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  • Art of the Bamana Blacksmith, Page - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Brass Bangles Ifa Divination Igbo Art in Social Context Islam and Islamic Arts in Africa Komo among Tagwa Senufo Peoples in Southwest Burkina Faso Kuba Art and Rule Life in the Cameroon Grasslands Luba Art and Divination Mangbetu Royal Art and Herbert Lang 1902 1906 Masquerades Among the Dan People Mbari Art as Process in Igboland Military Arts of the Fante Nature Spirits and Arts in Burkina Faso Puppet Masquerades

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/topic-essays/show/Art+of+the+Bamana+Blacksmith (2016-02-13)
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  • Komo among Tagwa-Senufo Peoples in Southwest Burkina Faso, Page - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Igbo Art in Social Context Islam and Islamic Arts in Africa Komo among Tagwa Senufo Peoples in Southwest Burkina Faso Kuba Art and Rule Life in the Cameroon Grasslands Luba Art and Divination Mangbetu Royal Art and Herbert Lang 1902 1906 Masquerades Among the Dan People Mbari Art as Process in Igboland Military Arts of the Fante Nature Spirits and Arts in Burkina Faso Puppet Masquerades in the Valley of

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/topic-essays/show/Komo+among+Tagwa-Senufo+Peoples+in+Southwest+Burkina+Faso (2016-02-13)
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  • Cameroon - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    since 1982 Type of Government Republic Date of Independence January 1 1960 Major Exports Timber Oil Coffee Cocoa Cotton Aluminum Precolonial History Cameroon s earliest inhabitants the Baka people migrated to the region around 8000 BCE and still inhabit the southern and eastern forests Bantu speaking peoples from equatorial Africa dominated the region by 200 BCE Itinerant Muslim groups settled in the north most significantly the Fulani who conquered northern Cameroon in the late 18th century Portuguese explorer Fernando Po led an expedition to the Wouri River in 1472 initiating centuries of trade between Portugal and the local African chiefs The British Dutch French and Germans also established coastal trade with Cameroon In the 19th century the slave trade was suppressed and Christian missions became a continuous part of Cameroonian life in 1884 Germany consolidated all of the country s present day territory under a protectorate and declared it the colony of Kamerun France and Britain invaded the German colony in 1914 After World War I the League of Nations granted the majority of Cameroon to France and a smaller area in the west to Britain along the Nigerian border The United Nations converted these mandates to trusteeships in 1946 The French trusteeship ended in December 1958 and the nation became the Republic of Cameroon on January 1 1960 Postcolonial History Cameroon was governed as the Federal Republic of Cameroon from 1961 to 1972 The former colonial territories each had their own governments and officials under President Ahmadou Ahidjo a Fulani Ahidjo abolished the federal structure and proclaimed the United Republic of Cameroon in 1972 In 1984 a constitutional amendment changed the country s official name to the Republic of Cameroon In 1986 over 1 700 people were killed when a deadly gas emerged suddenly from Lake Nyos In 1990

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/countries/show/Cameroon (2016-02-13)
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  • Angola - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Kibundu Official Language Portuguese Politics Head Of State Edouardo dos Santos Type of Government Republic Date of Independence November 11 1975 Major Exports Petroleum Diamonds Coffee Sisal Fish Timber Cotton Precolonial History Bantu peoples from the north brought metalworking ceramic and agricultural technology to the region in the early 6th century CE Kingdoms rose from various ethnic groups most notably the Kongo Kingdom in the 1300s The first Europeans to reach Angola were Portuguese explorers traders and missionaries in the late 15th century At the time the country was ruled by Afonso the king of the Kongo whose capital became the modern city of M banza Kongo However the slave trade colonization and internal revolts soon hastened the kingdom s decline Angola served as a significant source of slaves mainly for the Portuguese colony of Brazil until the mid 19th century Postcolonial History Increasing discontent over Portuguese rule led to the Angolan war for independence in 1961 Approximately 1 5 million people were lost and four million displaced in the quarter century of fighting that followed In 1975 a transitional government divided control of the country between three major nationalist groups each aided by foreign powers The MPLA was supported by USSR and Cuba the FNLA by Zaire and Western powers including the USA while UNITA led by Jonas Savimbi was backed by South Africa Later that year Portugal proclaimed Angolan independence and transferred sovereignty to the Angolan people Civil war continued as the MPLA declared the People s Republic of Angola and established a government in the capital city of Luanda with the party s leader Agostinho Neto as president The FNLA and UNITA formed a united force under the military leadership of Jonas Savimbi who attained an almost mystical reputation for evading assassination attempts and capture However UNITA

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/countries/show/Angola (2016-02-13)
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  • Bénin - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Cashews Shea Butter Textiles Palm Products Seafood Precolonial History Pre colonial Bénin was a succession of kingdoms the most powerful being the kingdom of Dahomey established by the Fon peoples in the early 17th century with its capital city at Abomey European powers began arriving in the mid 17th century In 1750 the Portuguese founded Porto Novo in the area that became known as the Slave Coast trading European commodities with the obas kings and sending slaves to Brazil and the Caribbean The French who had founded a port at Ouidah in 1704 attempted to suppress the slave trade in the mid 19th century Their efforts led to both alliances and rivalries with the local peoples The French defeated the last king of Abomey and conquered Dahomey declaring a protectorate over the kingdom in 1894 The colony was granted independence from France in 1960 Postcolonial History In the early years of independence the nation was plagued by political instability including many coups d état and changes of government In 1972 a group of officers established a military revolutionary government and named Major Mathieu Kérékou chief of state The Kérékou government with the support of Bénin s Marxist intellectuals soon began a process of revolutionary change attempting to restructure the government economy and society along Marxist Leninist lines In 1977 a group of mercenaries landed at the Cotonou airport to carry out a coup d état but were quickly repulsed by the Kérékou government The first National Revolutionary Assembly was elected in 1979 and Kérékou was elected president in 1980 He was defeated by former Prime Minister Nicéphore Songo in the 1991 election marking the country s shift from a dictatorship to a democracy but Kérékou returned to power in a series of controversial elections In 2006 Thomas Boni Yayi defeated

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/countries/show/B%C3%A9nin (2016-02-13)
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  • Burkina Faso - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    non aggression treaties with the territories to the south However they exerted their power by means of slave raids upon weaker neighboring peoples and many captives were shipped to the Atlantic coast and then to Brazil French colonists claimed the territory in 1896 The Mossi resisted European influence until France captured Ouagadougou which became the capital of the French Upper Volta in 1919 Throughout its colonial history the densely populated nation remained underdeveloped in terms of infrastructure with the excepting of a railroad constructed to transport laborers to the coast This was a conscious decision on the part of the French to discourage laborers from seeking work anywhere besides the French plantations and factories in Côte d Ivoire Postcolonial History After France relinquished control of Burkina Faso in 1960 several foreign governments the United Nations and the European Economic Union assisted the underdeveloped nation by paving roads and constructing factories including a large textile mill in Koudougou Internally the country experienced a power struggle between the supporters of democracy and the military leaders who seized power by accusing the civilian government of corruption Ethnic minorities have fought continually for a measure of power to balance the size and influence of the Mossi majority After a series of coup d états Captain Blaise Compaoré of the Congress for Democracy and Progress party became president in 1987 ushering in an era of relatively stable government and industrial development A significant foundation for Ouagadougou s recent progress dates to 2006 when the Multilateral Debt Reduction Initiative cancelled approximately 1 25 billion dollars of debt In 2007 the government began reconstructing the central market Rood Woko but closed the country s two universities in 2008 due to violent student protests demanding improvements in the educational system In 2009 the Loropéni Ruins an ancient fortress

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/countries/show/Burkina+Faso (2016-02-13)
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  • Chad - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Official Language French Politics Head Of State Idriss Deby Itno Type of Government Republic Date of Independence August 11 1960 Major Exports Oil Cattle Cotton Gum Arabic Precolonial History The oldest known humanoid skull over seven million years old was discovered in the Borkou region of Chad indicating that the country has been inhabited since prehistoric times The north central basin now part of the Sahara Desert supported human settlements and farming in the 7th millennium BCE and was traversed by traders and geographers in the late Middle Ages Chad became a crossroads for both Muslim peoples of the desert and savanna regions and Bantu peoples of the tropical forests Powerful kingdoms emerged the Kanem Bornu Empire in the 9th century CE and the Baguirmi and Ouaddai kingdoms in the 16th century CE Arab slave raids were widespread from the 1500s and continued into the 1920s although child slave trafficking remains a significant problem in Chad today In 1891 the French began establishing their authority through military expeditions against the dominant kingdoms culminating in the Battle of Kousséri in 1900 Chad was absorbed into French Equatorial Africa and became a separate colony in 1920 Postcolonial History In 1960 the country gained its independence under the leadership of its authoritarian first president François Tombalbaye followed by decades of civil war After Tombalbaye was assassinated in a 1975 military coup General Félix Malloum served as head of state until ousted by his prime minister Hissène Habré in 1979 The Gouvernement d Union Nationale de Transition GUNT was established with Goukouni Oueddei as president and Habré as Minister of Defense Rivalry between ethnic groups escalated until Idriss Déby one of Habré s generals defected to Sudan and led a series of attacks against Habré In 1990 Déby s forces marched upon the capital

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/countries/show/Chad (2016-02-13)
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  • Congo - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Kongo Kingdom became the dominant political force Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão reached the Congo River in 1484 and the Kongo Kingdom soon established diplomatic relations and a slave trade with Portugal In a treaty negotiated by French Italian explorer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza in the early 1880s the ruler of the Teke Kingdom ceded the region of Middle Congo to France Middle Congo became part of French Equatorial Africa in 1910 After World War II General Charles de Gaulle promised colonial reforms and a decentralization of power in French Africa at the Brazzaville Conference of 1944 French Equatorial Africa was dissolved in 1958 Postcolonial History Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo and was granted full independence from France in 1960 Fulbert Youlou became the country s first president but he was deposed by rioters and rival political parties in 1963 Alphonse Massamba Débat was elected under a new constitution but his term ended in a military coup d état in 1968 Captain Marien Ngouabi came to power and proclaimed Africa s first people s republic He was assassinated during a military coup in 1977 Denis Sassou Nguesso was elected president followed by ongoing periods of ethnic and political unrest In 2004 the European Commission provided Congo with two million euros to finance the disarmament and reintegration of rebels also known as Ninjas or the Conseil national de la résistance CNR within the Pool region Between 1998 and 2002 an estimated 100 000 to 148 000 people fled the Pool region due to rebel violence Congolese refugees remain a pressing humanitarian crisis In 2006 the World Bank provided 17 million USD for the disarmament and reintegration of 30 000 rebels resulting in the ceremonial destruction of nearly 100 000 pieces of weaponry at Brazzaville under the auspices of Sassou

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/countries/show/Congo (2016-02-13)
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