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  • The Ocean Biogeochemistry and Climate Change Group | Department of Earth and Environmental Science
    improve understanding and prediction of Oceanic uptake storage and release of atmospheric CO 2 and other gases Climate sensitivity of ocean biogeochemical cycles and interactions with ecosystem structure Feedbacks between ocean carbon cycle ocean ecosystem structure ocean circulation and climate Our work combines theoretical aspects with running climate change simulations and sensitivity studies using complex general circulation models or GCMs on a newly acquired state of the art computer cluster in the Earth and Environmental Science Department at the University of Pennsylvania Specific Topics of Interest Southern Ocean oceanography links with the atmosphere and climate feedbacks How the ocean carbon pumps control atmospheric p CO 2 The impact of future changes in ocean ventilation on ocean carbon pumps and atmospheric p CO 2 Biological physical controls on the large scale air sea CO 2 flux distributions Response of Ocean Ecology to future climate change The future of ocean Anoxia Modeling the evolution of phytoplankton Satellite observations of ocean biology Prof Marinov s 40 minute presentation Introduction to Antarctica and the Southern Ocean News Our Research in the News Some of our recent work has been featured in print and online news media in Canada the U K France and the United States See Our Work in the News page for more information de Lavergne C J B Palter E D Galbraith R Bernardello and I Marinov 2014 Cessation of Weddell Sea convection due to climate warming Nature Climate Change Download Supplement Bernardello Raffaele Irina Marinov Jaime B Palter Jorge L Sarmiento Eric D Galbraith Richard D Slater 2014 Response of the Ocean Natural Carbon Storage to Projected Twenty First Century Climate Change J Climate 27 2033 2053 Download Student Postdoc Opportunities We are currently looking for undergraduates doctoral students and postdocs for the next academic year Contact Dr Marinov directly

    Original URL path: http://climate.sas.upenn.edu/ (2014-09-20)
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  • Current Research | The Ocean Biogeochemistry and Climate Change Group
    the same time the phytoplankton size composition strongly influences the structure and functioning of ocean ecosystems biogeochemical cycles and consequently climate Understanding the spatio temporal dynamics of the ocean phytoplankton size structure is crucial for building realistic dynamic green ocean models capable of predicting the future role of ocean biota in climate In this project we are employing a newly developed method for detecting phytoplankton size groups from satellite remote sensing to study their dynamics on various spatial and temporal scales in the past decade or so with focus on their response to climate oscillations Insights from this part of the project will in turn support analyses of phytoplankton composition variability and trends that are predicted by various climate models which have provided contributions to the newest Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC AR5 The climatological averages of carbon biomass for total phytoplankton community and its constituting size groups in the near surface ocean derived from Sea viewing Wide Field of view Sensor SeaWiFS observations between September 1997 and December 2010 Previous Research Projects Biological physical controls on the large scale air sea CO 2 flux distributions The compensation mechanism Irina Marinov with Anand Gnanadesikan published in Biogeosciences 2011 This work explores the impact of circulation changes on the meridional distribution of the steady state air sea CO 2 fluxes Changes in circulation resulting from modifications in diapycnal mixing or changes in Southern Ocean winds affect both remineralized phosphate and temperature In the Princeton GCM the biological CO 2 flux which is a function of remineralized phosphate and the solubility CO 2 flux which is a function of temperature or heat transport change with diapycnal mixing and Southern Ocean wind magnitude in opposite ways Thus while both the biological and solubility air sea CO 2 fluxes vary strongly with diapycnal mixing or wind magnitude the full solubility biological air sea CO 2 flux shows nearly no variation If our result holds in the real ocean it could potentially imply that large changes in the air sea carbon distribution due for example to the observed increase in Southern Ocean winds would not be reflected in the observed air sea CO 2 flux Since surface restoring of temperature and salinity constraints strongly the solubility air sea flux while surface restoring of nutrients constraint the biological air sea flux this result highlights the need for using realistic boundary conditions in climate simulations The validity of this result needs to be tested in more complex models in which surface boundary conditions are allowed to vary in response to circulation changes The Southern Ocean Biogeochemical Divide I Marinov A Gnanadesikan R Toggweiler and J L Sarmiento published in Nature June 2006 read full text Previous studies have shown that the Southern Ocean is crucial in controlling the atmosphere ocean balance of carbon dioxide as well as global biological production Here we demonstrate that two separate regions of the Southern Ocean the Antarctic and the Subantarctic control the air sea carbon dioxide balance and global biological production The biogeochemical divide between these two regions is likely located in the vicinity of the Polar Front The large scale pattern of circulation in the Southern Ocean involves upwelling of deep water some of which flows to the south to sink as bottom water and some of which flows to the north to form intermediate and mode waters We show that the air sea balance of carbon dioxide is controlled primarily by the biological pump and circulation in the deep water formation region whereas global biological productivity is controlled primarily by the biological pump and circulation in the intermediate and mode water formation region This implies that it may be possible for climate change or human intervention to modify one of these without greatly altering the other Impact of oceanic circulation on biological carbon storage in the ocean and atmospheric p CO 2 Marinov I A Gnanadesikan J L Sarmiento J R Toggweiler M Follows and B Mignone published in GBC 2008 read full text The atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure p CO 2 is set to a large degree by the biological storage of carbon in the deep ocean A more efficient biological pump results in more carbon storage in the deep ocean and smaller atmospheric p CO 2 This study shows that diapycnal mixing isopycnal mixing and Southern Ocean winds by changing the Southern Ocean overturning circulation influence strongly the biological storage of carbon in the ocean and atmospheric p CO 2 in a realistic ocean General Circulation Model GCM Increased diapycnal mixing and Southern Ocean winds result in less ocean carbon storage and higher atmospheric p CO 2 in agreement with earlier box model studies By contrast increased isopycnal mixing is shown to increase the storage of carbon in the ocean and decrease atmospheric p CO 2 Additionally this paper attempts to clarify a longstanding confusion in the oceanic community about what controls the biological storage of carbon in the ocean As such we show conclusively that surface nutrients and biological export production are not good metrics for ocean carbon storage and atmospheric p CO 2 By contrast we show that the fraction of nutrients in the global remineralized pool or the fraction of nutrients in the global preformed pool are excellent indicators for atmospheric p CO 2 We develop a simple theory relating global preformed nutrient concentrations and atmospheric p CO 2 How does atmospheric p CO 2 respond to changes in surface nutrients such as those associated with iron fertilization of the surface ocean Atmospheric p CO 2 sensitivity to nutrient depletion in the ocean theory and models by I Marinov M Follows A Gnanadesikan J L Sarmiento and R Slater published in JGR Oceans 2008 read full text Iron fertilization of the HNLC high nutrient low chlorophyll ocean areas has been proposed as a mechanism to decrease atmospheric CO 2 levels through the associated increase in biological production Increased surface biological production through iron fertilization is one of the

    Original URL path: http://climate.sas.upenn.edu/research (2014-09-20)
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  • Publications | The Ocean Biogeochemistry and Climate Change Group
    2033 2053 Download I Marinov S Doney I Lima K Lindsay J K Moore N Mahowald 2013 North South asymmetry in the modeled phytoplankton community response to climate change over the 21st century Global Biogeochemical Cycles Vol 27 1 17 J Palter I Marinov N Gruber and J L Sarmiento Large scale persistent nutrient fronts of the world ocean impacts on biogeochemistry I M Belkin ed Chemical Oceanography of Frontal Zones Berlin Springer Verlag 2013 Download Moore C M Mills M M Arrigo K Berman Frank I Bopp L Boyd P W Galbraith E Geider R J Guieu C Jaccard S Jickells T La Roche J Lenton T Mahowold N Maranon E Marinov I Moore K Nakatsuka T Oschlies A Saito M Thingstad F Tsuda A Ulloa O and Wallace D Nutrient limitation in the upper ocean processes patterns and potential for change Nature Geosciences 2013 download Ahumada Sempoal M A Flexas M M Bernardello R Bahamon N Cruzado A Northern Current variability and its impact on the Blanes Canyon circulation A numerical study In Press August 2013 Progress in Oceanography Link Bernardello R Cardoso Mohedano J G Bahamon N Donis D Marinov I and Cruzado A Factors controlling interannual variability of vertical organic matter export and phytoplankton bloom dynamics a numerical case study for the NW Mediterranean Sea Biogeosciences 9 4233 4245 doi 10 5194 bg 9 4233 2012 2012 download Marinov I and A Gnanadesikan Changes in ocean circulation and carbon storage are decoupled from air sea CO2 fluxes Biogeosciences 8 505 513 doi 10 5194 bg 8 505 2011 2011 download Bahamon N Aguzzi J Bernardello R Ahumada Sempoal M A Puigdefabregas J Cateura J Muoz E Velsquez Z Cruzado A The new pelagic Operational Observatory of the Catalan Sea OOCS for the multisensor coordinated measurement of atmospheric and oceanographic conditions Sensors 2011 11 12 11251 11272 doi 10 3390 s111211251 download Marinov A M and I Marinov in press Pumping regime strongly influences groundwater quality in the proximity of a large polluted lake Water Resources Management VI WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment Vol 145 423 435 doi 10 2495 WRM110371 2011 download Marinov I S Doney and I Lima Response of ocean phytoplankton community structure to climate change over the 21st century partitioning the effects of nutrients temperature and light Biogeosciences 7 3941 3959 doi 10 5149 bg 7 3941 2010 2010 download Sarmiento J L A Gnanadesikan I Marinov and R D Slater in press The role of marine biota in the CO2 balance of the ocean atmosphere system In C M Duarte Ed The Role of Marine Biota in the Functioning of the Biosphere Fundación BBVA Madrid 2010 Chapter 4 Drake S and Shor R Oceans of Plastic Penn Arts ramp Sciences Magazine Fall Winter 2010 download Gnanadesikan A and I Marinov Export is not enough Nutrient cycling and carbon sequestration Marine Ecological Progress Series invited contribution to the Thematic Section on Implications of large scale iron fertilization of the oceans Vol

    Original URL path: http://climate.sas.upenn.edu/publications (2014-09-20)
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  • Courses Taught | The Ocean Biogeochemistry and Climate Change Group
    physical atmospheric and oceanic mechanisms responsible for future climate change glacial interglacial cycles Heinrich and Dansgard Oescheger events basics of climate modeling adaptation and vulnerability to future climate change mitigation strategies for future climate change As part of this class students are required to undertake an original research project based on the collection and or analysis of data related to a subject area covered in the course This is a group project 4 6 students which counts for a significant percent of the grade ENVS 312 PHYS 314 Ocean Atmosphere Dynamics and Implications for Future Climate Change Syllabus Course offered in the spring of 2014 Wed 3 00 6 00PM and Thur 4 30 5 30PM This course covers the fundamentals of atmosphere and ocean dynamics and aims to put these in the context of climate change in the 21st century The lectures focus on the physical mechanisms responsible for large scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation the global energy balance and the global hydrological cycle I introduce fundamental concepts of fluid dynamics and apply these to the vertical and horizontal motions in the atmosphere and ocean Concepts covered include hydrostatic law buoyancy and convection basic equations of fluid motions Hadley and Ferrel cells in the atmosphere thermohaline circulation Sverdrup ocean flow modes of climate variability El Nino North Atlantic Oscillation Southern Annular Mode The course incorporates student led discussions based on readings of the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC report and recent literature on climate change Aimed at undergraduate or graduate students who have no prior knowledge of meteorology or oceanography or training in fluid mechanics Previous background in calculus and introductory physics is very useful This is a very general course which spans many sub disciplines fluid mechanics atmospheric science oceanography hydrology Other Climate and Sustainability Related

    Original URL path: http://climate.sas.upenn.edu/teaching (2014-09-20)
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  • People | The Ocean Biogeochemistry and Climate Change Group
    anthropology Curriculum Vitae Hyang Yoon PhD Student Earth and Environmental Science Research Interests Surface and internal waves dynamics of the ocean and coastal processes Oceanic biogeochemical interactions and their possible changes in accordance to climate change Priya Sharma PhD Student Earth and Environmental Science Research Interests Ocean Biogeochemistry comparing models and observations in the Pacific Ocean Karan Sharma Master s Student Mechanical Engineering Research Project Southern Ocean deep water formation slowdown over the 21st century and its relationship with freshwater fluxes and carbon uptake Curriculum Vitae Raghu Palle Master s Student Mechanical Engineering Courses Taught MEAM 354 Mechanics of Solids Teaching Assistant Research Project Theory of ocean carbon pumps air sea carbon exchange and carbon disequilibrium Curriculum Vitae Ryan Dungee Undergraduate Student Senior Physics Courses Taught ENVS 312 640 Ocean Atmosphere Dynamics Teaching Assistant Research Project Evolution of plankton ecological model development Mo Green Undergraduate Student Senior Chemical Engineering Courses Taught ENVS 204 Global Climate Change Teaching Assistant Research Project Evolution of plankton ecological model development David Shields Undergraduate Student Junior Mechanical Engineering Research Project Statsitical processing of satellite data Danica Fine Undergraduate Student Junior Logic Information and Computation Research Project Satellite remote sensing of ocean biology Alumni Raffaele Bernardello Former Postdoctoral Researcher Jan 2011 Jan 2014 Department of Earth and Environmental Science Currently researcher at Southampton Oceanography Centre UK Courses Taught ENVS 204 Global Climate Change Teaching Assistant ENVS 312 Ocean Atmosphere Dynamics Teaching Assistant Research Interests The influence of circulation on plankton primary and export production Anthropogenic impact on marine environment Impact of ventilation on ocean carbon storage in a changing climate Curriculum Vitae Shirley Leung Alumna Bachelor of Arts in Biology and Earth Science 2013 Master of Science in Applied Geosciences 2013 Current PhD candidate in Oceanography with Dr Curtis Deutsch at the University of Washington Research

    Original URL path: http://climate.sas.upenn.edu/people (2014-09-20)
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  • Climate Resources | The Ocean Biogeochemistry and Climate Change Group
    MODES DATA SETS ORGANIZATIONS AND MEETINGS Large scale Biogeochemical Modeling Community Laurent Bopp Université de Versailles Ken Buesseler WHOI Curtis Deutsch UCLA Scott Doney WHOI John Dunne NOAA Mick Follows MIT Eric Galbraith McGill University Anand Gnanadesikan Johns Hopkins University Nicky Gruber ETH in Zurich Taka Ito Georgia Tech Marina Levy Université Pierre et Marie Curie Nicole Lovenduski University of Colorado at Boulder Gaylen McKinley University of Wisconsin Keith Moore

    Original URL path: http://climate.sas.upenn.edu/links (2014-09-20)
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  • News | The Ocean Biogeochemistry and Climate Change Group
    for more information de Lavergne C J B Palter E D Galbraith R Bernardello and I Marinov 2014 Cessation of Weddell Sea convection due to climate warming Nature Climate Change Download Supplement Bernardello Raffaele Irina Marinov Jaime B Palter Jorge L Sarmiento Eric D Galbraith Richard D Slater 2014 Response of the Ocean Natural Carbon Storage to Projected Twenty First Century Climate Change J Climate 27 2033 2053 Download Student Postdoc Opportunities We are currently looking for undergraduates doctoral students and postdocs for the next academic year Contact Dr Marinov directly if interested More info here Graduate Application Recent activities In February 2014 prof Irina Marinov was faculty host for a Penn alumni expedition to the West Antarctic Peninsula and the Weddell Sea Here is a link to incredible Antarctica pictures from this trip and a Link to the formal trip webpage In March 2014 postdoc Anna Cabre and alumni Shirley Leung participated in the Ocean Sciences meeting in Hawaii with talks posters on the ocean phytoplankton response to climate change across the CMIP5 Earth System models Irina Marinov s 60 second lecture on Water and Future Climate Change For news and activities from Spring of 2014 and earlier please

    Original URL path: http://climate.sas.upenn.edu/news (2014-09-20)
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