archive-edu.com » EDU » U » UIOWA.EDU

Total: 455

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • Tanzania - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Principal Language Kiswahili English Arabic and local languages Official Language Swahili and English Politics Head Of State Jakaya Kikwete 2005 Type of Government Republic Date of Independence December 9 1961 Major Exports Gold Coffee Cashew Nuts Manufactures Cotton Precolonial History Khoisan speaking hunter gatherer societies inhabited Tanzania about 10 000 years ago They were joined by and assimilated into Cushitic and Bantu communities migrating to the area from north and west Africa Trading ports were established along the Tanzanian coast and the Swahili culture evolved from the amalgamation of African Arab and Persian populations by 1200 CE Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama reached the coast in 1498 Portugal seized Zanzibar and most of the Swahili ports within a decade controlling the region until Omani Arabs ousted the Europeans in 1699 Zanzibar became the center of the Arab slave trade and later the capital of the Omani empire under Sultan Seyyid Said in the mid 19th century British explorers Sir Richard Francis Burton and John Hanning Speke reached Lake Tanganyika in the late 1850s Germany began claiming mainland territory in the 1880s and established the colony of Deutsch Ostafrika German East Africa in 1891 Following Germany s defeat in World War I the League of Nations granted control over the colony to Britain Postcolonial History In 1954 Julius Nyerere founded the Tanganyika African National Union TANU to resist British rule He became prime minister when Tanganyika declared independence in 1961 and president when the country was proclaimed a republic the following year Zanzibar declared independence from Britain in 1963 and soon merged with Tanganyika to form the United Republic of Tanzania The leader of the Afro Shirazi Party of Zanzibar became Nyerere s vice president and in 1977 the two dominant political parties merged into Chama Cha Mapinduzi CCM the Party

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/countries/show/21 (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive


  • Togo - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Rule Date of Independence April 27 1960 Major Exports Phosphates Cotton Coffee Cocoa Precolonial History Ewe peoples migrating from Nigeria and Bénin settled along the coast of Togo centuries before European arrival Portuguese explorers were the first to reach the area which later became known as the Slave Coast Denmark Germany France and Britain also competed for colonial authority and trade influence in Togo until the 19th century Germany declared the region a protectorate in 1884 After World War I the League of Nations divided Togoland between France and Britain British Togoland united with the Gold Coast to form the independent nation of Ghana in 1957 French Togoland declared independence in 1960 Postcolonial History Sylvanus Olympio of the Comité de l unité togolaise CUT became the first president of Togo He was assassinated during a coup d état in 1963 and succeeded by Nicolas Grunitzky of the Parti togolais du progress PTP In 1967 Lieutenant Colonel Étienne Eyadéma later General Gnassingbé Eyadéma overthrew Grunitzky in a bloodless military coup Eyadéma banned all political parties except the Rassemblement du people togolais RPT founded in 1969 with Eyadéma as president By suppressing the opposition and altering the constitution Eyadéma maintained a dictatorship

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/countries/show/22 (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Zambia - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Religion 1 Literacy 80 6 Principal Language Bemba Nyanja Tonga Official Language English Politics Head Of State Michael Chilufya Sata since 2011 Type of Government Republic Date of Independence October 24 1964 Major Exports Copper Cobalt Electricity Tobacco Flowers Cotton Precolonial History Zambia s earliest inhabitants were Khoisan hunter gatherers who were gradually displaced or absorbed by Bantu speaking populations migrating from the north and west Kingdoms emerged from 1500 to 1800 the largest being the Chewa Lozi Bemba and Lunda Ngoni peoples migrated from the south during the mid 19th century while the Portuguese and Arabs engaged in the slave trade Scottish missionary David Livingstone led an expedition up the Zambezi River and became the first European to see the waterfalls of Mosi oa Tunya which he named Victoria Falls in honor of Queen Victoria in 1855 In 1888 Cecil John Rhodes of the British South Africa Company negotiated with local rulers for copper mining rights Northern and Southern Rhodesia present day Zambia and Zimbabwe were declared British spheres of influence that same year Northern Rhodesia became a British protectorate in 1924 In 1953 Britain merged its colonial territories into the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland which was dissolved a decade later when Britain relinquished political control Postcolonial History Northern Rhodesia became the republic of Zambia in 1964 Kenneth Kaunda the leader of the United National Independence Party UNIP was elected the country s first president He declared Zambia a single party state in 1972 Kaunda remained in power until 1991 when Frederick Chiluba of the Movement for Multi Party Democracy MMD became Zambia s first democratically elected president Chiluba was re elected until 2002 His successor Levy Mwanawasa launched an anti corruption campaign obtained debt relief and declared food shortage a national disaster during his term in office

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/countries/show/23 (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Zimbabwe - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Robert Gabriel Mugabe since 1987 Type of Government Parliamentary Democracy Date of Independence April 18 1980 Major Exports Platinum Cotton Gold Tobacco Ferroalloys Clothing Precolonial History Khoisan artifacts found in Zimbabwe indicate that the region was inhabited for thousands of years before the arrival of Bantu speaking migrants in the early 1st millennium CE The country derives its name from the Great Zimbabwe stone ruins constructed by indigenous ancestors of the Shona peoples between the 11th and 14th centuries The Portuguese were the first Europeans to explore inland territories of what is now Zimbabwe in the 16th century but never visited Great Zimbabwe Zimbabwe s colonial history began in 1888 when Cecil John Rhodes British South Africa Company obtained mining rights in present day Zambia and Zimbabwe European settlers began displacing indigenous peoples including the Shona and Ndebele who unsuccessfully rebelled against British rule in the 1890s In 1923 the territory known as Southern Rhodesia was declared a self governing British colony Britain consolidated its colonies into the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland in 1953 The federation was dissolved a decade later although Rhodesia remained under British control Postcolonial History In 1965 Prime Minister Ian Smith of the Rhodesian Front RF declared independence under white minority rule instigating years of civil war between the government and African nationalist groups The two major nationalist groups Joshua Nkomo s Zimbabwe African People s Union ZAPU and Robert Mugabe s Zimbabwe African National Union ZANU joined forces and formed the Patriotic Front in the 1970s In 1979 the British mediated a peace agreement and a new constitution guaranteeing minority rights The international community formally recognized Zimbabwe s independence in 1980 Mugabe was elected prime minister and assumed the role of Zimbabwe s first president in 1987 He has been re elected since that

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/countries/show/24 (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Akan - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Mossi Mumuye Ngbaka Nkanu Nok Nuna Oron Owo Pende Pokot Punu San Sapi Senufo Shambaa Shona Songo Songye South Sotho Suku Swahili Tabwa Tuareg Urhobo We Winiama Wodaabe Wolof Woyo Wum Yaka Yombe Yoruba Zaramo Zulu Akan See All View all images in the media gallery History Among the Akan speaking peoples of southern Ghana and adjacent Côte d Ivoire ritual pottery and figurative terracottas are used in connection with funeral practices that date at least to the 1600s Much of what we know about ancient Akan customs comes to us in the form of oral histories which have survived for several hundred years Many of the objects that have been recovered through archaeological methods are still produced in modified form among Akan peoples today The rise of the early Akan centralized states can be traced to the 13th century and is likely related to the opening of trade routes established to move gold throughout the region It was not until the end of the 17th century however that the grand Asante Kingdom emerged in the central forest region of Ghana when several small states united under the Chief of Kumasi in a move to achieve political freedom from the

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Akan (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Akuapem - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    routes established to move gold throughout the region It was not until the end of the 17th century however that the grand Asante Kingdom emerged in the central forest region of Ghana when several small states united under the Chief of Kumasi in a move to achieve political freedom from the Denkyira The Asante confederacy was dissolved by the British in 1900 and colonized in 1901 Although there is no longer a centralized Akan confederacy Akan peoples maintain a powerful political and economic presence Economy Early Akan economics revolved primarily around the trade of gold and enslaved peoples to Mande and Hausa traders within Africa and later to Europeans along the coast This trade was dominated by the Asante who received firearms in return for their role as middlemen in the slave trade These were used to increase their already dominant power Various luxury goods were were also received and incorporated into Asante symbols of status and political office Local agriculture includes cocoa cultivation for export while yams and taro serve as the main staples Among the Fante who live along the coast fishing is very important The depleted forests provide little opportunity for hunting Extensive markets are run primarily by women who maintain considerable economic power while men engage in fishing hunting and clearing land Both sexes participate in agricultural endeavors Political Systems Royal membership among Akan is determined through connection to the land Anyone who traces descendency from a founding member of a village or town may be considered royal Each family is responsible for maintaining political and social order within its confines In the past there was a hierarchy of leadership that extended beyond the family first to the village headman then to a territorial chief then to the paramount chief of each division within the Asante

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Akuapem (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Akye - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    end of the 17th century however that the grand Asante Kingdom emerged in the central forest region of Ghana when several small states united under the Chief of Kumasi in a move to achieve political freedom from the Denkyira The Asante confederacy was dissolved by the British in 1900 and colonized in 1901 Although there is no longer a centralized Akan confederacy Akan peoples maintain a powerful political and economic presence Economy Early Akan economics revolved primarily around the trade of gold and enslaved peoples to Mande and Hausa traders within Africa and later to Europeans along the coast This trade was dominated by the Asante who received firearms in return for their role as middlemen in the slave trade These were used to increase their already dominant power Local agriculture includes cocoa cultivation for export while yams and taro serve as the main staples Along the coast fishing is very important The depleted forests provide little opportunity for hunting Extensive markets are run primarily by women who maintain considerable economic power while men engage in fishing hunting and clearing land Both sexes participate in agricultural endeavors Political Systems Royal membership among Akan is determined through connection to the land Anyone who traces descendency from a founding member of a village or town may be considered royal Each family is responsible for maintaining political and social order within its confines In the past there was a hierarchy of leadership that extended beyond the family first to the village headman then to a territorial chief then to the paramount chief of each division within the Asante confederacy The highest level of power is reserved for the Asanthene who inherited his position along matrilineal lines The Asantahene still plays an important role in Ghana today symbolically linking the past with current Ghanaian

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Akye (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Amazigh (Berber) - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    which they themselves do not use Amazigh history in North Africa is extensive and diverse Their ancient ancestors settled in the area just inland of the Mediterranean Sea to the east of Egypt Many early Roman Greek and Phoenician colonial accounts mention a group of people collectively known as Berbers living in northern Africa In actuality Berber is a generic name given to numerous heterogeneous ethnic groups that share similar cultural political and economic practices Over the last several hundred years many Amazigh peoples have converted to Islam Economy Contrary to popular romanticism which portrays Amazigh as nomadic peoples crossing the desert on camels most actually practice sedentary agriculture in the mountains and valleys throughout northern Africa Some do in fact engage in trade throughout the region and such practices certainly had a tremendous influence on the history of the African continent Trade routes established from western Africa to the Mediterranean connected the peoples of southern Europe with much of sub Saharan Africa thousands of years ago There are basically five trade routes which extend across the Sahara from the northern Mediterranean coast of Africa to the great cities which are situated on the southern edge of the Sahara Amazigh merchants were responsible for bringing goods from these cities to the north From there they were distributed throughout the world Political Systems Amazigh society was divided between those who tended the land and those who did not At one time tilling the land was considered the work of the lower classes while the upper classes were merchants Usually groups of sedentary Amazigh paid allegience to a locally appointed headman who in turn reported to the noble who considered the village his domain As time has passed however these sedentary farmers have been able to accumulate wealth while the trans Saharan

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Amazigh+%28Berber%29 (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive