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  • The Clementine Mission
    for Lunar Science and Exploration The Clementine Mission Mission Overview Clementine was the first of a new class of small spacecraft to enable long duration deep space missions at low cost using lightweight satellite technology Along with its primary mission to test this new technology it returned valuable lunar data to the scientific community Clementine Instruments Clementine carried four cameras including one with a laser ranging system The spacecraft also had two star tracker cameras used mainly for altitude determination but also as wide field cameras for various scientific and operational purposes All sensors on the spacecraft met or exceeded expectations in their performance Clementine Images These images are returned by the Clementine Mission and processed under the direction of Dr Paul Spudis Clementine Data Scientists at the LPI are using data acquired by Clementine to answer important questions about the Moon These questions include the global three dimensional composition of the lunar crust the possibility of ice at the south pole the composition of mare basalts on the Moon s farside and the chemical heterogeneity of the Apollo 16 landing site The answers to these questions will allow scientists to better understand the formation of primary and secondary crusts

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/clementine/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Apollo Missions
    and returning him safely to the Earth No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind or more important for the long range exploration of space and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish President John F Kennedy speech to U S Congress May 25 1961 The six Apollo landings which took place between 1969 and 1972 provided scientists with huge amounts of lunar

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Galileo Mission
    miles The color composite uses monochrome images taken through violet red and near infrared filters The concentric circular Orientale Basin 600 miles across is near the center the nearside is to the right and the farside to the left At the upper right is the large dark Oceanus Procellarum below it is the smaller Mare Humorum These like the small dark Mare Orientale in the center of the basin formed more than 3 billion years ago as basaltic lava flows At the lower left among the southern cratered highlands of the farside is the South Pole Aitken Basin similar to Orientale but twice as large in diameter and much older and more degraded by cratering and weathering The cratered highlands of the near and farsides and the Maria are covered with scattered bright young ray craters JPL image P 37329 This false color mosaic was constructed from a series of 53 images taken through three spectral filters by Galileo s imaging system as the spacecraft flew over the northern regions of the Moon on December 7 1992 The part of the Moon visible from Earth is on the left side in this view The color mosaic shows compositional variations in parts of the Moon s northern hemisphere Bright pinkish areas are highlands materials such as those surrounding the oval lava filled Crisium impact basin toward the bottom of the picture Blue to orange shades indicate volcanic lava flows To the left of Crisium the dark blue Mare Tranquillitatis is richer in titanium than the green and orange maria above it Thin mineral rich soils associated with relatively recent impacts are represented by light blue colors the youngest craters have prominent blue rays extending from them JPL image P 41490 This false color image of part of the Moon was constructed

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/galileo/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Luna Mission
    on Moon 2 3 66 at 18 44 52 UT Oceanus Procellarum 7 08 N lat 295 63 E long Luna 9 Information at NSSDC Luna 10 3 31 66 Lunar orbiter Entered lunar orbit on 4 3 66 Luna 10 Information at NSSDC Luna 11 8 24 66 Lunar orbiter Entered lunar orbit on 8 28 66 Luna 11 Information at NSSDC Luna 12 10 22 66 Lunar orbiter Entered lunar orbit on 10 25 66 and returned images Luna 12 Information at NSSDC Luna 13 12 21 66 Lunar landing Landed on Moon 12 24 66 at 18 01 00 UT Oceanus Procellarum 18 87 N lat 297 95 E long Luna 13 Information at NSSDC Luna 14 4 7 68 Lunar orbiter Entered lunar orbit on 4 10 68 Luna 14 Information at NSSDC Luna 15 7 13 69 Lunar lander Crashed on Moon 7 21 69 at 15 51 UT Mare Crisium 17 N lat 60 W long Believed to have been an attempted sample return mission similar to Luna 16 20 and 24 Luna 15 Information at NSSDC Luna 16 9 12 70 Lunar sample return Landed on Moon 9 20 70 at 05 18 00 UT Mare Fecunditatis 0 68 S lat 56 30 E long Luna 16 Information at NSSDC Luna 17 11 10 70 Lunar lander Landed on Moon 11 17 70 at 03 47 00 UT Mare Imbrium 38 28 N lat 325 00 E long Lunar Rover Lunokhod 1 Luna 17 Information at NSSDC Luna 19 9 28 71 Lunar orbiter Entered lunar orbit on 10 3 71 and returned images Luna 19 Information at NSSDC Luna 20 2 14 72 Lunar landing Landed on Moon 2 21 72 at 19 19 00 UT Mare Fecunditatis 3 57 N lat

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/luna/ (2016-02-15)
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  • The Lunar Orbiter Program
    Lunar Orbiter 3 Mission Mission Description Launch 5 February 1967 Imaged Moon 15 23 February 1967 Apollo landing site survey mission The primary objective of Lunar Orbiter 3 was to continue the Orbiter 1 and Orbiter 2 task of photographing promising areas of the lunar surface to determine their adequacy as Apollo and or Surveyor landing sites Mission 3 differed from the previous two missions in that it was a site confirmation mission rather than a site selection mission To provide access to both mission 1 and 2 primary sites with acceptable lighting conditions the orbit inclination of this mission was increased to 21 Mission photography was conducted as planned except for minor shifts in some photo site locations the addition of a fourth pass over the Surveyor 1 landing site and the cancellation of the last secondary site During 54 successive orbits a total of 211 exposures were taken Unfortunately only about 75 of these were transmitted before a failure in the film advance motor terminated the readout operation Selection of the Target Sites Primary photo site selection was based on screening of the Lunar Orbiter 1 and 2 photographs Twelve primary sites including the landing area of Surveyor 1 and 32 secondary sites were selected The secondary sites included different terrain types from Apollo support sites which were all maria They provided information of value in selection of nonmare Surveyor landing sites The Lunar Orbiter 4 Mission Mission Description Launch 4 May 1967 Imaged Moon 11 26 May 1967 Lunar mapping mission Mission 4 differed greatly from the previous missions in both concept and conduct Because the Lunar Orbiter program tasks had been completed during the first three missions project objectives were extended to increasing the understanding of the Moon as a whole Surveying the entire lunar surface and examining in detail various surface geological processes became the new objectives The secondary objectives of obtaining gravitational field and environmental information remained the same Active photography was initiated on May 11 1967 During 30 successive orbits over 15 days 199 dual frame exposures were taken Despite some operational problems during the mission Orbiter 4 was highly successful in fulfilling its purpose The photographs obtained provided information and detail at least 10 times better than Earth based observations Selection of the Target Sites This mission did not involve photography of particular sites in the sense of the preceding missions Except for the first orbit photographs were taken as individual single frame exposures For this reason each frame was considered as a site For operational purposes nine photographic zones were designated However by the end of the mission nearly the entire nearside surface and an appreciable amount of the farside had been photographed The Lunar Orbiter 5 Mission Mission Description Launch 1 August 1967 Imaged Moon 6 18 August 1967 Lunar mapping and high resolution survey mission Mission 5 the last of the Lunar Orbiter missions was basically similar to the first three missions but with two important differences These were

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/orbiter/ (2016-02-15)
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  • The Ranger Program
    for future landing site selection for Surveyor and Apollo missions and feature designation of surface detail not heretofore visible to Earth based observations For more on the individual missions select from the list below Ranger 7 Mission Description Launch July 28 1964 Impacted Moon July 31 1964 at 13 25 49 UT Landing Site Mare Cognitum 10 35 S lat 339 42 E long The mission objective of Ranger 7 to obtain close up pictures of the lunar surface that would be of benefit to both the scientific program and the manned program was carried out flawlessly The mission terminated with the acquisition of some 4000 television records of a preselected area of the lunar surface The signals from the six television cameras aboard the spacecraft were transmitted during the last 17 minutes of the flight The picture taking spanned a distance range from slightly more than a lunar radius to approximately 480 meters above the surface Selection of the Target Site From the standpoint of the lunar manned spaceflight program it was desired that the target area be one of typical mare and near the lunar equator The selected region was a relatively detached mare or sinus between Oceanus Procellarum and Mare Nubium bounded by the Riphaean Montes on one side and the bright cratered area containing Guericke Crater and Parry Bonpland Crater on the other Ranger 8 Mission Description Launch February 17 1965 Impacted Moon February 20 1965 at 09 57 37 UT Landing Site Mare Tranquillitatis 2 67 N lat 24 65 E long The prime objective of the mission to obtain high resolution photographs of Mare Tranquillitatis was met During the 23 minutes the cameras operated before impact a large swath of the Moon was photographed at high resolution for the first time Excellent photographs of Delambre Crater the southern shoreline of Mare Tranquillitatis and the crater pair Ritter and Sabine were obtained The last picture was taken 0 09 seconds before impact from an altitude of approximately 160 meters The impact point was less than 20 kilometers from the selected point Selection of the Target Site The basic objective in selecting the Ranger 8 target was to choose an area which in conjunction with the Ranger 7 photographs would be the most useful in increasing the knowledge of the lunar maria Taking into consideration Apollo constraints a point near the equator and 15 from the terminator was chosen Ranger 9 Mission Description Launch March 21 1965 Impacted Moon March 24 1965 at 14 08 20 UT Landing Site Alphonsus Crater 12 83 S lat 357 63 E long The Ranger 9 flight concluded the Ranger series in a spectacular manner with the direct broadcast of the B camera photographs over national television as the spacecraft approached the Moon Unlike its predecessors which photographed relatively simple mare terrain Ranger 9 was directed to one of the more complicated areas of the Moon The impact point was selected slightly northeast of the central peak of Alphonsus Crater

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/ranger/ (2016-02-15)
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  • The Surveyor Program
    returned to Earth On October 15 1967 after having spent two weeks in the deep freeze of a lunar night Surveyor 5 responded immediately to the first turn on command and resumed operation returning 1048 additional pictures and 22 hours of additional data Selection of the Target Sites All Surveyor landing sites except the last one were selected primarily because they were being considered as Apollo landing sites The site selected for Surveyor 5 was in the southwest part of Mare Tranquillitatis Surveyor 5 landed in a dimple shaped 9 by 12 meter rimless crater the largest of a small chain of rimless craters Surveyor 5 Mission Information at NSSDC Surveyor V Images The Surveyor 6 Mission Mission Description Launch 07 November 1967 Landed 10 November 1967 01 01 06 UT Landing Site Sinus Medii 0 46 N latitude 358 63 E longitude The performance of Surveyor 6 on the lunar surface was virtually flawless From touchdown until a few hours after sunset on November 24 1967 the spacecraft transmitted 29 952 television pictures and the alpha scattering instrument acquired 30 hours of data on the chemical composition of the lunar material As part of the surface mechanical properties investigation Surveyor 6 performed a hop maneuver moving 2 5 meters away from its original landing area This maneuver provided excellent views of the surface disturbances produced by the initial landing and the effects of firing rocket engines close to the lunar surface Photography obtained after the hop contributed to the soil mechanics investigation On November 26 1967 the spacecraft was placed in hibernation for the two week lunar night Contact with the spacecraft was resumed for a short period on December 14 1967 Selection of the Target Site The landing site chosen for this mission was in Sinus Medii in the center of of the Moon s visible hemisphere the last of four potential Apollo landing areas designated for investigation by the Surveyor program The spacecraft came to rest on a nearly flat heavily cratered mare area about 200 meters northwest of the base of a ridge about 30 meters high Surveyor 6 Mission Information at NSSDC The Surveyor 7 Mission Mission Description Launch 07 January 1968 Landed 10 January 1968 01 05 36 UT Landing Site Tycho Crater North Rim 41 01 S latitude 348 59 E longitude Despite the more hazardous terrain in the landing area Surveyor 7 landed without incident During the first lunar day 20 993 television pictures were obtained An additional 45 pictures were obtained during the second lunar day One potential problem developed when the alpha scattering instrument failed to fully deploy on its own The surface sampler was then used to place the instrument on the surface and later to move it twice In addition to acquiring a wide variety of lunar surface data Surveyor 7 also obtained pictures of Earth and performed star surveys Laser beams from Earth were successfully detected by the television camera in a special test of laser pointing

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/surveyor/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Zond Mission
    to investigate the Moon and its vicinity This program began in 1964 and ended in 1979 While the Zond program is considered here as a lunar program it should be noted that Zond 1 was sent in the direction of Venus and Zond 2 in the direction of Mars Also the later Zond missions 4 8 were tests for manned lunar missions as well as missions for collecting information about the Moon Selected Zond missions are noted in the following list Mission Launch Date Type of Mission Notes Additional Information Zond 3 7 18 65 Lunar flyby Continued into heliocentric orbit Zond 3 Information at NSSDC Zond 5 9 15 68 Circumlunar Returned to Earth 9 21 68 Zond 5 Information at NSSDC Zond 6 11 10 68 Circumlunar Returned to Earth 11 17 68 Zond 6 Information at NSSDC Zond 7 8 7 69 Circumlunar Returned to Earth 8 14 69 Zond 7 Information at NSSDC Zond 8 10 20 70 Circumlunar Returned to Earth 10 27 70 Zond 8 Information at NSSDC Although the majority of the Zond flights were oriented toward gathering information about the techniques and technologies needed to get astronauts to the Moon and back

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/zond/ (2016-02-15)
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