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  • New Developments: Flow Structures around Mussels – IIHR – Hydroscience & Engineering – University of Iowa
    could be important or so very complicated But even though the mussel research is on a small scale its application far exceeds mussel research Our work can be expanded to very different engineering applications control surfaces on aircraft and underwater vehicles sails and cowlings on submarines components on electronic circuit boards buildings and exhaust stacks and boulders clusters and fish habitat structures on river beds It s quite interdisciplinary Haji explains Tags CGRER James Buchholz mussels PIV Home About Greetings from the Director Fact Page IIHR at a Glance Where is IIHR Communications History IIHR s Historical Studies History Resources Hans Albert Einstein His Life as a Pioneering Engineer Sustainability at IIHR Evolving with the Times Intellectual Connections Worldwide IIHR Alumni Worldwide Archives Films by Hunter Rouse Employment Contact IIHR Webcam Education Graduate Program Admission Assistantships and Fellowships Graduate Student Opportunities Undergraduate Opportunities International Perspectives Service Projects Habitat for Humanity s Women Build Project Fluids Lab Meet Our Faculty and Staff Brandon Barquist Talking Shop Pablo Carrica Enjoying the Challenge George Constantinescu Rivers Run in the Family Carrie Davis Playing in the Mud Teresa Gaffey Transformations Anton Kruger How Stuff Works Troy Lyons Bridging the Gap Ricardo Mantilla Going with the Flow Jacob Odgaard Making an Impact Michelle Scherer Solving the Puzzle Fred Stern Revolutionizing Ship Hydrodynamics Stephanie Surine She s a Rocker Eric Tate Studying the Human Costs of Flooding H S Udaykumar The Reluctant Engineer Gabriele Villarini Working the Numbers Mark Wilson What s Not to Like Meet Our Students Tibebu Ayalew Accidental Engineer Ali Reza Firoozfar The Experimentalist Ruben Llamas Success among Friends Beda Luitel Finding a Way Kara Prior For the Love of Discovery Harvest Schroeder The Human Factor Stephanie Then Like a Duck to Water Meet Our Alumni Jim Ashton Turnaround Guy Maria Laura Beninati The Iowa Embrace Paul Dierking The Inquisitive Engineer Scott Hagen Far from the Farm J V Loperfido Going with the Flow Student Organization SIIHR Contact Us Research The Iowa Nutrient Research Center Iowa Geological Survey The IGS Rock Library Water Sustainability Initiative Water Quality Everyone s Responsibility Water Communication A New Field The Human Costs of Flooding Biofluids Developing a Digital Lung The Dynamics of Heart Valves Metastatic Cancer Cells and Shear Stress Environmental Engineering Science PCBs A Disturbing Legacy and Ongoing Threat Aboard the Lake Guardian Plume Chasers Landfill Fire Sparks Research Fish Passage Taming Total Dissolved Gas Hydraulic Structures The IIHR Dropshaft Solution Modernizing London s Sewers Hydrometeorology LiDAR Studies Iowa Flood Center A Story of Flood Preparedness IFC Research Initiatives The Iowa Floodplain Mapping Project Floodplain Mapping Kalona Iowa Stream Sensor Gallery Ship Hydrodynamics Bubbly Wake and Submarines Watershed Processes Iowa Watersheds Projects Partnerships for Iowa Watersheds The Intelligent Digital Watershed Other Research Initiatives Improving Iowa s Winter Road Conditions Mitigating Corrosion of Steel Bridges Mussels Serve as Water Quality Sensors Self Cleaning Culverts Unsteady Aerodynamics Instrumentation and Technology Research Flumes Ship Hydrodynamics Resources Safety Information File a Fieldwork Plan Fieldwork Safety Guidelines Boat Safety Guidelines Publications

    Original URL path: http://www.iihr.uiowa.edu/blog/2012/11/13/iihr-student-researches-water-flow-around-mussels/ (2015-11-11)
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  • Switchgrass Removes PCBs from Soil – IIHR – Hydroscience & Engineering – University of Iowa
    from untreated soil Soil applied with a PCB oxidizing microorganism Burkholderia strain LB400 was found to remove about 47 percent of one of the PCBs tested Also the presence of switchgrass appeared to facilitate the microorganism s survival in the soil Normally we think that if we can get plants to grow in degraded lands so called brownfields that the proper bugs will grow in the root zone to degrade the contaminants says Jerry Schnoor co author and UI civil and environmental engineering professor What s new in this story is that we can actually help the process along by adding the proper bugs LB400 to the root zone at the time of planting and beyond IIHR Research Engineer Jerry Schnoor is one of the authors of a new study focusing on how switchgrass can be used to remove PCBs from contaminated soil The possibility of synergistic interactions between the switchgrass and the bioaugmented PCB degrading bacteria suggests that employing both plants and bacteria in PCB remediation strategies holds promise for enhanced removal of these recalcitrant compounds from contaminated sites Mattes says He notes that he currently is studying which microbes work in the root zone of the plant to transform PCBs by a process called reductive dechlorination In addition to Mattes and Schnoor coauthors of the paper are Yi Liang Richard Meggo and Dingfei Hu all in the UI College of Engineering The paper is titled Enhanced polychlorinated biphenyl removal in a switchgrass rhizosphere by bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 The research was funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program grant No P42ES13661 and by a fellowship for Yi Liang from the Comment Center for Biocatalysis and Bioprocessing at the University of Iowa Tags Jerry Schnoor PCBs switchgrass Tim Mattes Home About Greetings from the Director Fact Page IIHR at a Glance Where is IIHR Communications History IIHR s Historical Studies History Resources Hans Albert Einstein His Life as a Pioneering Engineer Sustainability at IIHR Evolving with the Times Intellectual Connections Worldwide IIHR Alumni Worldwide Archives Films by Hunter Rouse Employment Contact IIHR Webcam Education Graduate Program Admission Assistantships and Fellowships Graduate Student Opportunities Undergraduate Opportunities International Perspectives Service Projects Habitat for Humanity s Women Build Project Fluids Lab Meet Our Faculty and Staff Brandon Barquist Talking Shop Pablo Carrica Enjoying the Challenge George Constantinescu Rivers Run in the Family Carrie Davis Playing in the Mud Teresa Gaffey Transformations Anton Kruger How Stuff Works Troy Lyons Bridging the Gap Ricardo Mantilla Going with the Flow Jacob Odgaard Making an Impact Michelle Scherer Solving the Puzzle Fred Stern Revolutionizing Ship Hydrodynamics Stephanie Surine She s a Rocker Eric Tate Studying the Human Costs of Flooding H S Udaykumar The Reluctant Engineer Gabriele Villarini Working the Numbers Mark Wilson What s Not to Like Meet Our Students Tibebu Ayalew Accidental Engineer Ali Reza Firoozfar The Experimentalist Ruben Llamas Success among Friends Beda Luitel Finding a Way Kara Prior For the Love of Discovery Harvest Schroeder The

    Original URL path: http://www.iihr.uiowa.edu/blog/2015/02/24/switchgrass-removes-pcbs-from-soil/ (2015-11-11)
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  • Postdoc Tracks Down PCBs – IIHR – Hydroscience & Engineering – University of Iowa
    children Marek says Children in the study were found to have lower weight more volatile PCBs present which suggests that airborne exposure may be an important source of the toxins for children Furthermore Marek says that the researchers have identified similar PCBs and metabolites in both the rural Columbus Junction and urban East Chicago groups suggesting that outdoor air exposure may not be as important as diet and indoor air exposure Lastly the researchers found that metabolites OH PCBs detected in the Great Lakes waterways appear to be coming from original sources of PCB contamination rather than through metabolic processes as observed in the study s participants It is likely that toxic OH PCBs are present in sediment any place that is contaminated with those original commercial PCB mixtures Marek explains This is an important discovery as governments and industry continue to identify and clean up sources of PCB pollution Marek plans to further observe the transport and fate of PCBs and OH PCBs By continuing to collect samples from the study s participants over several years she hopes to observe variations in levels and types of PCBs present over time Additionally she is working with IIHR Assistant Research Scientist Andres Martinez on the physical chemical properties of OH PCBs to quantify their concentrations in sediment samples and determine the sources of these pollutants and their fate in the environment Tags Great Lakes Iowa Superfund Basic Research Program Keri Hornbuckle Matthew Wolf PCBs Rachel Marek Toxic Substance Control Act Home About Greetings from the Director Fact Page IIHR at a Glance Where is IIHR Communications History IIHR s Historical Studies History Resources Hans Albert Einstein His Life as a Pioneering Engineer Sustainability at IIHR Evolving with the Times Intellectual Connections Worldwide IIHR Alumni Worldwide Archives Films by Hunter Rouse Employment Contact IIHR Webcam Education Graduate Program Admission Assistantships and Fellowships Graduate Student Opportunities Undergraduate Opportunities International Perspectives Service Projects Habitat for Humanity s Women Build Project Fluids Lab Meet Our Faculty and Staff Brandon Barquist Talking Shop Pablo Carrica Enjoying the Challenge George Constantinescu Rivers Run in the Family Carrie Davis Playing in the Mud Teresa Gaffey Transformations Anton Kruger How Stuff Works Troy Lyons Bridging the Gap Ricardo Mantilla Going with the Flow Jacob Odgaard Making an Impact Michelle Scherer Solving the Puzzle Fred Stern Revolutionizing Ship Hydrodynamics Stephanie Surine She s a Rocker Eric Tate Studying the Human Costs of Flooding H S Udaykumar The Reluctant Engineer Gabriele Villarini Working the Numbers Mark Wilson What s Not to Like Meet Our Students Tibebu Ayalew Accidental Engineer Ali Reza Firoozfar The Experimentalist Ruben Llamas Success among Friends Beda Luitel Finding a Way Kara Prior For the Love of Discovery Harvest Schroeder The Human Factor Stephanie Then Like a Duck to Water Meet Our Alumni Jim Ashton Turnaround Guy Maria Laura Beninati The Iowa Embrace Paul Dierking The Inquisitive Engineer Scott Hagen Far from the Farm J V Loperfido Going with the Flow Student Organization SIIHR Contact Us Research The

    Original URL path: http://www.iihr.uiowa.edu/blog/2014/02/27/postdoc-tracks-down-pcbs/ (2015-11-11)
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  • IIHR Researchers Find Toxic PCBs – IIHR – Hydroscience & Engineering – University of Iowa
    per million ppm which qualifies as hazardous waste according to EPA standards At those levels the IHSC could be designated a Superfund Site Superfund is a federal effort to clean up abandoned hazardous waste sites The IHSC is an active canal system that supports large vessels But to remain viable for industrial shipping the U S Army Corps of Engineers Chicago District plans to begin a long term dredging project to restore adequate navigational depth Hornbuckle and Martinez recommend that the PCB concentrations in the sediment be considered in the dredging strategy to reduce the potential release of PCBs into the environment They need to dredge it but I think they need to dredge it all Hornbuckle says If you were going to dredge it all you would figure out where all the pollutants are and then you would remove them and move them somewhere safe They don t intend to dredge it all because that would be much more expensive and disruptive to this very active harbor Researchers acknowledge that the Army Corps of Engineers may not dredge deep enough to expose the highly toxic PCBs Now that they ve identified the presence of toxic PCBs in the deep sediment the next step is to try to predict what will happen if the new sediment is exposed Martinez is attempting to answer this question by using a passive sampler that pulls PCBs out of the pore waters which occupy the spaces between sediment particles He s using a very thin piece of glass that is coated with a polymer He puts that into the sediment to pull the PCBs out of the pore waters Hornbuckle says Before we would just take a bulk of mud and extract it that way Now he is using a much more refined technique to measure only the dissolved PSBs that are in the pore water There are very few groups that are trying to do this The reviewers recognized that is the number we needed For more about UI postdoctoral scholars and fellows contact University of Iowa Office of Postdoctoral Scholars Anne Marie Ericson Program Coordinator postdoc office uiowa edu Web postdoc grad uiowa edu Postdocs Iowa series written by John Riehl Graduate College Tags Andres Martinez Chicago Chile Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal Keri Hornbuckle PCBs research U S Army Corps of Engineers Home About Greetings from the Director Fact Page IIHR at a Glance Where is IIHR Communications History IIHR s Historical Studies History Resources Hans Albert Einstein His Life as a Pioneering Engineer Sustainability at IIHR Evolving with the Times Intellectual Connections Worldwide IIHR Alumni Worldwide Archives Films by Hunter Rouse Employment Contact IIHR Webcam Education Graduate Program Admission Assistantships and Fellowships Graduate Student Opportunities Undergraduate Opportunities International Perspectives Service Projects Habitat for Humanity s Women Build Project Fluids Lab Meet Our Faculty and Staff Brandon Barquist Talking Shop Pablo Carrica Enjoying the Challenge George Constantinescu Rivers Run in the Family Carrie Davis Playing in the Mud Teresa Gaffey Transformations

    Original URL path: http://www.iihr.uiowa.edu/blog/2011/12/05/iihr-researchers-find-toxic-pcbs/ (2015-11-11)
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  • About – Total Dissolved Gas Modeling
    on TDG levels exposure time and the swimming depth of the fish The excess of uncompensated gas may form bubbles inside the internal tissues of the affected fish Exposure to high levels of TDG during long periods of time can also be lethal due to the blockage of blood flow by the bubbles State and Federal regulations establish water quality standards relative to TDG to protect aquatic organisms Total Maximum Daily Load TMDL serves as an example of these regulations TMDL for TDG is the maximum amount of dissolved gas that a waterbody can receive to meet water quality standards Descriptions of Oregon and Washington TMDL for TDG on the Columbia and Snake Rivers may be found at http www ecy wa gov programs wq tmdl ColumbiaRvr ColumbiaTDG html http www deq state or us wq TMDLs columbia htm tdg As part of the relicensing process the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FERC requires that hydroelectric projects obtain a water quality certificate If the project cannot meet the water quality standards they should perform the necessary studies to minimize damage to the environment The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FERC requires that hydroelectric projects obtain a water quality certificate Several methods are used to reduce TDG supersaturation downstream of dams and thus minimize fish injury and mortality The cheapest one is to identify plant operations that minimize the TDG production allowing the project to be in compliance with water quality standards Other more expensive options are structural modifications such as addition of spillway flow deflectors diversion tunnels around the project addition of generating units training walls separating powerhouse and spillway flows among others Until recently design projects have required multiple year schedules including initial field data collection laboratory modeling field prototype testing and then possible refinement in the laboratory The primary shortcoming

    Original URL path: http://www.iihr.uiowa.edu/totaldissolvedgas/total-dissolved-gas/about/ (2015-11-11)
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  • Taming Total Dissolved Gas – Total Dissolved Gas Modeling
    professor of civil and environmental engineering at the University of Iowa Preserving Water Quality Politano is leading an IIHR research team working with the Idaho Power Company which operates hydroelectric dams on the Columbia and Snake rivers These two rivers are among the largest sources of hydropower in the United States Hydropower is the most important renewable source of energy Politano says Hydroelectric power does not produce greenhouse gas emissions the electricity is generally available as needed and the reservoirs can be used for numerous purposes including recreation But hydroelectric power can have negative impacts as well Hydroelectric projects have altered the natural habitat Politano says One environmental concern is total dissolved gas TDG or the amount of gas present in water Elevated TDG can occur immediately downstream of the dam known as the tailrace and farther downriver Elevated TDG harms many aquatic species including salmon Fish exposed to water with elevated TDG can develop gas bubble disease Recent work on the Hells Canyon Dam is designed to help the utility company meet state and federal regulations for water quality standards including TDG Modeling TDG Politano s research focuses on numerical modeling of TDG Water flowing over a dam can become supersaturated with gas as the water plunges to extreme depths below the dam The severity of the effect depends on the level of TDG and exposure time she explains Politano developed the first two phase numerical model to represent the complex physics of a dam s tailrace Her model can also evaluate technologies designed to reduce TDG and protect fish For instance spillway flow deflectors designed at IIHR redirect spill water to form a surface jet that prevents bubbles deep in the tailrace The numerical model allows testing of these technologies before construction begins Graduate students Antonio Arenas Amado

    Original URL path: http://www.iihr.uiowa.edu/totaldissolvedgas/total-dissolved-gas/about/taming-total-dissolved-gas/ (2015-11-11)
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  • Spillway Jet Regimes – Total Dissolved Gas Modeling
    bubble transport to depth and the production of TDG Plunging flow The plunging regime is observed in a spillway without deflectors or for low tailwater elevations Water flowing over the spillway plunges deep into the stilling basin forming a hydraulic jump This regime transports bubbles to deep regions where high pressure forces their dissolution into water resulting in the highest TDG production Submerged or surface jump The submerged surface jet

    Original URL path: http://www.iihr.uiowa.edu/totaldissolvedgas/total-dissolved-gas/about/spillway-jet-regimes/ (2015-11-11)
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  • Hydrodynamics in Hydropower Tailraces – Total Dissolved Gas Modeling
    in the stilling basin and thus reducing the air dissolution The flow pattern in the tailrace is completely modified after installation of spillway deflectors since spillway surface jets attract water toward the jet region a phenomenon called water entrainment The change in the flow pattern affects the performance of fish passage sedimentation processes and distribution of TDG among other effects The main mechanisms causing water entrainment are Acceleration of the surrounding fluid as the jets decelerates Surface currents The Coanda effect and The presence of bubbles Numerical studies and field and model observations indicate that the presence of bubbles has a strong effect on the water entrainment Bubbles reduce the effective density and pressure viscosity and affect the liquid turbulence Model Scale Experiments Model scale experiments fail to reproduce the water entrainment observed in the prototype thus preventing flow studies under some spillway operational conditions The scaling is performed based on the Froude number and therefore the Reynolds and Weber numbers are not honored resulting in smaller levels of turbulence and fewer and bigger bubbles in dimensionless terms than in the prototype The inadequate representation of the turbulence bubble residence time and gas volume fraction leads to weaker surface jets

    Original URL path: http://www.iihr.uiowa.edu/totaldissolvedgas/total-dissolved-gas/about/hydrodynamics-in-hydropower-tailraces/ (2015-11-11)
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