archive-edu.com » EDU » U » UIOWA.EDU

Total: 455

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • Suku - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Oral history suggests that the Suku along with the Yaka were part of an invasion against the Kongo Kingdom that came from the Lunda Plateau in the 16th century Previous to that time Suku culture was enveloped in Kongo language and agriculture Lunda expansion and creation of the Inbangala Kingdom in 1620 greatly affected the occupants of the Kwango River area which included both the Yaka and the Suku At one time the Suku were subsumed by the larger Yaka kingdom In an effort to expand to the northwest and east Yaka chiefs weakened their kingdom s strength and were forced to become subservient to the Lunda The Lunda Chokwe empire collapsed in the 19th century allowing both the Suku and the Yaka to regain some of their independence Economy Cultivation of yams manioc and groundnuts is done primarily by women This is supplemented by the men hunting with dogs in the surrounding forest and by the women gathering wild berries nuts and roots Occasional fishing in the Kwango River also provides some food Although hunting rarely provides substantial quantities of meat to the Suku diet it is considered an important part of male culture Palm tree plantations provide the Suku with palm oil an important commodity for local and international trade Political Systems The Suku follow matrilineal descent patterns which serve as individual lineages with members recognizing a geneological depth of three or four generations Each community has a local chief who is the direct descendant of the original land owner and usually is controlled to some extent by a paramount regional chief The Congolese government officially governs each region in conjunction with the local chiefs controlling the extent of the power of those individual chiefs Ritual specialists and diviners who achieve their prominence through display of their individual

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Suku (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive


  • Swahili - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    about a place in east Africa which Arabs frequented to trade with those living on the mainland This history is closely tied to Indian Ocean trade routes linking India the Arabian Peninsula and Africa Despite the shared history and language of the peoples of the Swahili Coast it remains difficult to describe a discreet Swahili culture This is not to suggest that a Swahili culture does not exist but instead that its boundaries are amorphous changing whenever necessary to meet the demands of everyday life Economy Swahili economy today as in the past is intricately linked to the Indian Ocean For approximately 2 000 years Swahili merchants have acted as middlemen between eastern and central Africa and the outside world They played a significant role in the trade of ivory and enslaved peoples which climaxed during the 19th centuries Trade routes extended across Tanzania into modern day Democratic Republic of the Congo along which goods were brought to the coasts and were sold to Arab Indian and Portuguese traders Many slaves sold in Zanzibar ended up in Brazil which was then a Portuguese colony Swahili fishermen still rely on the ocean to supply their primary source of income Fish is sold to their inland neighbors in exchange for products of the interior Political Systems It is difficult to outline a Swahili political system since they often incorporated the political practices of their neighbors They are largely Islamic and as such much of the power within the family rests in the hands of elder male members Various Swahili empires have existed throughout history Strongholds included communities centered in Mombassa Lamu and Zanzibar Swahili traders also acted as middlemen between colonial governments and inland ethnic groups Religion The Islam practiced by Swahili peoples is often very strict Most of the requirements of

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Swahili (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Tabwa - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    exist in collections very little is known about them History The peoples who currently identify themselves as Tabwa were once a series of smaller villages with different histories Tabwa identity today is largely an artifact of colonial administration Most Tabwa migrated to this area from east central Africa looking for fertile land or to escape warfare They settled along the shores of Lake Tanganyika and incorporated many of the customs they encountered from their new neighbors the Luba into their own way of life Economy Before colonial times salt iron and smoked river fish were important items that could be traded on the regional markets Cash crops such as potatoes wheat and onions were produced for the colonial market The 1970s brought about the collapse of the infrastructure of roads which had allowed the Tabwa to supply food to the copper mines throughout the region Farmers grow cassava beans and maize for local consumption and Tabwa fishermen compete with the industrial fishing companies on Lakes Tanganyika and Mweru using traditional lines and nets Hunting was at one time very important to the Tabwa but as game resources decrease there are fewer people who hunt as a way of life Political Systems In the past individual Tabwa villages often acted autonomously The villages are headed by chiefs who inherit their positions matrilinearly and who justify their power by tracing their descent back to the original founders of Tabwa society This is often done through the collection and display of ancestor figures which represent the chief s familial lines Within Tabwa communities the chiefs symbolically represent the continuity of the universe and at the same time illustrate the position of man within the universe Leaders often wield staffs or batons which identify them as chiefs Religion The Tabwa have developed a system

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Tabwa (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Tuareg - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Herodotus Many groups have slowly moved southward over the last 2 000 years in response to pressures from the north and the promise of a more prosperous land in the south Today many Tuareg live in sedentary communities in the cities bordering the Sahara that once were the great centers of trade for western Africa Although most Tuareg now practice some degree of Islam they are not considered Arabic Economy For thousands of years Tuareg economy revolved around trans Saharan trade There are basically five trade routes which extend across the Sahara from the northern Mediterranean coast of Africa to the great cities on the southern edge of the Sahara Tuareg merchants were responsible for bringing goods from these cities to the north From there they were distributed throughout the world Because of the nature of transport and the limited space available in caravans Tuareg usually traded in luxury items things which took up little space and on which a large profit could be made Tuareg were also responsible for bringing enslaved people north from west Africa to be sold to Europeans and Middle Easterners Many Tuareg settled into the communities with which they traded serving as local merchants and representatives for their friends and family who continued to trade Political Systems Historically Tuareg society was divided between those who tended the land and those who did not At one time tilling the land was considered the work of the lower classes while the upper classes reaped the benefits of trading Usually groups of sedentary Tuareg would pay allegience to a locally appointed headman who in turn would report to the noble who considered the village his domain As time has passed however these sedentary farmers have been able to accumulate wealth while the trans Saharan trade routes diminished in

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Tuareg (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Urhobo - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Yoruba Zaramo Zulu Urhobo See All View all images in the media gallery Types of Art The Urhobo produce numerous art forms including Ivwri shrine figures a type of wooden sculpture that is popularly associated with the cult of the hand and masks and masquerading History Although the exact origin of the Urhobo peoples is not known they are closely related to their immediate neighbors based on linguistic and cultural similarities Urhobo oral history is contradictory in that it claims that their origins are related those of the Bini but at the same time indicate that they are not Bini people Other connections are made to the Igbo Isoko and Ijo Since the Bini Igbo and Ijo all have cultural systems which are distinct from one another the notion that the Urhobo somehow emerged from all three seems doubtful Economy Living in the tropical rain forests has helped to shape the economic choices of the Urhobo They practice slash and burn farming that requires frequent crop rotation for soil preservation Fishing and hunting are also important sources for subsistence They also gather palm nuts and process them into oil a commodity which is eventually traded on the international markets Political Systems Urhobo political authority is based on kinship groups age grades and title associations At one time ivie Urhobo leaders were officially installed by the Oba of Benin Those who had achieved sufficient status within their community would travel to the Oba who would endow them with ceremonial swords and insignia that would add weight to their quest for power among their kinspeople Religion The Urhobo recognize the existence of a dual cosmological system the spirit world and the physical world It is believed that everyone in the physical world has a replica in the spiritual world and that these

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Urhobo (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • We - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Types of Art n a History Although there are few sources available on We culture much has been written about Dan peoples who live to the north of We territory and share many cultural and artistic similarities Oral traditions describe We society of the 19th century as lacking any central governing power Social cohesion was fostered by a shared language and a preference for intermarriage Generally each village had a headman who had earned his position of advantage in the community through hard work in the fields and luck as a hunter These headmen usually surrounded themselves with young warriors for protection from invading neighbors and exchanged gifts with other chiefs in order to heighten their own prestige Economy Young people strive to make a name for themselves by lavishly spending at community feasts to demonstrate their wealth Rice yams taro manioc maize and bananas are the primary crops grown Although farming and hunting have been largely replaced by laboring in the diamond camps or working at the rubber plantations the establishment of a hierarchical social order is still based on the individual s ability to succeed Political Systems We political systems consist largely of non centralized fragmentary political groups in which decision are made on behalf of the community by councils of elder men Masking often served as a means of social control enforcing the rules established by the elders We initiation is not tied to Poro societies as is the case of their many neighbors but masks do appear at initiation Performances also occur during funerals and for purposes of entertainment Although described as primarily entertainment such performances also contain social and political commentary that serve to demonstrate to the community the wisdom of the elders Religion We cosmology holds that everything can be divided into two separate

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/We (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Winiama - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    infested with the tsetse fly making sleeping sickness endemic Mossi accounts tell of the magical powers of Winiama peoples and their neighbors Because of the structure of Winiama towns they were difficult for cavalry raiders to penetrate Winiama farmers could stand on the roofs of their homes and kill any mounted warriors who dared to enter the narrow alleys between houses The region however was constantly ravaged by slave raids perpetrated by the Mossi Fulani and Songhay until the end of the 19th century Economy Winiama are primarily sedentary farmers growing millet sorghum and yams Maize rice peanuts and beans are grown in addition to these staples Farmers throughout the region practice slash and burn farming using keri fields for approximately seven or eight years before they are allowed to lie fallow for at least a decade In the family fields close to the villages women grow cash crops including sesame and tobacco which are sold in local markets Men participate in hunting during the long dry season This is important for ritual reasons since it is during this time that men may interact with the spirits that inhabit the bush During the dry season when food supplies are running low some fishing is practiced in local swamps Political Systems Winiama societies are comprised mainly of farmers without social or political stratification They are not divided among occupational castes or groups since most of them simply till the land and engage in occasional hunting Before the arrival of the French they had no internal system of chiefs and all important decisions were made by a council of elders consisting of the oldest members of each of the village lineages Religious leaders do maintain some political authority determining the agricultural cycle and parceling out land for cultivation The French established local

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Winiama (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Wodaabe - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Fulani domination in the area The height of the Fulani empire was between the early 1800s and early 1900s This power was consolidated under Usman dan Fodio and was centered in northern Nigeria Dan Fodio was a devout Muslim who used religious fervor to ignite his troops to undertake a series of holy wars Following the early success of Islamic warriors non Islamic Fulani joined ranks with their fellows to form an extensive and powerful empire Economy Wodaabe are mainly nomadic herders and traders The routes they established in western Africa provided extensive links throughout the region that fostered economic and political ties between otherwise isolated ethnic groups Dairy products produced from cattle were traded to sedentary farmers for agricultural products and luxury items These items could then be traded to trans Saharan traders such as the Tuareg for shipment north Fine woven cloth produced by the Wodaabe was considered a luxury item that could be traded on the international market Political Systems The two most significant factors in Fulani political systems are clientage and competition In order to gain political office a Fulani man would have to compete among his fellows for the right to rule He could show his political favor by demonstrating that he had a large following in the form of individuals and families By agreeing to become the client of a powerful man or family a subject would offer tribute in the form of gifts and political support in exchange for security Wodaabe men often held considerable political power within their own nomadic communities as well as within the communities in which they settled in northern Nigeria Religion Wodaabe religion is largely Islamic Although there are varying degrees of orthodoxy exhibited most adhere to at least some of the basic requirements of the religion It

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/peoples/show/Wodaabe (2016-02-13)
    Open archived version from archive