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  • Early Mars: Geologic, Hydrologic, and Climatic Evolution and the Implications for Life
    Conference Lake Tahoe 2012 Related Conferences and Workshops Past Meetings Future Meetings Conference Summaries Key Questions Journal Special Section Funding Opportunities Student Research Opportunities Early Mars Reference Library Educational Resources News Archive Other Resources Editorial Contributions Contact Us Other Resources

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/early_mars/resources/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Early Mars: Geologic, Hydrologic, and Climatic Evolution and the Implications for Life
    peer reviewed publications for inclusion in the Early Mars Reference Library links to Educational Resources Student Research Opportunities and other relevant content are most welcome If you have material you wish to contribute please send it by email or post to Steve Clifford Lunar and Planetary Institute 3600 Bay Area Blvd Houston TX 77058 Some examples of the types of contributions we are looking for Latest News Any announcement of recent research findings upcoming meetings special sessions or special issues related to Early Mars Please send us a 2 sentence headline and a URL to a webpage where more extensive information is available News items will be displayed for a maximum of one month before they will be transferred to the News Archive Early Mars Reference Library To keep the Early Mars community informed of the latest research dealing with the geology hydrology atmosphere climate and possible origin of life on Early Mars we are compiling an online bibliography that includes citation information links to the abstract and paper on the journal website and when available a link to a pdf of the paper on the author s personal website In the near future we will be adding an author subject and publication date search function to improve the utility of the Library for research Contributions to the Early Mars Reference Library should have the following format Forget F R Wordsworth E Millour J B Madeleine L Kerber J Leconte E Marcq and R M Haberle 3D modelling of the early martian climate under a denser CO 2 atmosphere Temperatures and CO 2 ice clouds Icarus 222 81 99 2013 DOI 10 1016 j icarus 2012 10 019 Abstract PDF Where the Abstract is the link to the abstract on the journal webpage and PDF is the URL to a

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/early_mars/editorial/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Early Mars: Geologic, Hydrologic, and Climatic Evolution and the Implications for Life
    Hole 2004 Third Conference Lake Tahoe 2012 Related Conferences and Workshops Past Meetings Future Meetings Conference Summaries Key Questions Journal Special Section Funding Opportunities Student Research Opportunities Early Mars Reference Library Educational Resources News Archive Other Resources Editorial Contributions Contact

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/early_mars/contact/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Impact Cratering on the Hadean Earth
    were returned to Earth for analyses which is why we know when and how the basin was formed The science captured in this scene was developed by David A Kring and Daniel D Durda the art was produced 2010 by Daniel D Durda Image Credit LPI CLSE Daniel D Durda and David A Kring Click here to download a high resolution version of the image Earth Moon Impact Basin Forming Epoch II Artistic interpretation of the formation of the Schrödinger impact basin on the Moon near the end of tthe basin forming epoch 3 9 billion years ago This basin is 320 kilometers in diameter and was probably produced by an impacting asteroid The basin is on the lunar farside so it is not directly visible from Earth Schrödinger Basin also occurs within the South Pole Aitken Basin which is the largest 2 500 km diameter and oldest basin on the Moon Schrödinger Basin is a very attractive landing site for future missions Impact melt samples produced by that impact event will help define the end of the lunar impact cataclysm The basin may also contain impact melted materials produced by the South Pole Aitken Basin impact event thus establishing the age of the oldest basin on the Moon Moreover volcanic rocks erupted onto the floor of Schrödinger Basin at two different times after the impact event providing a unique view of the Moon s evolution if samples can be recovered Potential missions to this basin have been described by O Sullivan et al Calibrating several key lunar stratigraphic units representing 4 b y of lunar history within Schrödinger basin in Geological Society of America Special Paper 477 pp 117 127 2011 The science captured in this scene was developed by David A Kring and Daniel D Durda the art was produced 2011 by Daniel D Durda Fellow IAAA Image Credit LPI CLSE Daniel D Durda and David A Kring Click here to download a high resolution version of the image Early Earth Impact Crater Lakes and Hydrothermal Systems The inner solar system cataclysm hypothesis suggests the early Earth was ravaged by impact cratering events These events would have repeatedly perturbed surface conditions They also would have driven subsurface hydrothermal systems that spanned the entire diameters of large impact craters and vented at the surface much like volcanic hydrothermal systems do today Impact generated hydrothermal systems are possible crucibles for pre biotic chemistry and possible habitats for the early evolution of life which are featured components in David Kring s impact origin of life hypothesis A central peak ring crater is represented in this illustration and has a diameter in excess of 100 kilometers In addition to steam venting from the uplifted peak ring the crater is filled with a lake or sea The atmosphere contained less oxygen and more hydrocarbons at the time and thus may have been yellow in color The Moon was closer to the Earth and appeared larger in the sky then than it does today

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/exploration/HadeanEarth/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Flyover of Meteor Crater
    in diameter with a rim that rises up to 60 meters 196 feet above the surrounding landscape and a crater floor that falls to a depth of 180 meters 590 feet The upper crater walls have average slopes of 40 to 50 degrees although they also include vertical to near vertical cliffs The rock ejected from the crater forms a debris blanket that slopes away from the crater rim out

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/books/barringer_crater_guidebook/flyover/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Science
    create subsurface environments that are suitable crucibles for pre biotic reactions and possible habitats for any life that develops The impacting objects and interplanetary dust that accompanies them can deliver important biogenic components like water carbon nitrogen sulfur and phosphorus The impacting objects may also be the source of important siderophile iron loving element addition The Apollo Legacy While it is generally recognized that the impact cratering rate was more intense early in solar system history it is not clear how that rate evolved Some investigators have suggested there was a smooth decline with time while others have suggested there were one or more episodes of particularly intense activity superimposed on a background decline in the impact rate The Apollo and Luna missions provided the first opportunities to investigate this issue Argon argon isotopic analyses of Apollo and Luna samples suggested three to possibly six of the impact basins on the nearside of the Moon had been produced between 3 88 and 4 05 billion years ago Additional analyses of Apollo samples indicated the U Pb and Rb Sr systems had been disturbed nearly uniformly at 3 9 billion years ago which was attributed to metamorphism of the entire lunar crust by a large number of asteroid and or cometary collisions in a brief pulse of time 200 million years long in what was termed the lunar cataclysm A growing number of 3 9 billion year old impact melt ages from the Apollo and Luna collections seemed to confirm the pattern It was suggested that the decline in the impact rate was not smooth but punctuated by at least one large influx of material The hypothesis of an intense period of bombardment 3 9 4 0 billion years ago is still controversial however There are currently several models under consideration Some investigators have argued for a lunar cataclysm 3 9 4 0 Ga and a relatively low impact rate between 4 4 and 4 0 billion years ago lower curve in Figure 2 They also argued that the duration of the cataclysm may have been as short as 10 20 million years long Others have argued that the time span of the bombardment may have been longer and or that the impact rate prior to 3 9 4 0 billion years ago was relatively high upper two curves in Figure 2 In all cases it is generally agreed that there was a significant decrease in the lunar cratering rate after 3 8 billion years ago when the last basin forming impact occurred Some investigators have suggested that sampling issues particularly on the Moon cloud our ability to resolve the impact cratering record prior to 3 9 billion years ago and do not accept the notion of a cataclysm on the Moon asteroids or any other body in the solar system There are also interesting discrepancies in existing data While Apollo samples suggest a relatively abrupt decline in the impact cratering rate 3 85 billion years ago lunar meteorite data and

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/exploration/science/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Exploration
    Mission Concepts NASA is developing new launch and crew carrying capability with the Space Launch System SLS and Orion crew vehicle Those assets will initially be used to conduct missions in cis lunar space while the capabilities to conduct missions farther afield are developed NASA is also working with other space agencies to develop a coordinated plan of exploration called the Global Exploration Roadmap GER In the 2013 edition of the roadmap five human exploration missions are planned for the lunar vicinity between 2021 and 2028 the latter being a mission that takes humans to the lunar surface That roadmap also includes at least one mission to a near Earth asteroid in a native heliocentric orbit or an orbit that has been robotically redirected into a lunar orbit The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration team has been helping NASA develop mission concepts for missions to both the Moon and a NEA The most mature concept involves a human assisted sample return mission to the lunar farside In this mission scenario astronauts on the Orion vehicle would be above the lunar farside in either a halo orbit around the Earth Moon L2 position or in a lunar distant retrograde orbit The astronauts would then help operate a rover on the lunar surface The rover would explore a high priority science target like the Schrödinger basin see Fig 7 below and collect samples for return to Earth After the rover collected the samples they would be transferred to a robotic ascent vehicle That ascent vehicle could either launch the samples directly back to Earth or into lunar orbit to be captured by the astronauts on Orion vehicle Figure 5 In this illustration NASA s Orion vehicle and ESA s Service Module are in orbit above the lunar farside where astronauts can simultaneously maintain communication with Earth and a robotic rover on the lunar surface Candidate sites for the rover to operate are Schr ouml dinger basin and the South Pole Aitken basin but this configuration can open exploration to the entire lunar farside which is a region of the Moon that is completely unexplored Illustration credit LPI David A Kring Lunar Landing Site Studies In 2007 the National Research Council published a report called The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon which provided NASA the scientific guidance it needed for an enhanced exploration program that would provide global access to the lunar surface through an integrated robotic and human mission architecture Over a five year period 2008 2012 eight summer study groups were organized by the Center for Lunar Science and Exploration to determine where on the surface those scientific objectives could be addressed Maps with those locations were compiled for each scientific goal This was a completely novel and objective way to identify the global distribution of future landing sites In the end when the maps for all of the goals are overlaid a series of scientifically rich landing sites emerge some of which had never been considered before

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/exploration/exploration/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Training
    auspices of the NASA Lunar Science Institute which was designed in part to train a new generation of explorers for the Moon and beyond Field Training and Research Program at the Zuni Bandera Volcanic Field The Field Training and Research Program at the Zuni Bandera Volcanic Field is a week long field class and research project in and around the famous McCarty s lava flow The goal of the field camp will be to introduce students to basaltic volcanism and physical volcanology and to provide them with an opportunity to assist with a research project in the volcanic field Skills developed during field camp should better prepare students for their own thesis studies of volcanic provinces on Earth the Moon Mars or any other Solar System planetary surface where basaltic volcanism has occurred This field camp is being organized under the auspices of the NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute which is designed in part to train a new generation of explorers for the Moon and beyond The initial edition of this course will be held in the fall of 2015 Higher Education The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration in collaboration with numerous Texas higher education institutions has initiated the Higher Education Lunar Consortium Science faculty and Center researchers are working together to infuse lunar science and exploration content into undergraduate and graduate courses The consortium provides students access to the latest exploration results and opportunities for research and careers in cutting edge lunar science Members Higher Education Lunar Consortium Resources Lunar Exploration Summer Intern Program Exploration Science Summer Intern Program We also host an intern program at the LPI that provides students an opportunity to be involved in exploration activities Teams of interns are organized to determine which locations on the Moon will be the best landing sites to meet science requirements Additional details of the program are posted at the Lunar Exploration Summer Intern Program website This six year 2008 2013 program has been superseded by the Exploration Science Summer Intern Program Beginning in 2015 the LPI is hosting a new program that builds on the success of the Lunar Exploration Summer Intern Program which was designed to evaluate possible landing sites on the Moon for robotic and human exploration missions The program for 2015 will have the same impact on future exploration activities but will have a broader scope that includes both the Moon and near Earth asteroids It is a unique opportunity for students to integrate scientific input with exploration activities in a way that mission architects and spacecraft engineers can use Activities may involve assessments and traverse plans for a particular destination e g on the lunar farside or a more general assessment of a class of possible exploration targets e g small near Earth asteroids Additional details of the program are posted at the Exploration Science Summer Intern Program website Postdoctoral Fellows Senior Scientists will seek post doctoral fellows to support the research initiatives outlined above These positions will be advertised through

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/exploration/training/ (2016-02-15)
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