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  • Apollo 10 Mission
    except for the actual landing Additional objectives included verification of lunar module systems in the lunar environment evaluation of mission support performance for the combined spacecraft at lunar distance and further refinement of the lunar gravitational potential Mission Activities No formal scientific experiments were planned but engineering tests were performed considerable photography was obtained and landmark tracking data were gathered to reduce the size of the landing ellipse The major

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_10/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Apollo 11 Mission
    08 32 a m EST The spaccraft carried a crew of three Mission Commander Neil Armstrong Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E Aldrin Jr The mission evaluation concluded that all mission tasks were completed satisfactorily Landing Site The first manned spacecraft landing on the Moon was at 3 17 p m EST 20 17 40 UTC on July 20 1969 when the Apollo 11 Lunar Module the Eagle landed in Mare Tranquillitatis located at 0 4 5 N latitude 23 42 28 E longitude The Eagle landed approximately 50 kilometers from the closest highland material and approximately 400 meters west of a sharp rimmed blocky crater about 180 meters in diameter Surface Operations The Apollo 11 astronauts had several tasks to accomplish during extravehicular activity EVA operations while on the surface Time permitting the astronauts planned to collect lunar samples deploy several experiments and examine and photograph the lunar surface The following map of the landing area shows where these activities took place The EVA lasted approximately 2 5 hours All scientific activities were completed satisfactorily all instruments were deployed and samples were collected Mission Photography Apollo 11 represented the first opportunity to observe scientific phenomena on the lunar surface Both the surface and orbital photography of the mission served not only to document the first lunar landing and the extravehicular activities of the astronauts but also to identify areas and experiments for study in future missions Science Experiments In addition to their sample collection activities the Apollo 11 crew performed several experiments on the lunar surface The results of some of these experiments were either radioed to Earth by the crew or returned to Earth for laboratory analysis Lunar Samples Apollo 11 carried the first geologic samples from the Moon back to Earth In

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_11/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Apollo 12 Mission
    evaluation of the mission was that all mission goals had been successfully completed Landing Site The Apollo 12 lunar module made a precision landing on the lunar surface on November 19 1969 in Oceanus Procellarum at 3 11 51 south latitude and 23 23 8 west longitude The touchdown point was on the northwest rim of Surveyor Crater only 600 feet from the target point the Surveyor III spacecraft which landed on April 20 1967 This precision landing was of great significance to the future exploration program because landing points in rough terrain of great scientific interest could then be targeted Surface Operations The Apollo 12 mission provided the first opportunity to study the Moon extensively within a radius of 0 5 kilometers of the landing site Lunar surface activities were performed essentially as planned within the allotted time periods Three hours after landing the crew began preparations for egress and the first traverse of the lunar surface During the two extravehicular activity periods a total duration of 7 5 hours the astronauts were given very specific tasks to complete Among these were to collect lunar samples to deploy several experiments and to examine and photograph the lunar surface The following map of the landing area shows where these activities took place Mission Photography Apollo 12 represented man s second opportunity to directly observe scientific phenomena on the lunar surface Both the surface and orbital photography of the mission served not only to document man s second lunar landing and extravehicular activities of the astronauts but also to identify scientifc areas and experiments for study in future missions Science Experiments In addition to their geologic studies the Apollo 12 crew performed several experiments on the lunar surface The results of some of these experiments were either radioed to Earth by

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_12/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Apollo 13 Mission
    Lunar Science and Exploration Apollo 13 Mission Mission Overview This mission was planned as a precision lunar landing in the Fra Mauro highlands with the primary objectives of exploring the Moon surveying and sampling the Imbrium Basin deploying and activating the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package ALSEP further developing the capability to work in the lunar environment and photographing candidate exploration sites Mission Photography The photographic objectives of Apollo 13 were to obtain vertical and oblique stereo strips of lunar nearside and farside regions of scientific interest to obtain photographs of the lunar and command service modules and to record mission operational activities and to photograph targets of opportunity i e scientifically interesting sites and potential Apollo landing sites as time and circumstances permitted In addition a small series of Earth photographs was taken at the beginning of the mission Science Experiments In spite of the Apollo 13 accident some of the scientific investigations planned for the mission were carried out The Emergency Return During the emergency the astronauts were unaware of all the attention being given their situtation They were focused entirely on the task of getting their crippled spaccraft home Once safely back on earth however it didn

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_13/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Apollo 14 Mission
    possible previously An innovation that allowed an increase in the range of lunar surface exploration and the amount of material collected was the provision of a collapsible two wheeled cart the modular equipment transporter MET for carrying tools cameras a portable magnetometer and lunar samples Lunar liftoff occurred on February 6 with mission completion on February 9 Landing Site The landing site is located in a broad shallow valley between radial ridges of the Fra Mauro Formation and approximately 500 kilometers from the edge of the Imbrium Basin The major crater Copernicus lies 360 kilometers to the north and bright ray material that emanates from Copernicus Crater covers much of the landing site region In the immediate landing site area an important feature is the young very blocky Cone Crater which is approximately 340 meters in diameter and which penetrates the regolith on the ridge to the east of the landing site Surface Operations During their 33 5 hours on the Moon the Apollo 14 crew performed two extravehicular activities EVAs totaling over 9 hours on the lunar surface These EVAs covered a total traverse distance of 3 5 kilometers and involved collecting at 13 locations deploying or performing 10 experiments and examining and photographing the lunar surface The following map of the landing area shows where these activities took place Mission Photography Both the surface and orbital photography of the mission served not only to document the third lunar landing and the extravehicular activities of the astronauts but also to identify scientific areas and experiments for study on future missions Science Experiments In addition to their geologic studies the Apollo 14 crew performed several experiments on the lunar surface The results of some of these experiments were either radioed to Earth by the crew or returned to Earth for

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_14/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Apollo 15 Mission
    in the Hadley Apennine region site located at 26 1 N 3 7 E The site is on a dark mare plain near the sinuous Hadley Rille and the frontal scarp of the Apennine Mountains This scarp is the main boundary of the Imbrium Basin which is centered approximately 650 kilometers to the northwest Surface Operations Because of the variety of surface features the Hadley Apennine landing site permitted extensive geological exploration During the approximately 67 hours on the Moon the crew conducted a 33 minute stand up extravehicular activity EVA in the upper hatch of the lunar module as well as three EVAs totaling about 18 5 hours on the lunar surface Mission Photography The photographic objectives of the Apollo 15 mission were designed to support a wide variety of scientific and operational experiments to provide high resolution panoramic photographs and precisely oriented metric photographs of the lunar surface and to document operational tasks on the lunar surface and in flight Detailed pre mission planning integrated the photographic tasks with the other mission objectives to produce a balanced mission that returned more data than any previous space voyage The return of photographic data was enhanced by new equipment the high latitude of the landing site and greater time in lunar orbit New camera systems that were mounted in the scientific instrument module SIM bay of the service module provided a major photographic capability that was not available on any previous mission Additional camera equipment available for use within the command module CM and on the lunar surface also increased the photographic potential of the Apollo 15 mission over previous manned flights Science Experiments In addition to their studies on the lunar surface the Apollo 15 crew performed intensive studies of the Moon from lunar orbit In addition to photography

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_15/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Apollo 16 Mission
    96 kilograms of samples Landing Site On April 21 1972 the lunar module Orion landed at the western edge of the Descartes Mountains approximately 50 kilometers west of the Kant Plateau The Apollo 16 mission accomplished the first landing in the central lunar highlands and the crew successfully explored and sampled a kind of terrain never before visited on the lunar surface The landing site was selected as an area characteristic of both terra plains and rugged hilly and furrowed terra Surface Operations During their 71 hours on the Moon the Apollo 16 crew conducted three extravehicular activities totaling about 20 3 hours on the lunar surface These EVAs included performing lunar rover traverses totaling 26 7 kilometers collecting lunar samples at 11 sites deploying or performing nine experiments and examining and photographing the lunar surface The following map of the landing area shows where these activities took place Mission Photography The photographic objectives of the Apollo 16 mission were to provide precisely oriented mapping camera photographs and high resolution panoramic camera photographs of the lunar surface to support a wide variety of scientific and operational experiments and to document operational tasks on the surface and in flight These photographic tasks were integrated with other mission objectives to achieve a maximum return of data from the mission Science Experiments In addition to their studies on the lunar surface the Apollo 16 crew performed intensive studies of the Moon from lunar orbit In addition to photography performed with hand held cameras in the Command Module a series of experiments were carried in the Scientific Instrument Module on the Service Module The same suite of SIM bay instruments was also flown on Apollo 15 In addition to their geologic studies the Apollo 16 crew performed several experiments on the lunar surface The

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_16/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Apollo 17 Mission
    and magnificent midnight launch its flawless operation its 72 hour lunar staytime its deployment of scientific instrumentation its return of the richest collection of lunar materials from any lunar site its orbital science coverage and its glorious splashdown in the Pacific Ocean surely marked Apollo 17 according to previous mission evaluations as the mission most impressively exemplifying the Apollo program Landing Site The Apollo 17 lunar module landed within 200 meters of the preferred landing point in a deep narrow valley called Taurus Littrow This valley is located in the mountainous highlands at the eastern rim of the Serenitatis basin about 750 kilometers east of the the Apollo 15 landing site and about the same distance north of the Apollo 11 site The Apollo 17 site is in a dark deposit between massifs of the southwestern Taurus Mountains and south of the crater Littrow The valley floor is essentially flat with only a gentle incline there s some very subtle hummocky like craters right in and around where we are And there s not a lot of boulders laying on the surface but there s a lot of what appear to be boulders that are covered up by some of the dark mantle Surface Operations During their 75 hours on the Moon the Apollo 17 crew conducted three extravehicular activities EVAs totaling 22 hours on the lunar surface These EVAs included lunar rover traverses totaling 36 kilometers collection of lunar samples at 22 locations in the Taurus Littrow Valley deployment or performance of 10 science experiments and examination and photography of the lunar surface The following map of the landing area shows where these activities took place Mission Photography The photographic objectives of the Apollo 17 mission were to provide precisely oriented mapping camera photographs and high resolution panoramic camera

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_17/ (2016-02-15)
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