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  • Luchazi - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    History Luchazi peoples are closely related to Chokwe and their history is interconnected with both Chokwe and Lunda political movements which have historically dominated the region Between 1600 and 1850 they were under considerable influence from the Lunda states and were centrally located in Angola In the second half of the 19th century though considerable development of the trade routes between the Chokwe homelands and the Angolan coast led to an increased participation in trade of ivory and rubber Wealth acquired from this allowed the Chokwe kingdom to expand eventually overtaking the Lunda states that had held sway over them for so long Economy The Luchazi grow manioc cassava yams and peanuts Tobacco and hemp are also grown for snuff and maize is grown for beer Domesticated livestock is also kept including sheep goats pigs and chickens Meat is obtained through hunting There is a exclusive association of big game hunters Yanga but everyone contributes to the capture of small game animals The farming and processing of agricultural products is done almost exclusively by women among the Luvale Slash and burn techniques and crop rotation are practiced to naturally conserve the land Political Systems Luchazi do not recognize a paramount leader but instead offer allegiance to local chiefs who inherit their positions matrilinearly from the maternal uncle Mwana nganga the chiefs consult with a committee of elders and ritual specialists before making decisions Villages are divided into manageable sections which are governed by family headmen All members of Luchazi society are divided into two categories those who are descended from the founding matrilineal lines and those who are descended from former enslaved populations Religion Luchazi recognize Kalunga a god of creation and supreme power and a series of mahamba nature and ancestral spirits These spirits may belong to the individual

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Luchazi (2016-02-13)
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  • Luluwa - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Art Luluwa are known for their sculpted statues marked by intricate scarification patterns and their finely carved utilitarian objects including hemp pipes They also carve several mask types used in initiation History The Luluwa are closely related to the Luba Kasai and migrated along with them in the 18th century following an attack by the Luba Katanga All of the palm trees in the region were cut down on the orders of Chief Kalamba in an effort to inhibit the consumption of palm wine In 1875 he introduced and encouraged the smoking of hemp as an alternative and a series of rituals developed surrounding the practice among the Luluwa Both ivory and slaves were traded to the Chokwe in exchange for guns prior to European colonization Since settling into their present location the Luba Kasai have grown more quickly than the Luluwa at times threatening their sovereignty Currently both groups live peacefully in the same area Economy Primarily farmers Luluwa women grow manioc as a staple crop as well as beans sweet potatoes maize yams peanuts and bananas The men are responsible for clearing the forest and preparing the soil for cultivation They also hunt fish with nets and trap animals in the surrounding forests Salt is found in the region and is collected and sold to neighbors to generate income Political Systems At the most basic level Luluwa society is divided into castes including nobles warriors freemen foreigners and domestic slaves Chiefs are chosen from the noble caste and are responsible for ruling their individual villages While individual communities are relatively independent there is a prime minister who oversees a council that is chosen from the heads of various patriclans They are then responsible for watching over the various community leaders Religion The Luluwa recognize both Muloho a supreme

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Luluwa (2016-02-13)
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  • Lunda - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    that all objects historically linked to the Lunda were originally carved by neighbors including Chokwe Luba Ding and Lwena History Lunda history is intricately tied to the peoples living throughout the entire region of south central Democratic Republic of the Congo western Zambia and northern Angola From the early 17th century until the late 19th century when the Chokwe took over regional power the Lunda empire was the dominant political and military force in this area of Africa A political union with the neighboring Luba peoples dates back to a royal wedding between Lweji daughter of a Lunda land chief and Chibinda Ilunga son of the first Luba king Kalala Ilunga Following this union many dissatisfied clans left the centralized Lunda area and colonized new areas of central Africa extending the Lunda empire enormously Lunda influence remained considerable from Lake Tanganyika almost to the Atlantic Ocean until Chokwe and then colonial interventions diminished their power Economy The economic pursuits of Lunda peoples are dictated by the region in which they live Those who live along the rivers and ponds which are common in southern Democratic Republic of the Congo are fishermen Women farm maize millet yams sorghum squash beans sweet potatoes palm oil trees and tobacco Since the 17th century trade between the Lunda and the Shaba province to the east has played an important role in regional economics During the height of Lunda influence their traders played an important role in the slave and ivory trade that moved goods and people from central Africa to the coasts for international export Hunting plays an important social and ritual role Political Systems The head of the Lunda is entitled Mwaat Yaav and together with a council of royal dignitaries was at one time responsible for overseeing political decisions for the entire

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Lunda (2016-02-13)
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  • Luvale - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    are closely related to Chokwe and their history is interconnected with both Chokwe and Lunda political movements which have historically dominated the region Between 1600 and 1850 they were under considerable influence from the Lunda states and were centrally located in Angola In the second half of the 19th century considerable development of the trade routes between the Chokwe homelands and the Angolan coast led to an increased participation in trade of ivory and rubber Wealth acquired from this allowed the Chokwe kingdom to expand eventually overtaking the Lunda states that had held sway over them for so long Economy The mainly agrarian Luvale economy is centered around the staple crops of manioc cassava yams and peanuts Tobacco and hemp are also grown for snuff and maize is grown for beer Domesticated livestock is also kept and includes sheep goats pigs and chickens Meat supplements are garnered through hunting There is a exclusive association of big game hunters Yanga but everyone contributes to the capture of small game animals The farming and processing of agricultural products is done almost exclusively by women among the Luvale Slash and burn techniques and crop rotation are practiced to naturally conserve the land Political Systems Luvale do not recognize a paramount leader but instead offer allegiance to local chiefs who inherit their positions matrilineally from the maternal uncle Mwana nganga chiefs consult with a committee of elders and ritual specialists before making decisions Villages are divided into manageable sections which are governed by family headmen All members of Luvale society are divided into two categories those who are descended from the founding matrilineal lines and those who are descended from former enslaved populations Religion Luvale recognize Kalunga a god of creation and supreme power and a series of mahamba nature and ancestral spirits These

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Luvale (2016-02-13)
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  • Lwalwa - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    from the area currently located between the Luba and Songye Kingdoms Before the 17th century the Lwalwa were divided into small matrilineal chiefdoms Later they became part of the ties established between the Lunda and Luba However they always remained independent refused to pay tribute and never truly accepted the Lunda chiefs as overseers Instead the Lwalwa have formed a political union between themselves the Mbagani the Salampasu and the Kete They have remained relatively isolated from outside influences due to their location between the Kasai and Lueta rivers and were virtually cut off from trade routes Economy The land where the Lwalwa live is rich and fertile lending itself well to the agricultural economy of the people The women are almost wholly responsible for all that goes into the growing of crops both for local consumption and for trade The men do however lend a hand during the busy harvest time so that they can evaluate their household intake for the season Although hunting by the men provides some occasional supplementary protein the women provide the majority of the nutritious intake The hunt sometimes individual and sometimes communal still plays an important social role among the Lwalwa Sculpting is recognized as a prestigious profession and is usually passed on from father to son Political Systems Despite observance of matrilineal descent Lwalwa children are raised by the father and are considered the property of his family upon the father s death The leader of the community who very often is also a carver inherits his position and lives at the center of the village with all of his nobles Surrounding him are numerous matriclans who pay homage through their individual family heads A man may inherit status or gain respect through his hunting prowess There is no paramount Lwalwa chief

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Lwalwa (2016-02-13)
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  • Maasai - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Tanzanian and Kenyan governments to adopt a more sedentary lifestyle They have demanded grazing rights to many of the national parks in both countries and routinely ignore international boundaries as they move their great cattle herds across the open savanna with the changing of the seasons This resistance has led to a romanticizing of the Maasai way of life that paints them as living at peace with nature Economy Cattle are central to Maasai economy They are rarely killed but instead are accumulated as a sign of wealth and traded or sold to settle debts Their traditional grazing lands span from central Kenya into central Tanzania Young men are responsible for tending to the herds and often live in small camps moving frequently in the constant search for water and good grazing lands Maasai are ruthless capitalists and due to past behavior have become notorious as cattle rustlers At one time young Maasai warriors set off in groups with the express purpose of acquiring illegal cattle Maasai often travel into towns and cities to purchase goods and supplies and to sell their cattle at regional markets Maasai also sell their beautiful beadwork to the tourists with whom they share their grazing land Political Systems Maasai community politics are embedded in age grade systems which separate young men and prepubescent girls from the elder men and their wives and children When a young woman reaches puberty she is usually married immediately to an older man Until this time however she may live and have sex with the youthful warriors Often women maintain close ties both social and sexual with their former boyfriends even after they are married In order for men to marry they must first acquire wealth a process that takes time Women on the other hand are married at

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Maasai (2016-02-13)
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  • Makonde - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    View all images in the media gallery Types of Art The Makonde are known as master carvers throughout East Africa and their statuary can be found being sold in tourist markets and in museums alike History The Makonde of Tanzania and Mozambique are separarted by the Rovuma River and are culturally distinct Immigration from Mozambique to Tanzania has resulted in a blurring of ethnic identities and a sharing of certain ideas Because of the relative isolation of their homeland the first contacts with Europeans did not occur until 1910 and then they were very sporadic The coastal location of the Makonde however indicates that they were involved with Swahili slave traders for centuries Recently enclaves of Makonde have developed on the outskirts of Dar es Salaam and of Kambia in Kenya although they seem to limit their interaction with outsiders preferring to identify with their own cultural traditions Economy In the traditional homelands of the Makonde the primary source of food comes from slash and burn farming Crops include maize sorghum and cassava This is often supplemented by hunting Carving for the tourist trade has become a major industry for Makonde artists along the coast and near the cities Political

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Makonde (2016-02-13)
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  • Mambila - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Types of Art Wooden statues are carved to represent the ancestors and masks that are worn on the top of the head are carved for use in initiation Most of these are characterized by red ocher paint that is applied with white chalk on a soot blackened background History Linguistic evidence indicates that Mambila ancestors were members of the original Bantu linguistic split that occurred approximately 2 000 years ago It is also probable given the close similarities between languages spoken in the immediate area of northern Cameroon and adjacent Nigeria that the split occurred in this very region Descendants of the Bantu have expanded across Africa to the eastern coast and south to the Cape in the years since that split occurred The Mambila themselves moved slightly southwards as a result of Fulani pressure from the North in the 17th and 18th centuries Economy The central location of the Mambila has allowed them to incorporate food stuffs from all over the world into their agricultural products The primary cereal crops include sorghum rice and millet They also grow bananas yams maize manioc peppers peanuts sweet potatoes and tobacco They acquired the practice of milking cattle from the Fulani and also use manure from the cattle as fertilizer Goats chickens dogs and sheep are raised for meat Some hunting and fishing is done but neither contribute significantly to the daily economy Both men and women are involved in farming Political Systems Political authority within individual communities is invested in a hereditary headman who is assisted in his duties by a council of elders The Bamilike are matrilineal to a higher degree than most of their neighbors Children become the property of the woman s family and are often cared for and adopted by the mother s brother There are also

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Mambila (2016-02-13)
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