelagic and benthic food webs Our long term data on abundances of organisms on 3 linked trophic levels of a benthic food web indicate that all trophic levels have declined concurrently by about the same magnitude This finding is not consistent with current models of control and structure of benthic marine communities and we are now addressing this issue We are conducting meta analyses based on a number of long term data sets Our preliminary findings suggest

    Original URL path: https://www.eemb.ucsb.edu/people/faculty/schmitt (2016-02-17)
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  • David A. Siegel | Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology | UC Santa Barbara
    Cavanaugh K C B E Kendall D A Siegel D C Reed F Alberto and J Assis 2013 Synchrony in dynamics of giant kelp forests is driven by both local recruitment and regional environmental controls Ecology 94 499 509 Simons R D D A Siegel K S Brown 2013 Model sensitivity and robustness in the estimation of larval transport A study of particle tracking parameters Journal of Marine Systems 119 120 19 29 White J W A J Scholz A Rassweiler C Steinback L W Botsford S Kruse C Costello S Mitarai D A Siegel P T Drake C A Edwards 2013 A comparison of approaches used for economic analysis in marine protected area network planning in California Ocean Coastal Management Nelson N B Siegel D A 2013 Global distribution and dynamics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter Annual Review of Marine Science 5 447 476 Rassweiler A Costello C and D A Siegel 2012 Marine protected areas and the value of spatially optimized fishery management Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 11884 11889 Watson J R B E Kendall D A Siegel and S Mitarai 2012 Changing seascapes stochastic connectivity and marine metapopulation dynamics American Naturalist 180 99 112 Harrison C S D A Siegel and S Mitarai 2012 The role of filamentation and eddy eddy interactions in marine larval accumulation and transport Marine Ecology Progress Series 472 27 44 Owens S A K O Buesseler C H Lamborg J R Valdes M W Lomas R J Johnson D K Steinberg D A Siegel 2013 A new time series of particle export from neutrally buoyant sediment traps at the Bermuda Atlantic Time series Study site Deep Sea Research Part I 72 34 47 Reed D C A Rassweiler M H Carr K C Cavanaugh D P Malone and

    Original URL path: https://www.eemb.ucsb.edu/people/faculty/siegel (2016-02-17)
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  • Raul Suarez | Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology | UC Santa Barbara
    rates of metabolism Video on the left shows in Quick Time Movie format a rufous hummingbird taking a drink of sugar water from a feeder While doing so it breathes in a plastic flower modified to function as mask for flow through respirometry 2 Ecological implications of metabolic biochemistry Metabolic biochemists seldom think about how and in what types of environments animals actually live as well as how metabolism may influence or constrain behavior Ecologists seldom think about metabolism and how behavior and the environment influence metabolism If an organism s energetic goal is to maximize net energy gain what are the relationships between strategies and mechanisms of metabolic fuel selection and behavioral choices made in changing environments Can behavior optimize metabolism and increase net energy gain Has metabolism influenced the evolution of behavior 3 Evolutionary design of pathways of energy metabolism in muscles What are the relationships between biochemical capacities and maximum physiological requirements A subject of much controversy is the idea that animals are designed economically such that structures and functional capacities simply match but do not exceed maximum physiological requirements or loads the concept of symmorphosis Do muscles possess enough or too much enzyme Do muscles have just enough mitochondria such that these operate at their maximal capacities during maximum aerobic exercise I am very interested in deciphering the rules that govern the evolutionary design of functional capacities at the biochemical level 4 Energetics of flight in hummingbirds and insects Because of their small size and ability to fly these animals achieve the highest mass specific metabolic rates in the animal kingdom How do morphology physiology and biochemistry all fit together to allow these animals to achieve such high rates of metabolism How do enzymes pathways and mitochondria really work in vivo The smallest and presumably most

    Original URL path: https://www.eemb.ucsb.edu/people/faculty/suarez (2016-02-17)
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  • Samuel Sweet | Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology | UC Santa Barbara
    intergrade zones and of speciational processes crypsis functional and evolutionary morphology ethnozoology conservation biology Selected Publications 2007c On the distribution of the Papuan monitor Varanus salvadorii Peters Doria 1878 in New Guinea H G Horn S S Sweet and K M Philipp in Boehme W and H G Horn eds Advvances in Monitor Research III Mertensiella 2007b Monitors mammals and Wallace s Line S S Sweet and E R Pianka in Boehme W and H G Horn eds A dvances in Monitor Research III Mertensiella 2007a Comparative spatial ecology of two small arboreal monitors in northern Australia in Boehme W and H G Horn eds Advances in Monitor Research III Mertensiella 2005b Integrative biology of sticky feet in geckos E R Pianka and S S Sweet BioEssays 27 647 652 2005a Bufo californicus S S Sweet and B K Sullivan Pp 396 400 in M Lanoo ed Declining Amphibian Task Force Handbook Univ California Press Berkeley 2004e distribution map Varanus salvadorii p 235 in E R Pianka and D R King eds Varanoid Lizards of the World Indiana Univ Press 2004d Varanus scalaris L A Smith S S Sweet and D R King Pp 451 461 in E R Pianka

    Original URL path: https://www.eemb.ucsb.edu/people/faculty/sweet (2016-02-17)
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  • Thomas Turner | Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology | UC Santa Barbara
    of genetic variation Our current research is focused on understanding the genetic basis of behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster Individual flies have different preferences when it comes to whom to mate with or where to lay eggs and these preferences have evolved between populations and species The primary goal of the lab is to locate the genetic changes responsible for this variation and determine how these changes effect the nervous system

    Original URL path: https://www.eemb.ucsb.edu/people/faculty/turner (2016-02-17)
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