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  • San - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    for thousands of years and may be the first humans to have occupied this region There are numerous subgroups of San who live in small groups among their sedentary Bantu neighbors They speak numerous dialects of a group of languages known for the characteristic clicks that can be heard in their pronunciation Economy San are generally defined as a hunter and gatherer society or as foragers As such they live in small family groups and move about the land in search of food sources In recent years many San have begun to settle into larger groups around water sources and many have also settled into the communities of their neighbors In a hunting and gathering society the women are usually responsible for procuring most of the food They collect nuts and berries and dig for roots They also capture small animals which provide most of the protein for the family Men usually hunt in small groups but the food they provide is minimal Surviving for thousands of years in the Kalahari San peoples have had to develop a keen awareness of their surroundings and have learned to benefit from a seemingly harsh environment Political Systems Leadership among the San is reserved for those who have lived within that group for a considerable time who have achieved a respectable age and who have desirable personal qualities San are largely egalitarian sharing such things as meat and tobacco Land is usually owned by a group and rights to land are usually inherited bilaterally Kinship bonds provide the basic framework for political models Membership in a group is determined by residency As long as a person lives on the land of his group he maintains his membership It is possible to hunt on lands not owned by the group but permission must first

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/San (2016-02-13)
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  • Sapi - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Holoholo Ibibio Idoma Igbira Igbo Igbo Ukwu Ijo Kabre Karagwe Kassena Katana Kom Kongo Kota Kuba Kusu Kwahu Kwere Laka Lega Lobi Luba Luchazi Luluwa Lunda Luvale Lwalwa Maasai Makonde Mambila Mangbetu Manja Mbole Mende Mitsogo Mossi Mumuye Ngbaka Nkanu Nok Nuna Oron Owo Pende Pokot Punu San Sapi Senufo Shambaa Shona Songo Songye South Sotho Suku Swahili Tabwa Tuareg Urhobo We Winiama Wodaabe Wolof Woyo Wum Yaka Yombe Yoruba Zaramo Zulu Sapi See All View all images in the media gallery Types of Art n a History Sapi is the name given to the peoples that lived along coastal Sierra Leone by Portuguese traders during the 15th and 16th centuries Stone objects found by Mende farmers who live in the same area today have been attributed to these peoples Beautiful ivory carvings known in the literature as Afro Portuguese ivories were commissioned by Portuguese sailors who visited this area The ivories incorporate both African and Portuguese forms and are thought to have been made by the same people who made the stone objects found by Mende peoples Economy n a Political Systems n a Religion n a Facts about Sapi Location Explore a map of Sapi peoples and their

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Sapi (2016-02-13)
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  • Senufo - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Senufo are made up of a number of diverse subgroups who migrated into their current location from the north during the 15th and 16th centuries Unlike their neighbors to the north they have remained relatively sheltered from intrusive cultures including the Songhai and Hausa Although they have certainly borrowed knowledge from their neighbors they have not had to fear constant attacks and social upheaval Economy Senufo agriculture is typical of the region including millet sorghum maize rice and yams They also grow bananas manioc and a host of other crops that have been borrowed from cultures throughout the world Small farm animals such as sheep goats chickens guinea fowl and dogs are raised Minimal amounts of hunting and fishing also contribute to the local economy Labor is divided between farmers and skilled artisans and while it was once thought that these segments of society did not intermarry Glaze s observations noted that there was a degree of flexibility to this notion Political Systems Senufo towns can range in size from about 50 up to 2 000 inhabitants They are divided along ethnic lines which are tied to a particular matrilineage These katioula divisions reflect the economic and social status of each lineage within the community and include Fo no farmers Kule blacksmiths Kpeene carvers or Tyeli brass casters responsible for making divination ornaments or leather workers There are four societies which educate and govern the actions of individuals They are Poro Sandogo Wambele the sorcerers society and Tyekpa which is found only among the Fodonon Religion There are a number of revered ancestor and nature spirits among the Senufo Maleeo and Kolotyolo Ancient Mother and Creator God represent a dualistic deity Kolotyolo is not approachable and can only be reached through Yiriigifolo or Nyehene In the region of Kufulo Maleeo

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Senufo (2016-02-13)
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  • Shambaa - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Usambara mountains over 200 years ago and extends until the early 19th century when the Kilindi ruled supreme in Shambaa territory The first Kilindi king was Mbegha an exile from neighboring Ngulu According to oral traditions he was awarded with the kingship of the Shambaa peoples after he demonstrated his hunting prowess by killing the bush pigs that had been destroying Shambaa land and distributing the meat to the citizens The Kilindi ruled Shambaa territory for close to a hundred years In the late 1800s German colonial officials executed the last Kilindi king and brought about the collapse of the empire Economy In the higher altitudes of the Usambara mountains banana and other fruit trees provide Shambaa peoples with an ample food supply when droughts and famine threaten those living below in the plains In fact it is believed that Shambaa communities first ascended the mountains in an effort to escape the famine they experienced as members of Zigua communities Shambaa are mostly farmers who plant various crops in terraced fields on the sides of the steep mountains they inhabit Shambaa territory was not situated along the ivory and trade routes that crossed Tanzania throughout the 19th century As a result those living in the mountains remained fairly isolated from the outside world Political Systems Before the emergence of Kilindi domination Shambaa participated in a non centralized governing system Each family established its own community around its own demarcated territory Disagreements between these extended families were solved by a council of elders from the area Marriage served to cement political bonds between clans Under the Kilindi Shambaa territory became unified and authority rested in the hands of a centralized chieftaincy He ruled surrounding territories through proxy most often by establishing his sons as local leaders The Kilindi king was thought

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Shambaa (2016-02-13)
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  • Shona - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    dates to the period of the 11th and 14th centuries It is believed that the ancestors of modern day Shona built Great Zimbabwe and hundreds of other stone walled sites in Zimbabwe It was not until the late 19th century that the peoples speaking several mutually intelligible languages became known as the Shona There are five main language clusters Korekore Zezeru Manyika Ndau and Karanga Another group the Kalanga was largely absorbed by the Ndebele when they moved into western Zimbabwe in the 1830s Shona are linguistically related to the central Bantu and most likely moved into present day Zimbabwe during the great Bantu expansion Economy Shona are primarily agricultural but for decades have been involved in migrant labor for industry and mining Their main crop is maize but they also grow millet sorghum rice beans manioc peanuts pumpkins and sweet potatoes They raise some cattle sheep and chickens Women may supplement their income by selling pottery and handwoven baskets that serve primarily as utilitarian objects Men may work as blacksmiths or carvers by commission Although cows are milked they are most often used for bride price Cows are considered taboo for women so men must do all of the milking and herding Men also do some hunting and fishing but neither contribute greatly to the food supply Men and women both participate in farming Political Systems Traditionally Shona peoples lived in dispersed settlements usually consisting of one or more elder men and their extended families Most decisions were made within the family although organized political states were recognized as a source of centralized power They were headed by a paramount chief who inherited his position and power in the divine manner of a king He usually resided in a centralized location and was accompanied by his court who advised

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Shona (2016-02-13)
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  • Songo - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    reflects the influence of the Chokwe and the Yaka Most figures represent the royal family usually taking the form of portraits both of the living and the dead History Songo origins are closely tied to their immediate neighbors and involve decent from the Mbuti and Mbundu who lived in the area prior to the Bantu influx which occurred over the last 2000 years The Lunda Empire of Mwata Yamwo which controlled the region through the 17th century exerted considerable influence over the Songo instituting Lunda rulers and demanding economic patronage The Lunda were eventually overthrown by Chokwe who live directly to the north of the Songo and who also attempted to control them Chokwe power did not last long however and was soon replaced by European colonialism Economy Fishing is the most important economic resources for the Songo They raise staple crops of manioc cassava yams and peanuts Tobacco and hemp are also grown for snuff and maize is grown for beer Domesticated livestock is also kept including sheep pigs chickens and goats which provide meat but no milk Meat is obtained through hunting The farming and processing of agricultural products is done almost exclusively by women among the Songo Slash and burn techniques and crop rotation are practiced to conserve the land Regular trade is maintained with neighbors to obtain products from other villages Political Systems The Songo recognize a chief whose position is inherited along matrilineal lines When male children reach the age of 5 or 6 they are often sent to the house of their mother s brother where they are raised as his sons Throughout history this geographical region has come under the influence of numerous strong and sometimes aggressive neighbors including the Kongo Yaka Lunda and Chokwe The ruling families among the Songo are of

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Songo (2016-02-13)
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  • Songye - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    There are numerous mask styles associated with the Songye Power objects and objects associated with divination are also prevalent in Western collections In the past many Songye objects have been misattributed to the Luba and vice versa History Songye origins are shared with the Luba through a common mythical Songye ancestor known as Kongolo who can be traced through lineages to the 16th century The linguistic traditions of these neighboring peoples are intertwined as well It is believed that the founders of the Songye emerged from the lake region in Shaba province to the south in the heart of the Luba homeland The Lomani River divides Songye territory and marks the boundary of the areas invaded by the Luba As a result of these geographic and political differences there emerged of two distinct social structures among the eastern and western Songye and two stylistic differences in art forms between the two areas Economy The Songye traditionally relied mostly on farming and hunting for subsistence Because the rivers were associated with the spirits of deceased chiefs who were often buried in them fishing was not practiced except in times of great need The artistic wares of the Songye including pottery made by women and weaving and metalworking done by men were traded extensively with their neighbors They were recognized as superior craftsmen and their products were in great demand Political Systems The Songye are divided into about thirty five subgroups The Yakitenge paramount chief and his advisers are the central power in Songye territory Many of the subgroups were actually quite large were often spread over many miles and were densely populated The markets in these areas attracted numerous artisans and traders from throughout the region At one time Bukishi was a dominant educational society which helped to maintain social control

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Songye (2016-02-13)
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  • South Sotho - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    their own unique dialects and reserved their own unique religious and artistic expressions The Basotho polity was founded in the early 19th century and originated under Morena king Moshoeshoe I During this time numerous events were taking place across southern Africa involving multiple cultures both African and Western that historians have labeled as the difaqane or the scattering The result of these events led to the disruption migration and extermination of many cultures throughout the region Because South Sotho populations were separated from the eastern lowlands of southern Africa by the immense Drakensburg mountain range the central interior Basutoland served as a natural refuge for disenfranchised peoples who were fleeing from the chaos of the East During this period Moshoeshoe I was a minor South Sotho chief residing in his father s village of Menkhoaneng in the northwest region of present day Lesotho As the events of the difaqane continued to unfold Moshoeshoe I asserted himself as a diplomat and proficient leader by allowing any disparate peoples to settle under his protection and oversight Through the support of his growing community he was elevated to the status of Morena king and successfully guided his newly formed polity through the turbulent events of the 19th century In order to protect his people s interests throughout the Caledon River Valley Moshoeshoe I enacted numerous acts of diplomacy that displayed the far sighted wisdom that he has became famous for engaging with surrounding indigenous populations as well as representatives from the British Empire and the Afrikaans Orange Free State Basutoland as his area of authority came to be called eventually became a British Protectorate in 1868 following decades of martial engagements with the neighboring Orange Free State and British Cape Colony On October 4 1966 Basutoland gained independence from Britain and was renamed Lesotho Currently the political system of Lesotho is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy and includes a representative from the royal family a Prime Minister and a Parliament composed of elected representatives and customary chiefs Today approximately 2 1 million people live in the kingdom of Lesotho the majority of whom consider themselves Basotho a broad cultural designation linking one to any number of Southern Sotho speaking dibôkô from across the region In addition there are approximately 3 million South Sotho who are citizens of the Republic of South Africa The majority of South Sotho citizens in South Africa reside in the Free State Province which borders the Kingdom of Lesotho Economy Historically the South Sotho raised livestock and farmed a variety of crops for subsistence Much like the visual arts social duties were also gendered with males raising cattle and sheep and females overseeing the planting and harvesting Over the last several centuries South Sotho men and women have served as migrant workers in the Republic of South Africa competing for jobs as domestic workers as well as for positions in the mining industry Under the apartheid system of government which established exploitative state sanctioned labor conditions that directly impacted Lesotho

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/South+Sotho (2016-02-13)
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