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  • Culpability and Responsibility in Hiroshima
    Japanese government in the form of the military aggressions against the Allied Powers the Tribunal did not deal with Japan s atrocities against Asian peoples were to be judged according to the then existing international law of combat the fire bombing of Japanese cities and the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki must be judged by the same rule Unless both the accused and the plaintiffs were equally subjected to the law justice could not be attained Yet the Allied Powers discarded the complexity inherent in morality of politics in favor of politics of morality so that the same racism of the West that contributed to the birth of its Other Imperial Japan triumphed What the Tribunal brought by exempting the plaintiffs from the law was therefore only victor s justice Inflecting Pal s argument psychoanalytically the enemy who we are certain is a despicable other is in fact endowed and littered with parts cast out from the self The boundary is thus a sacred illusion and delusion By directing all of our respective acuity outward we can avoid the painful look inward 1 Thus the post colonial justice Pal ignited the Epitaph Dispute hibun ronso for the first time after the end of the U S Occupation a public discourse on responsibility for the A bomb victims emerged in Japan The dominant Japanese response led by the mayor of Hiroshima and the epitaph s author to Pal s remark was however that we should be constituted by anybody praying in front of the monument and therefore by the whole of humanity whether they were Japanese or American That is the majority of Japanese refused to taint Hiroshima with politics of nationalistic sentiments Of course this universalistic aspiration for world peace was noble and admirable Nonetheless it had two unintended consequences One was that its focus on the dead as precious sacrifice for peace rendered those who survived the tragedy the unfinished tragedy less visible which consequently delayed the articulation of A Bomb survivors acute medical needs Another was that the universality of we blurred and postponed the Japanese and American state s responsibility in the most concrete and mundane sense for providing relief aids for the A bomb survivors during the historical period when the state whether Japan or the U S was a most viable political entity that could have provided for the survivors In addition the Japanese collective memory of the A bomb victims had been structured to exclude non Japanese A bomb victims and survivors predominantly Koreans who were forced to work in Japan Regrettably non Japanese A bomb survivors had not been thematized until October 1968 when a Korean woman who illegally entered Japan to seek medical care for her A bomb disease was arrested Concomitantly public and political discourses of Hiroshima after the city was embraced as constitutive of Japan s postwar national identity in the mid 50s operated to create an image of Japan as a victim of the Second World War and

    Original URL path: http://quod.lib.umich.edu/j/jii/4750978.0011.102/--culpability-and-responsibility-in-hiroshima?rgn=main;view=fulltext;q1=East+Asian+Studies (2015-01-11)
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  • The Labor of Reform in China
    patterns provide the main benchmarks for measuring such inequality Cleavages based on region urban versus rural residence and gender are all important dimensions of new social and economic stratification Transformation of Chinese labor is shaped by and is shaping globalization from above as well as from below Chinese labor has become an integral part of global production processes not just for traditional low end products such as textiles and toys but also for high end electronics and semiconductors At the same time China has become a new site of activism for the transnational civil society and labor movements posing unique challenges for the implementation of international labor standards Finally as noted earlier Chinese labor conditions have potential ramifications for labor in other developing countries These themes of marketization versus self protection changing inequality and global linkages recurred in many of the presentations and discussions during the conference After welcoming remarks by Michael Kennedy vice provost and director of the International Institute Lawrence Root and Siobán Harlow the conference began with opening addresses by Kenneth Lieberthal William Davidson Professor of Business and Professor of Political Science at the U M and Ping Huang deputy director of the Institute of Sociology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences These speeches provided a broad picture of the challenges facing labor in light of China s political challenges and its continued structural transformation that is moving millions of rural laborers into the cities The first topic engaged by the conference was to better understand Chinese labor laws and their implementation Appropriately top Chinese experts were invited to give presentations to explain the current situation with respect to specific laws and policies Junlu Jiang chairperson of the Committee on Labor and Social Security Law of the All China Lawyers Association discussed the history of labor rights and the Labor Law of 1995 Tongqing Fing vice president of the China Labor Institute of the China Federation of Trade Unions discussed the Trade Union Law of 2001 Zhi Su deputy director general of the Ministry of Health s Department of Health Legislation and Inspection discussed recent occupational safety and health legislation Keyong Dong dean of the School of Public Policy at Renmin University discussed the challenges facing China s social security pension reforms The presentations highlighted the fact that China has passed many model laws and regulations to protect the rights and welfare of workers often strongly influenced by laws adopted in developed countries But the discussion showed that in each case implementation was far from ideal Labor rule of law can be viewed as part of a larger project of rebuilding state legitimacy by transforming an ideology driven state into a law governed state The Chinese leadership also realizes that the law is indispensable for creating a welcoming environment for investment and for managing social conflicts and maintaining social and political stability However local governments have been given wide ranging autonomy and have focused on rapid economic development which gives them little incentive to protect workers legal rights This tension between center and local can help explain the passage of new legislation on the one hand and its poor implementation on the other as well as significant differences in local labor regulations across different regions Nonetheless the law remains important because it arms workers with a justification for their grievances which even if frustrated by employers and local governments workers can still voice on the street or in appeals to upper level governments which do on occasion intervene on the side of workers The next set of presentations focused on critical dimensions of China s labor force structure shedding light on how reforms have affected different groups of Chinese workers Presentations by economists Albert Park and John Giles Michigan State University described recent patterns of wage inequality and employment during the period of economic restructuring China has seen a dramatic increase in urban wage inequality in the past decade much of it attributable to growing regional differences and rising wage differentials associated with differences in educational attainment Recent restructuring has produced massive layoffs forced early retirements and double digit unemployment in most Chinese cities These shocks to employment have hit older workers women and less educated workers particularly hard Such workers have been more likely to lose jobs and less likely to find new ones Shocks to worker benefits e g health insurance coverage arrears in wage pension and health care reimbursement have also been widespread especially those related to health benefits The government s safety net programs subsidies for laid off xiagang workers unemployment subsidies and the minimum living standard program have reached large numbers of dislocated workers but most unemployed workers still receive no public subsidies and so rely primarily upon private means of support especially the income of other household members Next a set of presentations examined specific dimensions of inequality and differences in the treatment of workers ownership region urban versus rural and gender Mary Gallagher political science of the U M in a paper coauthored with Juan Chen and Lyric Chen explained how use of the legal system to settle labor disputes was much more common in foreign and non state firms than in state owned enterprises and documented significant differences in legal mobilization of workers across different regions and firms Jean Louis Rocca history and political science of the Paris School of Political Science described differences in the labor systems in different parts of China For example among private firms in southern China working conditions are harsh but in more state led economic systems such as that is the northeast workers have greater but eroding status Xiaogang Wu sociology of Hong Kong University of Science and Technology pointed out how the hukou system remains an important barrier to labor market integration Yongping Jiang sociology of the Women s Studies Institute of China described recent trends that are deleterious to women including targeting of women in layoff decisions and a revival of traditional gender roles To give participants a better sense

    Original URL path: http://quod.lib.umich.edu/j/jii/4750978.0011.106/--labor-of-reform-in-china?rgn=main;view=fulltext;q1=East+Asian+Studies (2015-01-11)
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  • Toward Globalizing Psychology: A Reflection on the Kyoto-Michigan Collaboration in Psychological Studies
    independent is quite widespread and often taken for granted This and other related ideas such as individual choice freedom and self expression and the notion of market as the prototype for social interactions in general are involved in creating and maintaining myriad practices and customs that permeate this culture Obviously social relations are important but they are often structured in terms of each person s choice to enter such relations Thus social relations themselves are grounded in the independence of each participating individual These cultural practices and meanings as a whole reinforce and maintain the independent self Although many elements of the independent mode of being can be found across cultures they are especially widespread both elaborated and fully institutionalized in many domains of social life of Caucasian American United States cultures In contrast East Asian cultures are committed to the contrasting idea of the self as interdependent Ideas such as interpersonal or societal obligations hierarchical social order and interpersonal adjustment and fitting in are involved in creating and maintaining many central practices and customs that permeate these cultures Obviously personal selves are also important and often just as salient as social obligations and duties However the personal is largely defined vis à vis the expectations and demands of one s surroundings In some cases personal desires and needs are more or less congruous with social expectations as may be the case in identification and spontaneous role obligation whereas in some other cases they may go against one another as may be true in many cases of youth rebellion against authority figures Whichever form it might take the self in these cultural contexts may be highly context or relationship dependent and thus fully embedded and connected Given these different views of self all psychological processes implicated in the self may show substantial cross cultural variation Drawing wide angle comparisons between Western mostly North American middle class cultures and Asian cultures researchers have provided considerable evidence for this possibility 6 For example in North America independent cultural choice is typically seen as an expression of one s own preferences and opinions As a consequence Caucasian Americans are especially motivated to pursue a goal that they have chosen by themselves In contrast Asians and Asian Americans appear to be motivated just as strongly by goals chosen by their significant others 7 Likewise Caucasian Americans are strongly motivated to justify the choice they have made This self justification effect is a pillar of cognitive dissonance theory 8 Our recent work has demonstrated however that Japanese are motivated to justify their own choices only when they are reminded of opinions and preferences the others might have on the choices they have made 9 In this series of cross cultural experiments we had respondents both Japanese and American college students choose between two CDs and observed the degree to which they later reported an increased liking for the chosen CD and a decreased liking for the rejected one This spread of alternatives is our measure

    Original URL path: http://quod.lib.umich.edu/j/jii/4750978.0011.202/--toward-globalizing-psychology-a-reflection-on-the-kyoto?rgn=main;view=fulltext;q1=East+Asian+Studies (2015-01-11)
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  • Alumnus donates $1 million in support of Korean Studies Program
    I was a Michigan man says Nam From that first moment I loved the University of Michigan By the time he reached U M he had 4 in his pocket one suitcase and myriad of dreams He quickly immersed himself in Ann Arbor Washtenaw County and of course the University But one thing has bothered him over the years in the Asian Library collection there were hundreds of thousands of volumes from and about China and Japan but very few of Korea There were established Chinese and Japanese Studies programs but nothing about Korea and the art museum has 1437 objects in its Chinese collection compared to the 46 piece Korean art collection He was determined to change that and at the same time to help students from Asian countries have the same opportunity to study at U M that he had Today after 40 years of working saving and raising children Nam and his wife Moon Sook are satisfying that dream of giving back Multi pronged giving Elder Nam is generously giving over 1 million to the University But the gift s distribution is designed to benefit the maximum number of students both here and abroad A gift to the A Alfred Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning that will fund a student faculty exchange program with Chung Ang University and the Architecture Institute of Korea An endowment fund for the Korean Studies Program that will enhance the program and establish a permanent chair The purchase of the Hasenkamp collection of Korean art one of the most comprehensive collections of its kind in the country for the U M Museum of Art The collection is composed of nearly 250 objects including paintings bronzes and furniture According to Maribeth Graybill senior curator of Asian art at the Museum the

    Original URL path: http://quod.lib.umich.edu/j/jii/4750978.0012.105/--alumnus-donates-1-million-in-support-of-korean-studies?rgn=main;view=fulltext;q1=East+Asian+Studies (2015-01-11)
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  • What Gets in the Way of Rethinking the Legacies of the Nineteenth Century
    University of Michigan faculty members during discussion sessions At the close of the second day one of the outside participants observed that the workshop was one of those rare events that marked a new turning point in the field A new point of departure was what we had envisioned when we first conceived the project Despite good intentions it has been extremely difficult to think beyond the narratives of the clash of civilizations or to conceptualize differences or conflicts among cultures and societies in the modern world The European Enlightenment thinkers regarded China as the center of the known civilized world in the eighteenth century That view was eclipsed by the writings of protestant missionaries and the opinions of traders and British parliamentarians which continue to shape the positions of contemporary historians and the lay public The nineteenth century is seen as a long slide downward catapulting China from a golden age the High Qing era inaugurated by the Kangxi Emperor and dispatched by the foibles of the aging Qianlong into backwardness and near terminal stagnation Scholars who wring their hands over this period cite diminishing returns to labor high level equilibrium traps long term trade imbalances currency depreciation tax deficits Malthusian population checks a chronic marriage crunch weak or non existent public sphere or civil society and above all the failure to modernize as measured by the slow rate of technological innovation and the retarded growth of industrial capitalism International conflicts continue to be represented in a language inherited from the colonial discourse of the past civilization versus barbarism modernity versus tradition rule of law versus despotism and so on Beyond these familiar binaries what would our age of terror and global conflict look like once we place them in light of the earlier warfare between Europe and the

    Original URL path: http://quod.lib.umich.edu/j/jii/4750978.0012.106/--what-gets-in-the-way-of-rethinking-the-legacies?rgn=main;view=fulltext;q1=East+Asian+Studies (2015-01-11)
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  • Journal of the International Institute - Search Results
    vol 4 no 2 Winter 1997 1 in subject Performing Authenticity Tibetan Song and Dance Ensemble Makes its Argument Makley Charlene vol 4 no 2 Winter 1997 1 in subject The Chinese Economy after Deng Li David Li Shan vol 4 no 3 Summer 1997 1 in subject Hong Kong Between the U S and China Lieberthal Kenneth vol 5 no 1 Fall 1997 1 in subject Founding Michigan s Center for Japanese Studies Johnson Brett vol 5 no 1 Fall 1997 1 in subject Initiating Public Long Term Care Insurance in Japan Campbell John Creighton vol 5 no 1 Fall 1997 1 in subject A Salon for the Soul Nakai Masakazu and the Culture Movement in Postwar Hiroshima Pincus Leslie vol 5 no 1 Fall 1997 1 in subject Hong Kong Handover Cheung C H Sidney vol 5 no 1 Fall 1997 1 in subject The Tokyo International Forum The Making of Public Space Vinoly Rafel vol 5 no 2 Winter 1998 1 in subject Photography in the History of Japanese American Internment Toyo Miyatake s Boys Behind Barbed Wire Alinder Jasmine vol 6 no 1 Fall 1998 1 in subject At the UMMA Korea s Painting in Brilliant Colors Kim Kumja Paik vol 6 no 1 Fall 1998 1 in subject The Publishing Industry and the Western Construction of Buddhism Marketing the Dharma Brereton Bonnie vol 6 no 2 Winter 1999 1 in subject An Interview with Frithjof Bergmann Rethinking Work on a Global Scale vol 6 no 2 Winter 1999 1 in subject The Crumbling Information Curtain Examining the Internet s Impact in China Vietnam and Malaysia Sesser Stan vol 6 no 2 Winter 1999 1 in subject Japan After the Bubble Burst Traditional Values Inhibit Quick Comeback Suleski Ronald vol 6 no 3 Summer 1999 1

    Original URL path: http://quod.lib.umich.edu/j/jii?rgn=subject;size=25;sort=occur;start=14;subview=short;type=simple;view=reslist;q1=East+Asian+Studies (2015-01-11)
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  • The Michigan Japanese Quiz Bowl: A Case of Sucessful Language Promotion and K12 Outreach
    12 students to meet and take part in friendly yet very serious competition Each year s MJQB begins early on a Saturday with an opening ceremony where participants and visitors are welcomed and receive a greeting from the Japanese Consulate in Detroit before the competitors proceed to the first round Closed to spectators the morning s preliminary competition consists of three rounds of matches at four different levels Responding to questions about language and culture the teams compete against each other to answer the most questions correctly and earn points University level Japanese language instructors and other Japanese experts judge the matches university level Japanese language students act as timekeepers and scorekeepers Throughout the morning each four person team competes against three other teams at comparable levels At the end of the preliminary rounds the points are tallied and the two teams in each level with the highest points are announced After lunch those teams take part in the final competition in front of their peers families and the public At the conclusion of the finals the award ceremony is arranged while performers entertain the audience Past entertainment has included performances by the White Pine Glee Club a choral group composed of Japanese businessmen from southeast Michigan as well as a resident Butoh dance artist The MJQB concludes with an award ceremony in which the first and second place teams in each division accept trophies for their schools as well as medals and small gifts for each team member The quiz bowl is accompanied by Japanese cultural activities to educate and entertain the students and guests In the past these activities have included tea ceremonies flower arranging koto and shakuhachi music sushi making kimono wearing calligraphy origami and even DDR Dance Dance Revolution In 2006 CJS and U M s Japan Student Association JSA collaborated to hold the MJQB on the same day as JSA s annual Japan Culture Festival This allowed CJS to focus on the competitive portion of the event and increased attendance at JSA s festival It takes considerable effort by CJS and JTAM staff university Japanese instructors and students and many volunteers to run the MJQB but organizers are convinced it is time well spent Japanese teachers report that the MJQB increases their students motivation in class and improves their language skills leads to expanded support for Japanese language educators and programs and creates mutually beneficial connections among Japanese teachers and between K 12 schools and universities A Japanese teacher and MJQB coach from Lansing s Everett High School wrote Every year I have students who not only look forward to going to the event they look forward to studying for it It is one of the things that motivate my students to persevere with their studies An elementary teacher from the Steppingstone School in Farmington Hills stated By March students have been in class for six months and they get complacent or start losing their drive to learn the language The quiz bowl inspires them

    Original URL path: http://quod.lib.umich.edu/j/jii/4750978.0014.104/--michigan-japanese-quiz-bowl-a-case-of-sucessful-language?rgn=main;view=fulltext;q1=East+Asian+Studies (2015-01-11)
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  • The University of Michigan Expands Partnerships with China
    to that continuum From Shanghai Jiao Tong University Peking University Fudan University and Tsinghua University we have new partners and new opportunities for Chinese and American students and faculty Our agreements provide U M students the opportunity to live and study in China remarkable preparation for those with career aspirations in China and Asia Any of us a generation or more removed from being a college student could barely have imagined the experiences our students will enjoy in Beijing and Shanghai For our graduates to be competitive and successful they must work hard to understand other cultures societies political systems markets and opportunities Broadening the outlook of these future leaders through academic exchange will strengthen their ability to think and act on a cooperative basis China is an amazing country undergoing dramatic changes Never in the history of the world has a nation seen the rise of so many people hundreds of millions into the middle class as citizens move from the countryside to cities With this transformation comes tremendous growth in housing employment and education It also provides phenomenal social science opportunities for faculty and students at both U M and Chinese universities The changes unfolding in China extend deep into higher education Over and over on our trip we were impressed by the dedication of university officials in Beijing and Shanghai eager to improve their institutions They are investing in their universities in faculty in programs and in the physical plant They are anxious to evolve into some of the best universities in the world and are looking to the University of Michigan for advice and guidance U M s extraordinary programs in social science engineering the humanities and medicine may each serve as models at China s universities We in turn may look to them for insight into dealing with rapid demographic change and the development of higher education in a technology intensive global setting This past May the University hosted some 25 leaders of Chinese universities in a two week University Leadership Forum Due to the good work of our Center for Research on Learning and Teaching the forum was an intense invigorating program that covered topics ranging from university governance and finance to campus construction and philanthropy The Chinese university administrators were full of questions about American higher education and the role of public universities and we presented a full picture of the challenges and rewards that come with operating a great research institution This environment of collaboration that is so inherent to American higher education is novel to Chinese universities which are more insular in their structure and philosophy In talking with the Chinese university presidents I stressed the benefits of a collaborative approach to research and learning One of the strengths of a great university is its multidisciplinary work and its collaboration within and across universities and I encouraged leaders to move toward this model for Chinese universities I believe our academic agreements with universities in Beijing and Shanghai are important steps toward

    Original URL path: http://quod.lib.umich.edu/j/jii/4750978.0014.106/--university-of-michigan-expands-partnerships-with-china?rgn=main;view=fulltext;q1=East+Asian+Studies (2015-01-11)
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