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  • Computational Tools
    any region on the lunar surface Lunar Impact Cratering This tool allows users to calculate the sizes of impact craters produced on the lunar surface as a function of several independent impact parameters This is an excellent resource created by Prof Keith A Holsapple at the University of Washington For those who want to explore impact cratering into other types of planetary surfaces another good tool is Crater Sizes from Explosions or Impacts at the University of Washington Lunar Distance Calculator This tools allows users to calculate the distance between two points on the lunar surface For example it can be used to calculate the distance between two lunar landing sites or the distance between a landing site and another location on a geologic traverse ImageJ Macros for Mineral False Color Maps Three programs have been written that automatically create i false color mineral maps for silicates and ii false color maps for Zr bearing and phosphate phases To use these new tools download the manual and the three macros Adjust image ijm Mineral Map ijm and Zircon Phos ijm The three macros can be downloaded by right clicking on them and saving the links to your own computer Please see the manual for instructions about the folder location where the macros should be saved SPICEs Program for Fractional and Equilibrium Crystallization Calculations This tool allows users to calculate fractional and equilibrium crystallization sequences within the MATLAB programming environment The MAGFOX component of SPICEs generates models involving Rayleigh fractional crystallization and the MAGPOX component of SPICEs generates models involving equilibrium crystallization A third component called FXMOTR uses a combination of equilibrium and fractional crystallization A Beginner s Guide to Stereo derived DEM Production and Analysis using ISIS ASP and ArcMAP A brief beginners guide to producing and analyzing planetary stereo

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/tools/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Educational Products
    the Moon and Beyond with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter To the Moon and Beyond is a suite of hands on inquiry based activities connected directly to a current and exciting NASA mission The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LRO Mission that will explore our Moon and gather data to help prepare the way for future lunar expeditions Elementary to middle school children learn about the mission explore the history of the Moon investigate how features on the Moon formed and assess the suitability of different lunar sites for future human habitation To the Moon and Beyond was developed through a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute s Department of Education and Public Outreach the LRO Education and Public Outreach team and LRO scientists and engineers Coming Soon Seeing the Moon Using Light to Investigate the Moon Much of our understanding of the materials on the surface of the Moon comes from wavelengths of light invisible to the human eye Spectrometers aboard spacecraft sample these wavelengths and provide scientists with new information about the character and materials of the lunar surface In Seeing the Moon middle school students experiment with light and color through hands on inquiry based activities They collect and analyze authentic data from rock samples using the ALTA hand held reflectance spectrometer map the rock types of the Moon and develop theories of the Moon s history Seeing the Moon is being developed through a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute s Department of Education and Public Outreach and the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument education team SkyTellers Moon Phases Elementary to middle school children can explore how and why our Moon changes in the night sky through this collection of activities and suggested book and Web resources Evolution of the Solar System Timeline Explore the formation of our

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/education/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Lunar Exploration Summer Intern Program
    be located Interns will be located at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston Texas Contact Dr David Kring Senior Staff Scientist for the Lunar Exploration Initiative 3600 Bay Area Blvd Houston TX 77058 Phone 281 486 2119 kring lpi usra edu Jennifer Steil Program Coordinator 3600 Bay Area Blvd Houston TX 77058 Phone 281 486 2115 Fax 281 244 2006 lunarintern lpi usra edu Publications and Products Products Lunar Impact Crater Database 2011 Losiak et al LPI Lunar Exploration Intern Program 2009 Revised by Ohman LPI 2011 3D Flyover of King Crater on the Lunar Farside 2008 Thaisen et al LPI Lunar Exploration Intern Program Publications T Kohout K O Sullivan A Losiak K G Thaisen S Weider and D A Kring 2009 Scientific opportunities for human exploration in the Moon s Schrödinger Basin Lunar and Planetary Science XL Abstract 1572 A Losiak D E Wilhelms C J Byrne K Thaisen S Z Weider T Kohout K O Sullivan and D A Kring 2009 A new lunar impact crater database Lunar and Planetary Science XL Abstract 1532 D L Eldridge J Korteniemi T Lough K I Singer L Werblin and D A Kring 2010 Sampling the Youngest and Oldest Mare Basalts Important Lunar Regions Lunar and Planetary Science XLI Abstract 1486 M E Ennis A L Fagan J N Pogue S Porter J F Snape and D A Kring 2010 Lunar Farside Volcanism Potential Sampling Localities within South PoleAitken Basin Lunar and Planetary Science XLI Abstract 2512 A L Fagan M E Ennis J N Pogue S Porter J F Snape C R Neal and D A Kring 2010 Science Rich Mission Sites within South Pole Aitken Basin Part I Antoniadi Crater Lunar and Planetary Science XLI Abstract 2467 A L Fagan C R Neal and A Simonetti 2010 Apollo 14 Olivine Vitrophyres Geochemical Evidence for Heterogeneous Target Materials Lunar and Planetary Science XLI Abstract 2226 J Korteniemi D L Eldridge T Lough L Werblin K I Singer and D A Kring 2010 Assessment of Lunar Volcanic Morphological Diversity Distribution of Floor Fractured Craters Lunar and Planetary Science XLI Abstract 1335 J Korteniemi D L Eldridge K I Singer T Lough L Werblin and D A Kring 2010 Volcanic Landing Sites on the Moon The Compact and Diverse Harbinger Region Lunar and Planetary Science XLI Abstract 1339 T Lough J Korteniemi D L Eldridge K Singer L Werblin and D A Kring 2010 Mission Options to Explore the Flux and Evolution of Lunar Volcanism Through Space and Time Lunar and Planetary Science XLI Abstract 2537 K I Singer D L Eldridge J Korteniemi T Lough L Werblin and D A Kring 2010 Using ArcGIS to Identify Landing Sites with Diverse Mare Basalt Compositions Lunar and Planetary Science XLI Abstract 2520 J F Snape A L Fagan M E Ennis J N Pogue S Porter C R Neal and D A Kring 2010 Science Rich Mission Sites within South Pole Aitken Basin Part 2 Von Kármán Crater Lunar and Planetary

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar_intern/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Ceres: Keeping Well-Guarded Secrets for 215 Years
    missing object However Piazzi did not receive his invitation to join this group until after he had spotted Ceres Bode calculated an orbit based on Piazzi s data and he believed that the object Piazzi saw was the missing planet that fit his formula which was later discredited Oriani meanwhile also calculated an orbit and on April 7 asked von Zach to publish the news in his well known astronomy journal Monatliche Correspondenz that such a planet may have been discovered As of spring 1801 besides Piazzi no one had been able to observe the new celestial object because of cloudy skies and the object s position in its orbit it was no longer visible at night and the Sun blocked astronomers views Meanwhile Piazzi still did not publish anything on the object while he continued to refine his data Several of his colleagues grew upset with Piazzi for holding back information Without the data from his observations that concluded on February 11 confirming his discovery would be more difficult since February Ceres had been lost Why did Piazzi hesitate to make his data public One reason might be that although Piazzi was a skilled observer he didn t have a solid theoretical knowledge of astronomy so he couldn t calculate orbits quickly Second he risked the credibility and reputation of both himself and the observatory But while he wavered colleagues in Germany such as Bode firmly believed that there needed to be a planet between Mars and Jupiter It was their conviction that helped keep the work going on this object said Ileana Chinnici who edited the Palermo Observatory s booklet on Ceres Without the determination of the German astronomers Piazzi would have been just the discoverer of a lost comet in the best case They believed in the existence of the planet and were driven by the endeavor to confirm it This shows how powerful are ideas models theories yesterday as well as today Chinnici said At last in July 1801 Piazzi worked on calculating the object s orbit and made public his data about his observations from earlier in the year And while other astronomers had already come up with their own names such as Juno Hera and Piazzi to honor the astronomer Piazzi himself announced that the new star was called Ceres Ferdinandea The Ferdinandea part honored King Ferdinand of Sicily Ceres the Roman goddess of agriculture was also the patron deity of Sicily where Piazzi then lived and worked Bode who had wanted to call the object Juno agreed on Ceres You have discovered it in Taurus and it was re observed in Virgo Ceres of the old times These two constellations are the symbol of agriculture This occurrence is quite unique By the end of July 1801 many astronomers believed Ceres was a planet but they needed additional confirmation and observations Piazzi published his complete dataset in von Zach s journal in September and by doing so got the attention of a young mathematician

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/features/012916/ceres/ (2016-02-15)
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  • The Voyage of a Lifetime: New Horizons Marks 10 Years Since Launch
    belt still has special meaning to the team that designed built and then guided the spacecraft through the solar system Just 13 months later New Horizons flew past Jupiter getting a gravity assist that added another 14 484 kilometers per hour 9000 miles per hour to its pace toward Pluto and giving the team a chance to train the spacecraft s instruments on the giant planet and its largest moons The Jupiter flyby was a mission in itself helping the team gain flyby experience and producing discoveries that included the first close up looks at lightning near Jupiter s poles and the first motion picture sequence of an erupting volcano on the jovian moon Io The spacecraft began hibernating after the Jupiter flyby was complete but mission activity barely slowed down from there While New Horizons continued across the solar system at record speed the science spacecraft and operations teams designed and practiced the intricate activities of the upcoming Pluto encounter The spacecraft spent more than two thirds of its seven year cruise between Jupiter and Pluto in hibernation which saved wear and tear on its systems and required fewer tracking resources at home Mission Operations personnel always got the question How are you going to keep busy and motivated for the 9 years it s going to take to get to Pluto said Mission Operations Manager Alice Bowman of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory APL Laurel Maryland I don t know a single New Horizons operations person who was ever bored or unmotivated during the long cruise to the Pluto system We have a small team and there always seemed to be a technical challenge a new moon to include in the observation plans or something else that kept us engaged The time went by faster than expected Busy as they were just as much was happening for the team outside of the major responsibility of moving New Horizons through space The 10 year launch anniversary to me is a time to reflect on how far we have come together as people said Mission Operations Flight Control Lead Becca Sepan of APL I don t think it s a stretch to say that every single member of our team across the science engineering operations and outreach disciplines experienced at least one major life event in the time New Horizons has been in flight Sepan points out that she had been engaged for less than a month when New Horizons launched she s now a married mother of two Fellow flight controller Melissa Jones said her family didn t exist in January 2006 when the spacecraft flew by Pluto last July 14 she watched the festivities at APL with her husband and three children ages 8 6 and 4 Others on the team have lost family members gotten engaged married or divorced had children and grandchildren bought their first houses earned graduate degrees encountered all the events and changes you d expect over a decade While we were

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/features/012916/NewHorizons/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Voyager Mission Celebrates 30 Years Since Uranus
    atmosphere of Uranus is 85 hydrogen and 15 helium There was also evidence of a boiling ocean about 800 kilometers 500 miles below the cloud tops Scientists found that Uranus has a magnetic field different from any they had ever encountered previously At Mercury Earth Jupiter and Saturn the magnetic field is aligned approximately with the rotational axis Then we got to Uranus and saw that the poles were closer to the equator Stone said Neptune turned out to be similar The magnetic field was not quite centered with the center of the planet This surface magnetic field of Uranus was also stronger than that of Saturn Data from Voyager 2 helped scientists determine that the magnetic tail of Uranus twists into a helix stretching 10 million kilometers 6 million miles in the direction pointed away from the Sun Understanding how planetary magnetic fields interact with the Sun is a key part of NASA s goal to understand the very nature of space Not only does studying the Sun planet connection provide information useful for space travel but it helps shed light on the origins of planets and their potential for harboring life Voyager 2 also discovered 10 new moons there are 27 total and two new rings at the planet which also proved fascinating An icy moon called Miranda revealed a peculiar varied landscape and evidence of active geologic activity in the past While only about 500 kilometers 300 miles in diameter this small object boasts giant canyons that could be up to 12 times as deep as the Grand Canyon in Arizona Miranda also has three unique features called coronae which are lightly cratered collections of ridges and valleys Scientists think this moon could have been shattered and then reassembled Mission planners designed Voyager 2 s Uranus encounter

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/features/012916/voyager2/ (2016-02-15)
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  • LPI Site Map
    Craters Lunar Rilles Venus Crater Space Science Series Topical Initiatives Early Mars Geologic Hydrologic and Climatic Evolution and the Implications for Life Lunar Science and Exploration U S Geological Survey Documents Encounters Center for Lunar Science and Exploration Regional Planetary Image Facility Network Planetary Science Web Sites Analysis Groups NASA Planetary Science Subcommittee Notes PSS NASA s Planetary Science Division Facilities NASA Planetary Science Division Research and Analysis R A NASA Radioisotope Power Systems RPS Lunar Exploration Analysis Group LEAG Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group MEPAG Outer Planets Assessment Group OPAG Small Bodies Assessment Group SBAG Venus Exploration Analysis Group VEXAG Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials CAPTEM Meteorite Working Group MWG Ice Giants Mission Planning Astrophysical Investments Lunar Science and Exploration Lunar Mission Summaries Apollo Clementine Galileo Luna Lunar Orbiter Lunar Prospector Ranger SMART 1 Surveyor Zond Constellation Soviet Lunar Missions Apollo Era Documents Lunar Landers Lunar Rovers Orbiting Command Modules Spacesuits Science Instruments Geological Tools Preliminary Science Reports Landing Site Studies Miscellaneous Lunar Samples Lunar Sample Overviews Apollo 11 Apollo 12 Apollo 14 Apollo 15 Apollo 16 Apollo 17 Lunar Receiving Laboratory Apollo Sample Catalogues Lunar Petrographic Thin Section Set Lunar Simulants Future Sample Requirements Glossary

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/sitemap/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Privacy Policy
    workshops and conferences including name address email credit card information etc Subcontractors and consultants examples include indirect rates labor rates social security numbers etc Information to complete our Foreign Exchange Visitor Program all information required for the completion of the process Proprietary proposal information Security of your personal information USRA is committed to protecting the personal information you share with us We utilize a combination of security technologies procedures and organizational measures to help protect your personal information from unauthorized access use or disclosure Computer security USRA is committed to securing all data when transfering over the Internet or internally at each USRA site For specific information technology protection please see the document USRA Information Technology and Computer Security USRA will not retain your personal information longer than is necessary to fulfill the purpose for which it was collected or as is required by applicable laws or regulations Children s privacy USRA does not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 13 If we learn that we have collected personal information on a child under the age of 13 we will delete that data from our systems Program or Institute security USRA is committed to maintaining personnel record systems that comply with the recordkeeping access disclosure and confidentiality requirements of federal and state law In collecting maintaining and disclosing personnel information USRA makes every effort to protect employees privacy rights and interests and prevent inappropriate or unnecessary disclosures of information from any employee s file or record While complying with its governmental reporting and recordkeeping requirements USRA strives to ensure that it handles all personal and job related information about employees in a secure confidential and appropriate fashion in accordance with the principles and procedures outlined below Confidentiality of Information USRA treats personal information about employees as confidential and respects the need to protect each employee s privacy by enforcing secure information handling procedures for all personnel involved in gathering retaining using or releasing personal information about the organization s employees USRA collects and retains personal information only as needed to conduct business and administer employment and benefit programs Every effort is made to ensure that all personal and job related information about employees is accurate complete and relevant for its intended purpose Wherever possible USRA notifies affected employees if it needs additional personal information and gives these employees an opportunity to supply the requested data Security and Storage of Personnel Records All paper based documents relating to USRA s personnel record system are kept in secure locked files These files are accessible only to authorized staff and executives managers and supervisors who have a valid demonstrable need for specific information from an employee s personnel record Employees also are granted access to their personnel files and records in accordance with the access procedures outlined below All personnel files and records must remain in the secure areas of each institute or program as well as at USRA Headquarters at all times All medical information relating to an

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/privacy/ (2016-02-15)
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