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  • Niger - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Independence August 3 1960 Major Exports Uranium Livestock Products Cowpeas Onions Precolonial History Once less arid than it is today the Sahara region of northern Niger was inhabited by humans about 600 000 years ago The area became a crossroads for north African trade caravans and Muslim missionaries Various empires and ethnic groups claimed territories and founded states particularly the Hausa peoples who are the largest ethnic group in West Africa today The Fulani of Sokoto established a Muslim empire and encroached upon Hausa territory in the late 18th century taking control of the region European explorers namely Mungo Park of Scotland and Heinrich Barth of Germany began arriving in the early 1800s seeking the source of the Niger River French military explorers reached Niger in the 1890s France gradually began conquering the area and suppressing revolts by indigenous groups although the nomadic Tuareg peoples staged a fierce resistance Niger became a colony in French West Africa in 1922 and was granted the status of an overseas territory in 1946 Postcolonial History France agreed to Niger s full independence in 1960 Hamani Diori became the first president of the new republic under a single party the Parti Progressiste Nigérien PPN Accusations of corruption culminated in a 1974 military coup in which Diori was arrested and Lieutenant Colonel Seyni Kountché came to power He served as military head of state until his death in 1987 and was succeeded by Brigadier General Ali Saibou Saibou acquiesced to demands for a democratic system with multiple political parties in 1990 Mahamane Ousamane of the Convention Démocratique et Sociale CDS was elected Niger s first Hausa president in 1993 After a series of coups d état Mamadou Tandja of the Mouvement National de la Societé de Développement MNSD became president in a democratic election in

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/countries/show/Niger (2016-02-13)
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  • Nigeria - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    kingdoms and empires Human habitation of the area dates back to 11 000 BCE and the oldest archaeological evidence of metalworking was found at Taruga The Nok culture known for their terracotta sculptures inhabited this site during the first millennium BCE From the 11th century onwards Hausa kingdoms and the Bornu Empire prospered in the north by trading slaves ivory and other commodities Yoruba peoples dominated southwestern Nigeria by the 14th century and founded the Oyo Empire which achieved a high level of political and cultural development Edo peoples established the Benin Empire on the Nigerian coast during the mid 15th century Portuguese explorers landed at Lagos in 1472 Portugal Spain Britain and France built ports and engaged in the slave trade with Nigeria from the 16th to 18th centuries In 1809 Fulani crusaders led by Usman dan Fodio conquered the northern Hausa states and founded a single Islamic state the Sokoto caliphate The Oyo Empire collapsed after a Fulani invasion in 1835 36 The Sokoto caliphate in turn fell to British military forces in 1903 and Britain officially proclaimed the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria in 1914 Postcolonial History Nationalist efforts intensified after World War II Britain ceded control and Nigeria declared independence in 1960 The new government s multi party system was sharply divided between Muslims Christians and the country s dominant ethnic groups of Yoruba Hausa and Igbo peoples Initially a constitutional monarchy Nigeria remained a member of the British Commonwealth and adopted a constitution in 1963 Governor General Nnamdi Azikiwe of the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons NCNC became Nigeria s first president He was overthrown in a coup d état in 1966 followed by war with the eastern secessionist state of Biafra Despite a brief return to democracy from 1979 to 1983 military

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/countries/show/Nigeria (2016-02-13)
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  • Senegal - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    5 African religion 1 Literacy 39 3 Principal Language Wolof Pulaar Jola Mandinka Official Language French Politics Head Of State Macky Sall 2012 Type of Government Republic Date of Independence August 20 1960 Major Exports Fish Peanuts Petroleum Products Phosphates Cotton Precolonial History Sénégal was once part of the Ghana Empire founded by the Soninke peoples during the early first millennium CE Fulani peoples established the Tekrur kingdom in the Sénégal valley by the 9th century The Mali Empire extended across Sénégal in the 14th century and the Jolof Empire controlled parts of the area from the mid 14th until the late 19th centuries Portuguese navigator Dinis Dias explored the Sénégal River and the Cape Verde peninsula in 1444 initiating trade with Europe The Dutch French and British also engaged in the slave trade with Sénégal from the late 16th century onward fighting for coastal influence until France incorporated Sénégal into French West Africa in 1895 In 1959 Sénégal briefly merged with French Sudan to form the Mali Federation and proclaimed independence from France a year later Postcolonial History Léopold Sédar Senghor of the Parti Socialiste du Sénégal PS served as the country s first president from 1960 until his retirement in 1980 His successor Abdou Diouf attempted to increase Sénégal s involvement in the international community However separatist violence in the Casamance region escalated throughout the 1990s and between 10 000 and 40 000 people had been displaced by the conflict as of 2012 Diouf was re elected in 1988 and 1993 during which time his opponent Abdoulaye Wade was imprisoned Wade became head of state in 2000 after a year of self exile With overwhelming support he effectively condensed a number of governmental term limits during his early years in office but his support visibly began to wane

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/countries/show/Senegal (2016-02-13)
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  • Sierra Leone - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    in Sierra Leone today In 1462 Portuguese navigator Pedro de Cintra explored the coast and named the country Serra de Leão or lion mountains Sierra Leone began trading with Europe with slaves becoming the main export Portuguese dominance diminished in the region by the 1650s The Dutch French and English also engaged in the slave trade competing for forts and territory until the late 18th century In 1787 British philanthropists founded a coastal settlement the Province of Freedom as an experimental colony for freed slaves Initially disastrous the colony was re established and named Freetown Over one thousand former slaves arrived from North America in 1791 Freetown was declared a British colony in 1808 and became a naval operations base against slave trading ships Up to 50 000 freed slaves were brought to Freetown by the mid 19th century Britain declared the territory a protectorate in 1896 albeit without consulting local rulers Temne and Mende groups began leading unsuccessful uprisings against the British and the Creoles descendants of the former slaves who settled Freetown In the early 1950s Sir Milton Margai of the Sierra Leone People s Party SLPP administered a new constitution that included an agenda for decolonization Postcolonial History Sierra Leone was granted its independence within the British Commonwealth in 1961 Sir Milton became the first prime minister bringing political stability to the new parliamentary government He was succeeded by his half brother Sir Albert Margai upon his death in 1964 Siaka Stevens of the All People s Congress APC was elected prime minister in 1967 and became Sierra Leone s first president when the country was declared a republic in 1971 Stevens abolished all other political parties and remained in power until his retirement in 1985 He was succeeded by his military commander Major General Joseph Saidu

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/countries/show/Sierra+Leone (2016-02-13)
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  • South Africa - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Zuma since 2009 Type of Government Republic Date of Independence April 27 1994 Major Exports Gold Diamonds Metals Minerals Machinery and Equipment Precolonial History Ancestors of Khoisan speaking peoples including San and Khoikhoi ethnic groups inhabited South Africa in the Paleolithic era Bantu speaking peoples migrated to the Transvaal region during the first millennium BCE and Nguni speaking peoples including Xhosa and Zulu groups later settled along the Limpopo river near the coast An extensive trading network developed between South African kingdoms and Muslim merchants exchanging gold and ivory for products from as far away as China In 1488 Portuguese navigator Bartolomeu Dias became the first European to sail around the southernmost point of Africa and named it Cabo da Boa Esperança the Cape of Good Hope Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama led an expedition to the region in 1497 Dutch and English traders arrived in the late 16th century The Dutch East India Company established Cape Colony in 1652 but ceded it to Britain in 1806 The Dutch also were joined by French Huguenot and German colonists whose descendants collectively form today s Afrikaner population The Zulu Kingdom rose to prominence during the early 19th century under its leader Shaka who conquered and consolidated territories between the Drakensburg Mountains and the coast until his assassination in 1828 In the 1830s Afrikaner farmers known as Boers became dissatisfied with British rule and the abolition of slavery The farmers migrated north on the so called Great Trek to establish the Orange Free State and the Transvaal These Boer republics became self governing British colonies after a series of wars and rebellions and Britain relinquished its authority in South Africa in 1931 Postcolonial History Founded by Afrikaner nationalists the National Party NP came to power in 1948 The NP enforced apartheid a

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/countries/show/South+Africa (2016-02-13)
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  • Tanzania - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Principal Language Kiswahili English Arabic and local languages Official Language Swahili and English Politics Head Of State Jakaya Kikwete 2005 Type of Government Republic Date of Independence December 9 1961 Major Exports Gold Coffee Cashew Nuts Manufactures Cotton Precolonial History Khoisan speaking hunter gatherer societies inhabited Tanzania about 10 000 years ago They were joined by and assimilated into Cushitic and Bantu communities migrating to the area from north and west Africa Trading ports were established along the Tanzanian coast and the Swahili culture evolved from the amalgamation of African Arab and Persian populations by 1200 CE Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama reached the coast in 1498 Portugal seized Zanzibar and most of the Swahili ports within a decade controlling the region until Omani Arabs ousted the Europeans in 1699 Zanzibar became the center of the Arab slave trade and later the capital of the Omani empire under Sultan Seyyid Said in the mid 19th century British explorers Sir Richard Francis Burton and John Hanning Speke reached Lake Tanganyika in the late 1850s Germany began claiming mainland territory in the 1880s and established the colony of Deutsch Ostafrika German East Africa in 1891 Following Germany s defeat in World War I the League of Nations granted control over the colony to Britain Postcolonial History In 1954 Julius Nyerere founded the Tanganyika African National Union TANU to resist British rule He became prime minister when Tanganyika declared independence in 1961 and president when the country was proclaimed a republic the following year Zanzibar declared independence from Britain in 1963 and soon merged with Tanganyika to form the United Republic of Tanzania The leader of the Afro Shirazi Party of Zanzibar became Nyerere s vice president and in 1977 the two dominant political parties merged into Chama Cha Mapinduzi CCM the Party

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/countries/show/Tanzania (2016-02-13)
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  • Togo - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Rule Date of Independence April 27 1960 Major Exports Phosphates Cotton Coffee Cocoa Precolonial History Ewe peoples migrating from Nigeria and Bénin settled along the coast of Togo centuries before European arrival Portuguese explorers were the first to reach the area which later became known as the Slave Coast Denmark Germany France and Britain also competed for colonial authority and trade influence in Togo until the 19th century Germany declared the region a protectorate in 1884 After World War I the League of Nations divided Togoland between France and Britain British Togoland united with the Gold Coast to form the independent nation of Ghana in 1957 French Togoland declared independence in 1960 Postcolonial History Sylvanus Olympio of the Comité de l unité togolaise CUT became the first president of Togo He was assassinated during a coup d état in 1963 and succeeded by Nicolas Grunitzky of the Parti togolais du progress PTP In 1967 Lieutenant Colonel Étienne Eyadéma later General Gnassingbé Eyadéma overthrew Grunitzky in a bloodless military coup Eyadéma banned all political parties except the Rassemblement du people togolais RPT founded in 1969 with Eyadéma as president By suppressing the opposition and altering the constitution Eyadéma maintained a dictatorship

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/countries/show/Togo (2016-02-13)
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  • Zambia - Art & Life in Africa - The University of Iowa Museum of Art
    Religion 1 Literacy 80 6 Principal Language Bemba Nyanja Tonga Official Language English Politics Head Of State Michael Chilufya Sata since 2011 Type of Government Republic Date of Independence October 24 1964 Major Exports Copper Cobalt Electricity Tobacco Flowers Cotton Precolonial History Zambia s earliest inhabitants were Khoisan hunter gatherers who were gradually displaced or absorbed by Bantu speaking populations migrating from the north and west Kingdoms emerged from 1500 to 1800 the largest being the Chewa Lozi Bemba and Lunda Ngoni peoples migrated from the south during the mid 19th century while the Portuguese and Arabs engaged in the slave trade Scottish missionary David Livingstone led an expedition up the Zambezi River and became the first European to see the waterfalls of Mosi oa Tunya which he named Victoria Falls in honor of Queen Victoria in 1855 In 1888 Cecil John Rhodes of the British South Africa Company negotiated with local rulers for copper mining rights Northern and Southern Rhodesia present day Zambia and Zimbabwe were declared British spheres of influence that same year Northern Rhodesia became a British protectorate in 1924 In 1953 Britain merged its colonial territories into the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland which was dissolved a decade later when Britain relinquished political control Postcolonial History Northern Rhodesia became the republic of Zambia in 1964 Kenneth Kaunda the leader of the United National Independence Party UNIP was elected the country s first president He declared Zambia a single party state in 1972 Kaunda remained in power until 1991 when Frederick Chiluba of the Movement for Multi Party Democracy MMD became Zambia s first democratically elected president Chiluba was re elected until 2002 His successor Levy Mwanawasa launched an anti corruption campaign obtained debt relief and declared food shortage a national disaster during his term in office

    Original URL path: https://africa.uima.uiowa.edu/countries/show/Zambia (2016-02-13)
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