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  • Hausa - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Bayajidda to show her appreciation The two gave birth to seven healthy sons each of whom ruled the seven city states that make up Hausaland The rise of the Hausa states occurred between 500 and 700 A D but it was not until 1200 that they really began to control the region The history of the area is intricately tied to Islam and the Fulani who wrested political power from the Hausa in the early 1800s through a series of holy wars Economy Since the beginning of Hausa history the seven states of Hausaland divided up production and labor activities in accordance with their location and natural resources Kano and Rano were known as the Chiefs of Indigo Cotton grew readily in the great plains of these states and they became the primary producers of cloth weaving and dying it before sending it off in caravans to the other states within Hausaland and to extensive regions beyond Biram was the original seat of government while Zaria supplied labor and was known as the Chief of Slaves Katsina and Daura were the Chiefs of the Market as their geographical location accorded them direct acccess to the caravans coming across the desert from the north Gobir located in the west was the Chief of War and was mainly responsible for protecting the empire from the invasive Kingdoms of Ghana and Songhai Political Systems Leadership in the early Hausa states was based on ancestry Those who could trace their relations back to Bayajidda were considered royal With the introduction of Islam many Hausa rulers adopted this new religion while at the same time honoring traditional ways This position allowed the elite to benefit from the advantages of both systems The Fulani took over political power in the region in the early 1800s Their

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Hausa (2016-02-13)
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  • Hemba - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Art The artistic style of the Hemba is very similar to that of the Luba as many of their forms are borrowed Art often results from the elaboration of otherwise simple utilitarian objects Extensive wooden sculptures which often represent the ancestors predominate History Near the end of the 16th century the Hemba began their migration from an area to the northeast probably modern day Tanzania In the 1800s under the direction of Niembo and his son Myhiya the Hemba moved into their current location along the Congo River The Luba unsuccessfully tried to incorporate the Southern Hemba into their growing kingdom The Luba did succeed however in greatly influencing the Hemba in numerous ways including artistic styles In the late 19th century the Hemba were subjugated to raids by Arab slave traders and again by Belgian forces during colonization Economy The Hemba are primarily subsistence agriculturalists whose main staples include manioc maize peanuts and yams These crops are supplemented by small scale hunting and fishing done mostly by the men Some alluvial copper is panned from the river and sold to outside markets Political Systems Generally the Hemba acknowledge chiefs who are heads of extended landholding families as their political

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Hemba (2016-02-13)
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  • Holoholo - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    art objects in museum collections History Holoholo are descended from the Baguha peoples who escaped from southwest Democratic Republic of the Congo amidst Luba expansionism during the 18th century In the 1880s the water level of Lake Tanganyika dropped significantly inviting members of various ethnic groups to move into the area surrounding the town of Kalemie The settlement that developed led to the emergence of the Holoholo Their position on the lake placed them along Arab and eastern African slave trade routes This allowed some financial gain during the late 1800s but when the Europeans came they expelled the Arabs and stymied Holoholo economic growth The area has since been largely depopulated as a result of disease and regional warfare Economy Holoholo economy during the height of late 19th century expansion was directly related to the eastern African slave trade The Holoholo were employed by the Arabs to guard the lakeside ports and warehouses where gold and ivory were stored to await shipment across the lake Today the region is primarily agricultural Men and women work together to grow sorghum maize peanuts and beans for local consumption The sorghum is used to brew large quantities of local beer Net fishing is also carried out on the lake Fish are dried and sold in local markets to generate minimal cash flow in the region Political Systems The Holoholo never existed as a discrete ethnic group and as a result did not acknowledge allegiance to one particular political power They were a small conglomeration of diverse peoples who shared a common language used primarily to expedite regional trading Individual villages and families usually recognized a local leader and theirs was an abbreviated feudal system Very little political structure remains in the region today that is reflective of the Holoholo influence Religion The

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Holoholo (2016-02-13)
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  • Ibibio - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Cross River area of modern day Nigeria for several hundred years and while written information about them only exists in colonial records from the late 1800s on oral traditions have them in the region much earlier than this The Ibibio actively resisted colonial invasions and it was not until after the end of World War I that the British were able to gain a strong foothold in the region Even at this time however the British found it necessary to make use of Ibibio Ekpo society traditions in order to impose indirect rule in the region Economy The main economic staple in the region is the palm tree the oil of which is extracted and sold to external markets Among the Ibibio those of the highest rank in the Ekpo society Amama often control the majority of the community wealth The Amama often appropriate hundreds of acres of palm tree for their own use and ensure with the profits they earn that their sons achieve comparable rank effectively limiting access to economic gain for most members of the community The Ekpo society requires that its initiates sponsor feasts for the town which fosters the appearance of the redistribution of wealth by providing the poor with food and drink In effect this allows the disparity in wealth to be perpetuated in Ibibio society Political Systems Individual villages are ruled by Ekpo Ndem Isong a group of village elders and the heads of extended families Their decisions are enforced by members of the Ekpo society who act as messengers of the ikan ancestors Ekpo members are always masked when performing their policing duties and although their identities are almost always known fear of retribution from the ancestors prevents most people from accusing those members who overstep their social boundaries effectively committing police

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Ibibio (2016-02-13)
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  • Idoma - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    may often be quite large History Linguistic evidence suggests that the Idoma have lived in their present day region for at least four to five thousand years and that they probably moved into the area from the north along with the forbearers of Yoruba Bini and Igbo peoples sometime before that All of these peoples belong to the Kwa family of languages and linguists are able to estimate separation times based on the differences in their individual languages They broke off of one of the larger ethnic groups in the area at some point in the distant past and began developing their own culture in relative isolation from their parent group Economy Most Idoma are farmers Their staple crops are yams and taro known locally as cocoa yams Harvesting is a time for great celebration Yams are produced efficiently enough to export them to their neighbors They also harvest the fruit of the oil palm which is processed into oil and exported to Europe in large quantities making it a fairly profitable cash crop Other crops of importance include maize manioc peppers peanuts tomatoes squash and sweet potatoes Goats sheep chickens and dogs are kept by nearly everyone Although hunting no longer provides a substantial contribution to the local economy fishing has remained very important throughout the region Political Systems The Idoma may live in compact villages or in relatively dispersed family homesteads Political ties exist primarily on the community level with a headman or chief who inherits his position along patrilineal lines Royal succession among the Idoma often alternates between two patrilineal lines to some extent weakening the power of the ruler The chief usually consults a council of elders before making any important decisions In the past age grade societies and the related masking traditions contributed to social

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Idoma (2016-02-13)
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  • Igbira - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    the Mandarra highlands and Lake Chad sometime during the last thousand years It is believed that Igala broke away from Jukun and the Igbira broke away from the Igala According to oral tradition Ohimnagedu eststablished the first Igbira chiefdom at Panda and was given the royal staff by the Ata of Idah the Igala leader at the time Ritual connections however were still maintained with Jukun Igbira consists of two smaller groups The first the northern Igbira is the one described above The second the southern Igbira claims to have broken away from the main group around 1850 during the time of the Fulani led holy wars Economy Igbira are mainly farmers The primary crops grown for export are yam and cassava Guinea corn is an important local commodity as the staple of most meals and is used in the brewing of beer Other crops include rice millet cow peas and groundnuts Goats sheep cows and pigs are also raised for local consumption Rivers and streams abound on the Niger Benue plateau Fishing is conducted by individual households and in recent years larger fish farms have been developed by private and public firms Political Systems The northern Igbira traditionally had a highly centralized government that recognized a chief who inherited his power in a patrilineal fashion The supreme Igbira chief was divine and resided at Panda Numerous local chiefs who were the heads of royal families reported to him producing what was in effect a miniture confederacy The head chief received tributes from local chiefs and in return he sent gifts The Igbira state system was similar to that of the Igala The southern Igbira group was somewhat less centralized than their northern cousins Their governing system acknowledges local leaders for each of the five founding families but does not

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Igbira (2016-02-13)
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  • Igbo - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    location at the confluence of the Niger and Benue Rivers They share linguistic ties with their neighbors the Bini Igala Yoruba and Idoma with the split between them probably occurring between five and six thousand years ago The first Igbo in the region may have moved onto the Awka Orlu plateau between four and five thousand years ago before the emergence of sedentary agricultural practices As this early group expanded so too did the Igbo kingdom The earliest surviving Igbo art forms are from the 10th century Igbo Ukwu and the fine quality of those copper alloy castings suggest that Igbo society had already achieved a level of technology rivaling contemporary Europeans Economy The majority of Igbo are farmers Their staple crop is yam and its harvesting is a time for great celebration They are able to produce yam efficiently enough to export it to their neighbors With the assistance of migrant labor they also harvest the fruit of the palm tree which is processed into palm oil and exported to Europe in large quantities making it a fairly profitable cash crop Political Systems The Igbo are a politically fragmented group with numerous divisions resulting from geographic differences There are also various subgroups delineated in accordance with clan lineage and village affiliations They have no centralized chieftaincy hereditary aristocracy or kingship customs as can be found among their neighbors Instead the responsibility of leadership has traditionally been left to the village councils which include the heads of lineages elders titled men and men who have established themselves economically within the community It is possible for an Igbo man through personal success to become the nominal leader of the council Religion As a result of regional and political fragmentation which is mirrored in the several distinct languages traditionally spoken by the

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Igbo (2016-02-13)
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  • Igbo Ukwu - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Ijo Kabre Karagwe Kassena Katana Kom Kongo Kota Kuba Kusu Kwahu Kwere Laka Lega Lobi Luba Luchazi Luluwa Lunda Luvale Lwalwa Maasai Makonde Mambila Mangbetu Manja Mbole Mende Mitsogo Mossi Mumuye Ngbaka Nkanu Nok Nuna Oron Owo Pende Pokot Punu San Sapi Senufo Shambaa Shona Songo Songye South Sotho Suku Swahili Tabwa Tuareg Urhobo We Winiama Wodaabe Wolof Woyo Wum Yaka Yombe Yoruba Zaramo Zulu Igbo Ukwu See All View all images in the media gallery Types of Art n a History The ancient site of Igbo Ukwu is situated in the modern day homelands of Igbo peoples of southern Nigeria Archaeological finds were first discovered at this site in 1939 when an Igbo farmer named Isaiah Anozie chanced upon several bronze objects as he was digging a cistern to hold water in the dry season It was not until 1959 that the archaeologist Thurstan Shaw excavated this site and discovered that it must have been part of a storehouse for ritual objects Shaw 1977 Dated to the 9th or 10th century A D Igbo Ukwu represents one of the earliest examples of bronze casting in sub Saharan Africa Economy n a Political Systems n a Religion n a Facts

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Igbo+Ukwu (2016-02-13)
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